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Oregon Reading First Institute on Beginning Reading I Cohort B Day 2: Five Big Oregon Reading First Institute on Beginning Reading I Cohort B Day 2: Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction August 24, 2005 1

Oregon Reading First Institutes on Beginning Reading Content developed by: Edward J. Kame’enui, Ph. Oregon Reading First Institutes on Beginning Reading Content developed by: Edward J. Kame’enui, Ph. D. Professor, College of Education University of Oregon Deborah C. Simmons, Ph. D. Professor, College of Education University of Oregon Michael D. Coyne, Ph. D. University of Connecticut Beth Harn, Ph. D University of Oregon Prepared by: Patrick Kennedy-Paine University of Oregon Katie Tate University of Oregon 2

Cohort B, IBR 1, Day 2 Content Development Content developed by: Tricia Travers Amanda Cohort B, IBR 1, Day 2 Content Development Content developed by: Tricia Travers Amanda Sanford Jeanie Mercier Smith Carol Dissen Additional support: Deni Basaraba Julia Kepler Katie Tate 3

Copyright • All materials are copy written and should not be reproduced or used Copyright • All materials are copy written and should not be reproduced or used without expressed permission of Dr. Carrie Thomas Beck, Oregon Reading First Center. Selected slides were reproduced from other sources and original references cited. 4

Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura Phonological Awareness 5 Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura Phonological Awareness 5

Advantages of Implementing a Core Program Increasing communication and learning • Improving communication – Advantages of Implementing a Core Program Increasing communication and learning • Improving communication – Teachers within and across grades using common language and objectives • Improving learning – Provides students a consistent method or approach to reading which is helpful for all students – Provides teachers an instructional sequence of skill presentation and strategies to maximize student learning – Provides more opportunity to differentiate instruction when necessary 6

Essential Instructional Content 1. Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in Essential Instructional Content 1. Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words. 2. Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. 3. Automaticity and Fluency with the Code: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text. 4. Vocabulary Development: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. 5. Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning. 7

Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas K 1 2 3 Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principle Automaticity Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas K 1 2 3 Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principle Automaticity and Fluency with the Code Letter Sounds & Combinations Multisyllables Vocabulary Comprehension Listening. Reading 8

Design and Delivery Features of well-designed programs include: – Explicitness of instruction for teacher Design and Delivery Features of well-designed programs include: – Explicitness of instruction for teacher and student • Making it obvious for the student – Systematic & supportive instruction • Building and developing skills – Opportunities for practice • Modeling and practicing the skill – Cumulative review • Revisiting and practicing skills to increase strength – Integration of Big Ideas • Linking essential skills 9

Phonological Awareness 10 Phonological Awareness 10

Objectives • To define phonological awareness • To become familiar with the research behind Objectives • To define phonological awareness • To become familiar with the research behind phonological awareness • To identify high priority skills of phonological awareness • To review the scope and sequence of phonological awareness instruction in Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura. • To identify and implement phonological awareness components within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons. 11

Phonological Awareness The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words. 12 Phonological Awareness The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words. 12

Critical Elements in Phonological Awareness • The National Reading Panel report (2000) identifies the Critical Elements in Phonological Awareness • The National Reading Panel report (2000) identifies the following elements as essential in Phonological Awareness instruction: A critical component but not a complete reading program Focus on 1 or 2 types of PA Teach in small groups Teach explicitly & systematically Teach to manipulate sounds with letters 13

Definitions • • • Continuous sounds Stop sounds Onset-rime Phoneme Blending Phoneme Segmentation Phonemic Definitions • • • Continuous sounds Stop sounds Onset-rime Phoneme Blending Phoneme Segmentation Phonemic Awareness Phonics Phonological Awareness 14

Activity • Please take out your Phonological Awareness Definitions activity sheet • Partner up! Activity • Please take out your Phonological Awareness Definitions activity sheet • Partner up! • Read the examples and definitions. Find the idea that matches the definition or example from the word bank. Write it in the box next to the definition or example. • Use your definitions sheet to help you if you get stuck 15

