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Outline Chapter 9 The Atom 9 -1. Photoelectric Effect 9 -2. Photons 9 -3. Outline Chapter 9 The Atom 9 -1. Photoelectric Effect 9 -2. Photons 9 -3. What Is Light? 9 -4. X-rays 9 -5. De Broglie Waves 9 -6. Waves of What? 9 -7. Uncertainty Principle 9 -8. Atomic Spectra 9 -9. The Bohr Model 9 -10. Electron Waves/Orbits

9 -2. Photons Max Planck (1858 -1947) Max Planck in 1900 stated that the 9 -2. Photons Max Planck (1858 -1947) Max Planck in 1900 stated that the light emitted by a hot object (black body radiation) is given off. in discrete units or quanta. The higher the frequency of the light the greater the energy per quantum.

9 -2. Photons The system shown here detects people with fevers on the basis 9 -2. Photons The system shown here detects people with fevers on the basis of their infrared emissions, with red indicating skin temperatures above normal. In this way people with illnesses that may be infectious can be easily identified in public places.

9 -2. Black Body Radiation All the quanta associated with a particular frequency of 9 -2. Black Body Radiation All the quanta associated with a particular frequency of light have the same energy. The equation is E = hf where E = energy, h = Planck's constant (6. 63 x 10 -34 J · s), and f = frequency. Electrons can have only certain discrete energies, not energies in between.

9 -1. The Photoelectron Effect The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from 9 -1. The Photoelectron Effect The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from a metal surface when light shines on it. The discovery of the photoelectric effect could not be explained by the electromagnetic theory of light. Albert Einstein developed the quantum theory of light in 1905.

9 -2. Photons Einstein expanded Planck's hypothesis by proposing that light could travel through 9 -2. Photons Einstein expanded Planck's hypothesis by proposing that light could travel through space as quanta of energy called photons. Einstein's equation for the photoelectric effect is hf = KE + w. Although photons have no mass and travel with the speed of light, they have most of the other properties of particles. The higher the frequency (or shorter the wavelength) the higher the energy. Albert Einstein (1879 -1955)

9 -3. What is light? Light exhibits either wave characteristics or particle (photon) characteristics, 9 -3. What is light? Light exhibits either wave characteristics or particle (photon) characteristics, but never both at the same time. The wave theory of light and the quantum theory of light are both needed to explain the nature of light and therefore complement each other.

9 -4. X-rays Wilhelm Roentgen accidentally discovered x-rays in 1895. In 1912, Max von 9 -4. X-rays Wilhelm Roentgen accidentally discovered x-rays in 1895. In 1912, Max von Laue showed that x-rays are extremely high frequency EM waves. X-rays are produced by high energy electrons that are stopped suddenly; the electron KE is transformed into photon energy. Wilhelm Roentgen (1845 -1923)

9 -5. De Broglie Waves 1924 – Nobel Prize in 1929 Louis de Broglie(1892 9 -5. De Broglie Waves 1924 – Nobel Prize in 1929 Louis de Broglie(1892 -1987) In 1924, the French physicist Louis de Broglie proposed that moving objects behave like waves; these are called matter waves. The de Broglie wavelength of a particle of mass m and speed v is l = h/mv.

 • An 18 -wheeler moving down Hwy 99 at 60 mph has a • An 18 -wheeler moving down Hwy 99 at 60 mph has a wavelength smaller than an atom. • However, an electron (very light) moves much faster and its wavelength is much larger than its size.

9 -5. De Broglie Waves An electron Microscope and a micrograph of bacteriophage viruses 9 -5. De Broglie Waves An electron Microscope and a micrograph of bacteriophage viruses approximately 1 μm across.

