Origin Evolution Orders of the day Rheiformes

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Origin & Evolution Orders of the day Rheiformes Struthioniformes Casuariiformes Velociraptor mongolensis Origin & Evolution Orders of the day Rheiformes Struthioniformes Casuariiformes Velociraptor mongolensis

RATITES (from Latin Ratitus = flat) • • Primative (paleognathus palate) Flightless birds lacking RATITES (from Latin Ratitus = flat) • • Primative (paleognathus palate) Flightless birds lacking a keel on the sternum Keel

RATITES Rheas, ostriches, cassowaries, kiwis and the recently extinct Moas of New Zealand Elephant RATITES Rheas, ostriches, cassowaries, kiwis and the recently extinct Moas of New Zealand Elephant Birds of Madagascar

Large Flightless Birds • Elephant Bird • New Zealand Moas • Ostrich, Emu, etc. Large Flightless Birds • Elephant Bird • New Zealand Moas • Ostrich, Emu, etc.

Rheiformes Two species Greater Rhea Darwin’s (or Lesser) Rhea Greater Rhea Head height 1. Rheiformes Two species Greater Rhea Darwin’s (or Lesser) Rhea Greater Rhea Head height 1. 7 m, mass 25 kg 3 toes Grass & leaf eaters South American steppes to high Andes

Struthioniformes Max of 2. 15 m (7’) tall and 150 kg (330 lbs) Only Struthioniformes Max of 2. 15 m (7’) tall and 150 kg (330 lbs) Only bird species with two toes

Casuariiformes Family Casuariidae Australia & New Guinea 3 species Back height 1 m, mass Casuariiformes Family Casuariidae Australia & New Guinea 3 species Back height 1 m, mass 85 kg Dangerous! 10 -cm nail on inner toe Solitary except when breeding Papuans are said to buy 8 large pigs or 1 wife with a cassowary

Casuariiformes Family Dromiceidae Emu 1 species Australian Back height 1 m, mass 55 kg Casuariiformes Family Dromiceidae Emu 1 species Australian Back height 1 m, mass 55 kg 1964 W. Australia paid bounties on 14, 000 Emu. Hardy & easy to breed in captivity

Are birds living dinosaurs? Thomas Huxley thought so in 1867 Sauropsida (birds + reptiles) Are birds living dinosaurs? Thomas Huxley thought so in 1867 Sauropsida (birds + reptiles) Velociraptor mongolensis

Shared skeletal traits – birds & modern reptiles • Single occipital condyle • Lower Shared skeletal traits – birds & modern reptiles • Single occipital condyle • Lower mandible composed of several elements • Single inner ear bone • Uncinate processes on the ribs

Shared traits – birds & modern reptiles • Single occipital condyle (mammals have two). Shared traits – birds & modern reptiles • Single occipital condyle (mammals have two). • Lower mandible composed of several elements (mammals have only one, the dentary). • Single, inner ear bone (the columella); mammals have three. • Uncinate processes on the ribs (lacking in mammals).

Single occipital condyle Single occipital condyle

Shared traits – birds & modern reptiles • Single occipital condyle (mammals have two). Shared traits – birds & modern reptiles • Single occipital condyle (mammals have two). • Lower mandible composed of several elements (mammals have only one, the dentary). • Single, inner ear bone (the columella); mammals have three. • Uncinate processes on the ribs (lacking in mammals).

(a) Barn Owl (b) Alligator (a) Barn Owl (b) Alligator

Shared traits – birds & modern reptiles • Single occipital condyle (mammals have two). Shared traits – birds & modern reptiles • Single occipital condyle (mammals have two). • Lower mandible composed of several elements (mammals have only one, the dentary). • Single inner ear bone (the columella); mammals have three. • Uncinate processes on the ribs (lacking in mammals).

Shared traits – birds & modern reptiles • Single occipital condyle (mammals have two). Shared traits – birds & modern reptiles • Single occipital condyle (mammals have two). • Lower mandible composed of several elements (mammals have only one, the dentary). • Single, inner ear bone (the columella); mammals have three. • Uncinate processes on the ribs (lacking in mammals).

Nonskeletal similarities • nucleated RBCs • similar eggs and reproductive pattern • egg tooth Nonskeletal similarities • nucleated RBCs • similar eggs and reproductive pattern • egg tooth • female birds and some female reptiles are the heterogametic sex–with the ZW combination of sex chromosomes

Birds & mammals had different reptilian ancestors Birds & mammals had different reptilian ancestors

Origin of birds Mesozoic – The age of reptiles Origin of birds Mesozoic – The age of reptiles

Archaeopteryx lithographica Oldest fossil bird, 150 million years old Feather found in 1860 Total Archaeopteryx lithographica Oldest fossil bird, 150 million years old Feather found in 1860 Total of 7 fossils Berlin Fossil found in 1876

Archaeopteryx & reptiles • • SMALL BRAIN CASE TEETH HAND WITH 3 FINGERS SMALL Archaeopteryx & reptiles • • SMALL BRAIN CASE TEETH HAND WITH 3 FINGERS SMALL FLAT STERNUM SOLID BONES MANY TAIL BONES ABDOMINAL RIBS Modern birds • • LARGE BRAIN CASE NO TEETH NO HAND LARGE KEELED STERNUM HOLLOW BONES FUSED INTO PYGOSTYLE NONE

furcula furcula

Was Archaeopteryx a bird or a feathered dinosaur? Was Archaeopteryx a bird or a feathered dinosaur?