Word A. Stop sound A. B. Onset-Rime B. C. C. Phonics D. D. Phoneme Word A. Stop sound A. B. Onset-Rime B. C. C. Phonics D. D. Phoneme E. E. Phoneme segmentation F. F. Continuous sound G. G. Phonological awareness H. H. Phonemic awareness I. I. Phoneme blending Definition or Example A. /t/ B. /r/-/ipple/ C. mapping sounds to print D. The smallest unit of sound E. taking a word apart into all of it’s sounds F. /mmm/ G. The understanding that words are composed of sounds, that words are G. The understanding and the ability to hear and manipulate those sounds composed of sounds, and the ability H. to hear and manipulate individual The awareness of the those sounds that comprise words H. The awareness of the individual I. sounds together to make a putting that comprise words word I. putting sounds together to make a word 16

Phonemic Awareness: Research The best predictor of reading difficulty in kindergarten or first grade Phonemic Awareness: Research The best predictor of reading difficulty in kindergarten or first grade is the inability to segment words and syllables into constituent sound units (phonemic awareness). Lyon 1995 Poor phonemic awareness at four to six years of age is predictive of reading difficulties throughout the elementary years. Torgesen and Burgess 1998 More advanced forms of phonemic awareness (such as the ability to segment words into component sounds) are more predictive of reading ability than simpler forms (such as being able to detect rhymes). Nation and Hulme 1997 17

High Priority Skills for Kindergarten • Students should be taught to orally blend separate High Priority Skills for Kindergarten • Students should be taught to orally blend separate phonemes starting in mid-kindergarten. • Students should be taught to identify the first sound in one-syllable words by the middle of kindergarten at a rate of 25 sounds per minute. • Students should segment individual sounds in words at the rate of 35 sounds per minute by the end of kindergarten. 19

Identifying first sound: 25 sounds/minute by middle of kindergarten Teacher: Tell me the first Identifying first sound: 25 sounds/minute by middle of kindergarten Teacher: Tell me the first sound in the word cat. Student: /c/ Teacher: Listen: mouse… flower…. which begins with the sound /ffff/? Student: flower 20

Segmenting sounds: 35 sounds/minute by end of kindergarten Teacher: Tell me all the sounds Segmenting sounds: 35 sounds/minute by end of kindergarten Teacher: Tell me all the sounds in the word ‘cat’. Student: /c/ …. /a/… /t/ Teacher: Tell me all the sounds in the word ‘plate’. Student: /p/…/l/…/a/…/t/ 21

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High Priority Skills for First Grade • Students should blend three and four phonemes High Priority Skills for First Grade • Students should blend three and four phonemes into a whole word by the middle of grade 1. • Students should segment three and four phoneme words at the rate of 35 phoneme segments per minute by the beginning of grade 1. • Student must master blending and segmenting words before they can learn to decode words in print successfully 23

Phonological Awareness Sequence of Instruction Continuum Concept of Word—comparison and segmentation Rhyme—recognition and production Phonological Awareness Sequence of Instruction Continuum Concept of Word—comparison and segmentation Rhyme—recognition and production Syllable—blending, segmentation, deletion Onset/Rime—blending, segmentation Phoneme—matching, blending, segmentation, deletion, and manipulation 24

Activity Phonological Awareness: Sequence of Instruction • Take out your “Phonological Awareness Sequence of Activity Phonological Awareness: Sequence of Instruction • Take out your “Phonological Awareness Sequence of Instruction” activity worksheet • Pair up with a partner. • Read the activity – Identify what kind of phonological awareness skill is being tested – Identify when the skill should be taught (1 st, 2 nd, 5 th? ) • Put a star next to the most important skill for students to master 25