9 -7. The Uncertainty Principle The uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to 9 -7. The Uncertainty Principle The uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to know both the exact position and momentum of a particle at the same time. The discoverer of the uncertainty principle was Werner Heisenberg. The position and motion of any object at a given time can only be expressed as probabilities. Werner Heisenberg (1901 -1976)

9 -8. Atomic Spectra A spectroscope is an instrument that disperses the light emitted 9 -8. Atomic Spectra A spectroscope is an instrument that disperses the light emitted by an excited gas into the different frequencies the light contains. refraction Light with multiple w avelength s Wavelengths separated

9 -8. Atomic Spectra An emission spectrum consists of the various frequencies of light 9 -8. Atomic Spectra An emission spectrum consists of the various frequencies of light given off by an excited substance. Below is the part of the emission spectra of sodium.

Emission Line Spectra of Some Common Elements Emission Line Spectra of Some Common Elements

9 -8. Atomic Spectra An absorption spectrum consists of the various frequencies absorbed by 9 -8. Atomic Spectra An absorption spectrum consists of the various frequencies absorbed by a substance when white light is passed through it. The frequencies in the spectrum of an element fall into sets called spectral series. Seen here is the spectral series of hydrogen.

9 -9. The Bohr Model The Niels Bohr model of the atom, proposed in 9 -9. The Bohr Model The Niels Bohr model of the atom, proposed in 1913, suggested that an electron in an atom possesses a specific energy level that is dependent on the orbit it is in. An electron in the innermost orbit has the least energy. He predicted that the distance from the proton to the electron in a hydrogen atom was about 0. 89Å. Niels Bohr (1884 -1962)

9 -9. The Bohr Model Electron orbits are identified by a quantum number n, 9 -9. The Bohr Model Electron orbits are identified by a quantum number n, and each orbit corresponds to a specific energy level of the atom. An atom having the lowest possible energy is in its ground state; an atom that has absorbed energy is in an excited state.

9 -10. Electron Waves and Orbits When an electron 9 -10. Electron Waves and Orbits When an electron "jumps" from one orbit (energy level) to another, the difference in energy between the two orbits is hf, where h is Planck’s constant and f is the frequency of the emitted or absorbed light.

Origin of Absorption Spectra Origin of Absorption Spectra

9 -10. Electron Waves and Orbits An electron can circle a nucleus only in 9 -10. Electron Waves and Orbits An electron can circle a nucleus only in orbits that contain a whole number of de Broglie Wavelengths. The quantum number n of an orbit is the number of electron waves that fit into the orbit.

Outline Chapter 9 The Atom 9 -11. The Laser 9 -12. Quantum Mechanics 9 Outline Chapter 9 The Atom 9 -11. The Laser 9 -12. Quantum Mechanics 9 -13. Quantum Numbers 9 -14. Exclusion Principle

9 -10. Electron Waves and Orbits Electrons seemed to be locked into these wave 9 -10. Electron Waves and Orbits Electrons seemed to be locked into these wave patterns around the nucleus.

9 -11. The Laser The word laser comes from light amplification by stimulated emission 9 -11. The Laser The word laser comes from light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.

9 -11. The Laser Excitation Methods include electrical charge, light (below), and chemical reaction. 9 -11. The Laser Excitation Methods include electrical charge, light (below), and chemical reaction.

9 -11. The Lasers are used in light shows and hair removal. 9 -11. The Lasers are used in light shows and hair removal.

9 -11. The Laser Holograms are made from laser light without using an image 9 -11. The Laser Holograms are made from laser light without using an image forming device. The image formed becomes 3 D.

Holograms 3 D pictures made by Lasers using the interference pattern between reflected laser Holograms 3 D pictures made by Lasers using the interference pattern between reflected laser light from the surface of an object and the undisturbed laser light reflected from a mirror. The Interference pattern is recorded on film. The developed film can then be used by a laser to recreate the image in 3 D. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=3 d 7 s. Qf. IBAwk http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=E 4 A_u 67 EKn. U&feature=fvw http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=c. AX 8 u. Sc 8 Fnk&NR=1 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=j. Ics. YBZSQ 48

Holograms are made from laser light without using an image forming device. Tupac holographic Holograms are made from laser light without using an image forming device. Tupac holographic concert and a holographic fashion display. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=mc. SYp. Zch. Fp. I http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Zf_e. XDPElh 0 30