Fossil feathers found on >12 theropod dinosaurs and dromaeosaurs not closely related to Archaeopteryx Fossil feathers found on >12 theropod dinosaurs and dromaeosaurs not closely related to Archaeopteryx

Microraptor zhaoianus 130 million years old Microraptor zhaoianus 130 million years old

Microraptor gui 4 -winged dinosaur (Dromaeosaur) Microraptor gui 4 -winged dinosaur (Dromaeosaur)

Two possible ancestors Thecodonts or theropods Two possible ancestors Thecodonts or theropods

Euparkia Bipedal 5 th metatarsal & toe reduced Paired row of epidermal scales along Euparkia Bipedal 5 th metatarsal & toe reduced Paired row of epidermal scales along back Archaeopteryx Pigeon

Closest Dinosaur Relatives lightly built, big-brained, feathered dromaeosaurs Velociraptor mongolensis Sinornithosaurus Closest Dinosaur Relatives lightly built, big-brained, feathered dromaeosaurs Velociraptor mongolensis Sinornithosaurus

Post Archaeopteryx Post Archaeopteryx

Two Major Bird Lineages • Enantiornithes – Fusion of tarsometatarsus in opposite order – Two Major Bird Lineages • Enantiornithes – Fusion of tarsometatarsus in opposite order – Most diverse avian group in Cretaceous • Neornithes Sinornis Iberomesornis Nanantius Enantiornis

Enantiornithes “Opposite birds, ” so named because of a reversed pattern of fusion of Enantiornithes “Opposite birds, ” so named because of a reversed pattern of fusion of tarsal elements relative to modern birds. Show adaptive radiation in Cretaceous Have well developed flight apparatus, skull with teeth and a primitive pelvic region Formerly thought to represent early forms of many modern lineages; actually are a side branch, extinct by end of Cretaceous

Tertiary Modern Birds 65 MYA Enantiornithes Toothed Divers Ichthyornis Cretaceous Enantiornithes Neornithes 135 MYA Tertiary Modern Birds 65 MYA Enantiornithes Toothed Divers Ichthyornis Cretaceous Enantiornithes Neornithes 135 MYA Jurassic Confusiousornis Archaeopteryx “Opposite” birds Liaoningornis

Sinornis Sinornis

Sinornis santensis Sinornis santensis

Forelimbs of (A) Ornitholestes, a theropod dinosaur (B) Archaeopteryx (C) Sinornis, an archaic bird Forelimbs of (A) Ornitholestes, a theropod dinosaur (B) Archaeopteryx (C) Sinornis, an archaic bird from the lower Cretaceous, and (D) the wing of a modern chicken

Confuciusornis Confuciusornis

Two Major Bird Lineages • Enantiornithes • Neornithes – Predecessors to modern birds – Two Major Bird Lineages • Enantiornithes • Neornithes – Predecessors to modern birds – Toothed divers – Hesperornis – Tern-like – Ichthyornis

Ichthyornis Hesperornis Ichthyornis Hesperornis

Upper Cretaceous Upper Cretaceous

K-T IMPACT The Cretaceous-Tertiary meteor impact was the end of many species on Earth, K-T IMPACT The Cretaceous-Tertiary meteor impact was the end of many species on Earth, including the dinosaurs and toothed birds.

MYA Eocene Shorebirds Moas Ducks 38 Flamingoes Oligocene Pseudodontorns MYA Miocene Remiorniths 26 Most MYA Eocene Shorebirds Moas Ducks 38 Flamingoes Oligocene Pseudodontorns MYA Miocene Remiorniths 26 Most Non-Passerine Orders MYA Piciformes 7 Owls Pliocene Coraciiformes MYA Pleistocene Terror Birds 2 Elephant Birds Passerines Gastornis 54 Presbyornis MYA Paleocene Non-passerine Radiation 65 MYA Enantiornithes Modern Birds

Eocene 54 -37 million years BP Major period of evolution at least 20 modern Eocene 54 -37 million years BP Major period of evolution at least 20 modern orders arise

Large Carnivorous Birds • Gastornis / Diatryma – Europe / NA • Australian Dromonithids Large Carnivorous Birds • Gastornis / Diatryma – Europe / NA • Australian Dromonithids ‘Giant Demon Duck of Doom’ • Terror Birds – South America • Far from sympatric http: //www. bbc. co. uk/beasts/factfiles/videofactfile. shtml? phorusrhacos_v http: //www. pts. org. tw/~web 02/beasts/factfiles/videofactfile. shtml. 734. html

Pliocene 11 -2 million years BP • • ¾ of fossil birds in modern Pliocene 11 -2 million years BP • • ¾ of fossil birds in modern genera Climate mild, dry & stable Extensive mountain building Bird species reach max of ca. 11, 000

Pleistocene 2 million – 11, 000 years BP • • • Dramatic climate change Pleistocene 2 million – 11, 000 years BP • • • Dramatic climate change About 1/5 th of all bird species went extinct Modern species arise Rapid evolution of passerines Expansion of large flightless birds

La Brea Tar Pits 14, 500 years BP La Brea Tar Pits 14, 500 years BP

Teratorns Teratorns

La Brea Tar Pits 14, 500 years old La Brea Tar Pits 14, 500 years old

CA Pleistocene 180 fossil bird species known 31 (17%) extinct CA Pleistocene 180 fossil bird species known 31 (17%) extinct

How many bird species? Brodkorb (1971) estimates 150, 000 species have existed during the How many bird species? Brodkorb (1971) estimates 150, 000 species have existed during the past 150 million years. If so, on average 1 new species arises every 1, 000 years. How species arise is the next topic.

Sinornis Sinornis




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