Debrief Phonological Awareness: Sequence of Instruction Activity: Teacher asks students. Do fan and man Debrief Phonological Awareness: Sequence of Instruction Activity: Teacher asks students. Do fan and man rhyme? Type of phonological awareness skills Order taught (15) Rhyming 2 I’ll say the parts, you say the Syllables word… kitt…en, what word? 3 Tell me the sounds in ‘mop’. Phonemes 5 I’ll say the parts, you say the Onset/Rime word, k…. itten, what word? 4 Listen, “the man ran”. What Concept of word was the first word? 1

Houghton Mifflin Scope and Sequence- Kindergarten Theme 1 Rhyming Theme 2 Words in Oral Houghton Mifflin Scope and Sequence- Kindergarten Theme 1 Rhyming Theme 2 Words in Oral Sentences Theme 3 Blending Onset and Rhyme Segmenting Onset and Rhyme Theme 4 Blending and Segmenting Onset and Rhyme Blending Phonemes Theme 5 Blending Phonemes Theme 6 Blending Phonemes Segmenting Phonemes Theme 7 Blending Phonemes Segmenting Phonemes Theme 8 Blending Phonemes Phoneme Substitution Theme 9 Syllables in Spoken Words Phoneme Substitution Theme 10 Phoneme Substitution 27

Houghton Mifflin Lectura Scope and Sequence- Kindergarten Theme 1 Rhyming Words; Beginning Sounds Theme Houghton Mifflin Lectura Scope and Sequence- Kindergarten Theme 1 Rhyming Words; Beginning Sounds Theme 2 Beginning Sounds, Words in Oral Sentences Theme 3 Blending Onset and Rime Segmenting Onset and Rime Theme 4 Blending and Segmenting Onset and Rime; Blending Phonemes Theme 5 Blending Phonemes Theme 6 Blending Phonemes; Segmenting Phonemes Theme 7 Blending and Segmenting Phonemes Theme 8 Blending Phonemes Phoneme Substitution (Initial) Theme 9 Syllables Phoneme Substitution Theme 10 Phoneme Substitution 28

Houghton Mifflin Scope and Sequence- 1 st Grade Theme 1 Blending Phonems Theme 2 Houghton Mifflin Scope and Sequence- 1 st Grade Theme 1 Blending Phonems Theme 2 Blending Phonemes Theme 3 Blending and Segmenting phonemes Theme 4 Blending and Segmenting phonemes Theme 5 Segmenting Phonemes: Count Sounds in Words Theme 6 Segmenting Phonemes: Count Sounds in Words Theme 7 Substitute Phonemes Theme 8 Delete and Substitute Phonemes Theme 9 Delete Phonemes Theme 10 Substitute Phonemes 29

Houghton Mifflin Lectura Scope and Sequence- 1 st Grade Theme 1 Blending Phonems Theme Houghton Mifflin Lectura Scope and Sequence- 1 st Grade Theme 1 Blending Phonems Theme 2 Blending Phonemes Theme 3 Blending Phonemes Theme 4 Blending Phonemes Theme 5 Blending Phonemes Theme 6 Blending Phonemes Theme 7 Blending Phonemes Theme 8 Syllabication Theme 9 Blending Phonemes Theme 10 Blending Phonemes 30

Pattern of Instruction within Houghton Mifflin In kindergarten, phonological awareness is taught in Units Pattern of Instruction within Houghton Mifflin In kindergarten, phonological awareness is taught in Units 1 -10: Opening Routines, Daily Phonemic Awareness Units 2 -10: Day 1 Phonemic Awareness-Introducing the Alphafriend Days 2 -4 Develop Phonemic Awareness, and in some Connect Sounds to Letters lessons (prelude to Phonics lesson) In first grade, phonological awareness is taught/reviewed in Units 1 -10: Opening Routines, Daily Phonemic Awareness Day 1 and occasionally Day 2 in Develop Phonemic Awareness (prelude to Phonics lesson) 31