9 -11. The Laser Holograms are made from laser light without using an image 9 -11. The Laser Holograms are made from laser light without using an image forming device. The image formed becomes 3 D. Meet Mika…. . (Artoolkit) http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=7 Ot 4 x. Fhv. YNw&feature=related http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Jvuf. PRb. Qs. XA&feature=fvw http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=oiq. IPXn. Kk. Ko&feature=related http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=s. PDUMRLcfdg&feature=related

9 -12. Quantum Mechanics Erwin Schrödinger (1887 -1961) The theory of quantum mechanics was 9 -12. Quantum Mechanics Erwin Schrödinger (1887 -1961) The theory of quantum mechanics was developed by Erwin Schrödinger, Werner. According to quantum mechanics, the position and momentum of a particle cannot both be accurately known at the same time. Only its most probable position or momentum can be determined. The most probable distance between the proton and electron for a hydrogen atom turns out to be about 0. 89Å, the same as Niels Bohr.

Probability of Finding Electrons Like Fireflies Probability of Finding Electrons Like Fireflies

9 -6. Waves of What? The quantity that varies in a matter wave is 9 -6. Waves of What? The quantity that varies in a matter wave is called the wave function (y). The square of the wave function (y 2) is called the probability density. For a given object, the greater the probability density at a certain time and place, the greater the likelihood of finding the object there at that time. The de Broglie waves of a moving object are in the form of a group, or packet, of waves that travel with the same speed as the object.

9 -13. Quantum Numbers 1. The principal quantum number n governs the electron's energy 9 -13. Quantum Numbers 1. The principal quantum number n governs the electron's energy and average distance from the nucleus. 2. The orbital quantum number l determines the magnitude of an atomic electron's angular momentum. 3. The magnetic quantum number ml specifies the direction of an atomic electron's angular momentum. 4. The spin magnetic quantum number ms of an atomic electron has two possible values, +1/2 or -1/2, depending on whether the electron aligns itself along a magnetic field (+1/2) or opposite to the field (-1/2).

9 -13. Quantum Numbers principal quantum number n 1, 2, 3, …. . orbital 9 -13. Quantum Numbers principal quantum number n 1, 2, 3, …. . orbital quantum number l 0, 1, 2, …. n-1 magnetic quantum number m -l to +l for n=2 -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 spin magnetic quantum number +½ or –½ spin Its like your address. To find where you are you need to know 4 things: state, city, street, house #. To know where or what state the electron is in you need to know the four quantum numbers.

Quantum #’s are like an Address. What do you need to know to find Quantum #’s are like an Address. What do you need to know to find out where you live? State City Principle Quantum Angular Quantum # (l) # (n) Street Magnetic Quantum # (ml) House Spin Quantum # (ms)

9 -13. Quantum Numbers 3 py 3 d 2 py 1 s 2 s 9 -13. Quantum Numbers 3 py 3 d 2 py 1 s 2 s 2 px 2 pz 3 s 3 px

9 -13. Quantum Numbers The outside of the 2 s orbital can be seen 9 -13. Quantum Numbers The outside of the 2 s orbital can be seen below. The 2 p orbital is in the middle. A combination of the 3 2 p orbitals is shown in the movie on the right. Movie

Scanning Tunneling Microscope Scanning Tunneling Microscope

Scanning Tunneling Microscope Electron Clouds Image Movie Scanning Tunneling Microscope Electron Clouds Image Movie

9 -14. The Exclusion Principle The exclusion principle, first proposed by Wolfgang Pauli in 9 -14. The Exclusion Principle The exclusion principle, first proposed by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, states that only one electron in an atom can exist in a given quantum state. Each atomic electron must have a different set of quantum numbers n, l, ml, and ms.

Fig. 9. 37 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of mapping tissue density Fig. 9. 37 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of mapping tissue density based on proton spin that shows the nature of soft tissue better than x-rays.