Pattern of Instruction within Lectura In kindergarten, phonological awareness is taught in Temas 1 Pattern of Instruction within Lectura In kindergarten, phonological awareness is taught in Temas 1 -10: Actividades para comenzar, Desarrollar la conciencia fonémica Temas 2 -10: Día 1 Conciencia fonémica –presentar el Afamigo Días 2 -4 Desarrollar la conciencia fonémica, y conectar sonidos con las letras (antes de la actividad fonética) In first grade, phonological awareness is taught/reviewed in Temas 1 -10: Actividades para comenzar, Conciencia fonémica diaria Días 1 -2 en Desarrollar la conciencia fonémica (antes de la actividad fonética) 32

Blending Phonemes Kindergarten Play the weather word game. Give children a clue and the Blending Phonemes Kindergarten Play the weather word game. Give children a clue and the sounds in a word, and they blend and guess the answer • It makes us wet, but helps flowers grow: /r//a//n/. (rain) • This is something yellow that warms the earth: /s//u//n/. (sun) K -Theme 6 - Page T 17 33

Combinar Sílabas y Fonemas Kinder Combinar Sílabas Haga un juego de adivinar: Combínenlas para Combinar Sílabas y Fonemas Kinder Combinar Sílabas Haga un juego de adivinar: Combínenlas para adivinar qué palabra del poema es: • /na/ /do/ (nado) • /pa/ /ti/ /no/ (patino) • /Me/ /li/ /sa/ (Melisa) Combinar Fonemas Antes, cobinamos sílabas para formar palabras. Ahora, voy a decir sonidos por separado y ustedes formen las sílabas. • /m/ /a/ (ma) • /p/ /a/ (pa) • /t/ /a/ (ta) • /c/ /o/ (co) K -Tema 4 - Pagina T 9 34

Blending Phonemes 1 st Grade Tell the children you have some word riddles. they Blending Phonemes 1 st Grade Tell the children you have some word riddles. they should blend the sounds to form the word. Read the following clues: • • • This is a kind of animal: /p//i//g/. (pig) This is the opposite of little: /b//i//g/. (big) You can do this with a bat: /h//i//t/. (hit) You can do this on a chair: /s//i//t/. (sit) This has a sharp point: /p//i//n/. (pin) A baby wears this to eat: /b//i//b/. (bib) 1 st-Theme 1 - Page T 179 35

Combinar Sílabas y Fonemas Grado 1 Les voy a decir una rima. ¡Escuchen con Combinar Sílabas y Fonemas Grado 1 Les voy a decir una rima. ¡Escuchen con cuidado la última palabra! Voy a decir sólo las sílabas. Júntenlas y digan la palabra. Mi mami me /a/ /ma/. Combinen las sílabas. Levanten la mano si saben los sondios de la palabra. (ama) • Mi hermana me /a/ /ma/ (ama) • A mis hermanos yo los /a/ /mo/ (amo). . . Ahora voy a decir solo los sonidos. Combínenlos para formar las palabras. • /m/ /i/ (mi) • /m/ /e/ (me) • /m/ /i/ /s/ (mis) 1 Grado -Tema 1 - Pagina T 21 36

Activity Teaching Phonological Awareness • Pair up with a partner. • Find a lesson Activity Teaching Phonological Awareness • Pair up with a partner. • Find a lesson that teaches phonological awareness in your teacher’s edition (Houghton Mifflin Reading or Lectura). • Practice teaching that section of phonological awareness activities as if you were teaching it to a student 37

Objectives • To define phonological awareness • To become familiar with the research behind Objectives • To define phonological awareness • To become familiar with the research behind phonological awareness • To identify high priority skills of phonological awareness • To review the scope and sequence of phonological awareness instruction in Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura. • To identify and implement phonological components within daily Houghton Mifflin & Lectura lessons. 38

Houghton Mifflin Reading and Lectura Alphabetic Principle K-3 39 Houghton Mifflin Reading and Lectura Alphabetic Principle K-3 39

Objectives You will learn: • To define alphabetic principle • To become familiar with Objectives You will learn: • To define alphabetic principle • To become familiar with the research on the alphabetic principle • To identify the high priority skills of alphabetic principle • To identify and implement alphabetic principle instruction within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons. 40

What is the Alphabetic Principle? • The ability to associate sounds with letters and What is the Alphabetic Principle? • The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to form words. – The understanding that words in spoken language are represented in print. – Sounds in words relate to the letters that represent them. (Liberman & Liberman, 1990) 41

Alphabetic Principle is composed of three main components • Letter-sound correspondence: Understanding that letters Alphabetic Principle is composed of three main components • Letter-sound correspondence: Understanding that letters represent sounds • Blending: Understanding that we blend sounds from left to right • Phonological Recoding: Blending sounds together to represent a word that has meaning 42

Definitions • • • • Alphabetic Principle Blending Continuous Sound Decodable Text Decoding Explicit Definitions • • • • Alphabetic Principle Blending Continuous Sound Decodable Text Decoding Explicit Phonics Instruction High Frequency Words Irregular Word Letter-Sound Correspondence Nonsense word or Pseudoword Phonological Recoding Regular Word Stop Sound 43

Activity • Please take out your Alphabetic Principle Definitions activity sheet • Partner up! Activity • Please take out your Alphabetic Principle Definitions activity sheet • Partner up! • Read the examples and definitions. Find the idea that matches the definition or example from the word bank. Write it in the box next to the definition or example. • Use your definitions sheet to help you if you get stuck 44

Word Definition or Example A. Letter-sound correspondence B. Blending A. The letter ‘m’ makes Word Definition or Example A. Letter-sound correspondence B. Blending A. The letter ‘m’ makes the sound /mmm/ C. Decoding C. Using letter-sound correspondences to read words D. Phonological recoding D. the sounds /mmm-aaaa-nnnn/ go The sounds /mmm-aaaa-nnnn/ go together to make the word ‘man’ E. Nonsense word E. Splip F. Regular word F. Cat G. Irregular word G. Said H. Alphabetic principle H. Understanding that letters represent sounds and that those sounds go together to make up words. I. Explicit phonics program I. A phonics program that teaches skills directly and in a systematic way. B. The letters ‘m’ ‘a’ ‘n’ make the sounds /mmmm-aaaaa-nnnnn/ 45

What the Research Says About Alphabetic Principle (AP) • A primary difference between good What the Research Says About Alphabetic Principle (AP) • A primary difference between good and poor readers is the ability to use letter-sound correspondences to identify words. (Juel, 1991) • Difficulties in decoding and word recognition are at the core of most reading difficulties. (Lyon, 1997) Students who acquire and apply the alphabetic principle early in their reading careers reap long-term benefits. (Stanovich, 1986) • • Because our language is alphabetic, decoding is an essential and primary means of recognizing words. There are simply too many words in the English language to rely on memorization as a primary word identification strategy. (Bay Area Reading Task Force, 1996) 46

What Does the National Reading Panel Say About Alphabetic Principle? The meta-analysis revealed that What Does the National Reading Panel Say About Alphabetic Principle? The meta-analysis revealed that systematic instruction in phonics produces significant benefits for students in kindergarten through 6 th grade and for children having difficulty learning to read. These facts and findings provide converging evidence that explicit, systematic phonics instruction is a valuable and essential part of a successful classroom reading program. Report of the National Reading Panel, 2000 47

What Alphabetic Skills Does a Student Need to Master to Read This Regular Word? What Alphabetic Skills Does a Student Need to Master to Read This Regular Word? man • Reading goes left to right • Knowledge of letter sounds for ‘m’, ‘a’, and ‘n’ • Blending • Phonological recoding Reading is a complex process- We MUST teach students these skills if we want them to become successful readers 48

Why Teach Systematic & Explicit Phonics Instruction? By teaching explicitly and systematically: • We Why Teach Systematic & Explicit Phonics Instruction? By teaching explicitly and systematically: • We teach a strategy for attacking words students don’t know. • We can teach ALL students to use these strategies. • We don’t leave it up to the students to infer the strategy, because the struggling reader won’t be able to guess it. We must equip students with a strategy for them to attack text in the real world. 49

Why Teach Systematic & Explicit Phonics Instruction? If we teach a child Then she Why Teach Systematic & Explicit Phonics Instruction? If we teach a child Then she can read: to read: 10 words 10 letter-sounds and blending 720 3 -sound words 5040 4 -sound words 302400 5 -sound words 50

What Skills Does Alphabetic Principle Include? Advanced Word & Structural Analysis Skills Irregular Word What Skills Does Alphabetic Principle Include? Advanced Word & Structural Analysis Skills Irregular Word Reading . Letter Sound Correspondences Reading in text Regular Word Reading 51

What Skills Does Alphabetic Principle Include? Letter-Sound Correspondences: Knowing the sounds that correspond to What Skills Does Alphabetic Principle Include? Letter-Sound Correspondences: Knowing the sounds that correspond to letters (the sound of b is /b/, the sound of a is /aaa/) Regular Word Reading/Spelling: Reading/spelling words in which each letter represents its most common sound (mat, sled, fast) Irregular Word Reading/Spelling: Reading/spelling words in which one or more letter does not represent its most common sound (the, have, was) Advanced Word Analysis Skills: Reading/spelling words that include letter patterns and combinations (make, train, string) Structural Analysis: Reading/spelling multisyllabic words and words with prefixes and suffixes (mu-sic, re-port, tall-est, Wis-con -sin) 52

Regular Word Reading Progression Sounding Out Saying each individual sound out loud Saying Whole Regular Word Reading Progression Sounding Out Saying each individual sound out loud Saying Whole Word Saying each individual sound and pronouncing whole word Sight Word Sounding out word in your head, if necessary, and saying the whole word Automatic Word Reading the word without sounding it out 53

Using Curriculum Maps • Review the curriculum map for your grade to answer the Using Curriculum Maps • Review the curriculum map for your grade to answer the following questions: – What are the high priority skills for the next 3 months? _______________ – What other skills may be necessary to teach before the high priority skills? _________________ – What skills do you predict to be difficult for some children? _____________ 54

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Let’s look at how Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura teach Alphabetic principle. . . Let’s look at how Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura teach Alphabetic principle. . . 59

Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Phonics/Decoding Strategy) Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Phonics/Decoding Strategy) • Decodable text • Dictation • Word work • High-Frequency Words 60

Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Phonics/Decoding Strategy) Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Phonics/Decoding Strategy) • Decodable text • Dictation • Word work • High-Frequency Words 61

Connecting Sounds to Letters “Very early in the course of instruction, one wants the Connecting Sounds to Letters “Very early in the course of instruction, one wants the students to understand that all twenty-six of those strange little symbols that comprise the alphabet are worth learning and discriminating one from the other because each stands for one of the sounds that occur in spoken words. ” Adams, 1990 62

Kindergarten Example: Connecting Sounds to Letters • Kindergarten Theme 6, p. T 20 • Kindergarten Example: Connecting Sounds to Letters • Kindergarten Theme 6, p. T 20 • Connect Sounds to Letters • Beginning Letter Display the Larry Lion card and have children name the letter on the picture. Say: The letter l stands for the sound /l/, as in lion. When you see an l, remember Larry Lion. That will help you remember the sound /l/. • Write lion on the board. Underline the l. What is the first letter in the word lion? Lion starts with /l/, so l is the first letter I write for lion. 63

Kindergarten Ejemplo: Conectar los sonidos con las letras Kinder Tema 4, p. T 20 Kindergarten Ejemplo: Conectar los sonidos con las letras Kinder Tema 4, p. T 20 Conectar los sonidos con las letras • Muestre la tarjeta de Beba Ballena y pida a los niños que nombren la letra. Diga: La letra b representa el sonido /b/, como en ballena. Cuando vean una b, acuérdense de Beba Ballena. Esto les ayudará a recordar el sonido /b/. • Escriba ballena en el pizarrón y subraye la b. ¿Cuál es la primera letra en la palabra ballena? Ballena empieza con /b/, asi que, b es la primera letra que uso para escribir ballena. 64

Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Phonics/ Decoding Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Phonics/ Decoding Strategy) • Decodable text • Dictation • Word work • High-Frequency Words 65

Blending • Blending: The process of combining individual sounds or word parts to form Blending • Blending: The process of combining individual sounds or word parts to form whole words either orally or in print • Example: combining the speech sounds /c/, /a/, and /t/ to form the word cat. 66

Two Types of Blending • Sound by sound blending: each sound is identified and Two Types of Blending • Sound by sound blending: each sound is identified and produced one at a time, then blended together. /mmm/-/aaaaa/-/nnnnn/-man • Continuous blending: sometimes called ‘whole word blending’. Each sound is stretched out and strung to the next sound in a word without pausing between sounds /mmmm//aaaa//nnnnn/- man 67

Grade 1 Example: Blending • Grade 1, Theme 9, page T 145 • Blending Grade 1 Example: Blending • Grade 1, Theme 9, page T 145 • Blending Routine 1 • Place Large letter cards d, r, a, and w together. Have children blend the sounds and pronounce the word on their own. Call on volunteers to use draw in a sentence 68

Lectura: Conexión de letras y sonidos Combinar los sonidos Grado 1 -Tema 1, p. Lectura: Conexión de letras y sonidos Combinar los sonidos Grado 1 -Tema 1, p. T 86: Conexión de letras y sonidos • Muestre la Tarjeta de dibujos sopa. Esto es sopa. /s/ es el primer sonido de la palabra sopa. Escriba la letra s en el pizarrón. S representa el sonido /s/. Diganme el sonido de la letra s. • Escriba o después de s. Miren cómo combino los sonidos de las letras. Demuestre cómo combinar los sonidos mientras señala las letras: /sssss//oooo/-/so/ sa se si so su • Ahora les toca a Uds. Combinen los sonidos mientras toco las letras. 69

Teaching Students to Read Big Words 1. Blending Two-Syllable Words Emphasized: Grades 1 -2 Teaching Students to Read Big Words 1. Blending Two-Syllable Words Emphasized: Grades 1 -2 3. Syllabication Instruction Emphasized: Grades 2 -3 2. Teaching of Common Affixes Emphasized: Grades 1 -3 Teaching Word Attack Procedures 70

Teaching Students to Read Big Words Teaching a Word-Attack Procedure Teacher shows students how Teaching Students to Read Big Words Teaching a Word-Attack Procedure Teacher shows students how to attack big words on their own and prompts use of procedure whenever students are reading. 71

Teaching Students to Read Big Words 1. Blending Two-Syllable Words Teacher supports “chunking” by Teaching Students to Read Big Words 1. Blending Two-Syllable Words Teacher supports “chunking” by showing syllable breaks with procedure. Emphasized: Grades 1 -2 72

Grade 2 Example: Blending Two-Syllable Words Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 328 I Longer Grade 2 Example: Blending Two-Syllable Words Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 328 I Longer Words with igh, ie Write fighter and sound it out. Ask children how many syllables they hear. Ask what vowel sound they hear in the first syllable. (two; /I/) Underline igh and point out that those letters spell the long i sound and stay together in a syllable. • Count the vowels to show there are two syllables. Divide fighter into syllables. • Help children sound out each syllable and blend the syllables to read the word. fighter dried highlight fries frightful replied • Repeat with highlight, frightful. 73

Grado 2 Ejemplo: Descifrar palabras largas Grado 2, Tema 1, página 44 J: Conectar Grado 2 Ejemplo: Descifrar palabras largas Grado 2, Tema 1, página 44 J: Conectar sonidos y letras: Escriba las palabras nido, nudo, tapa, moto en el pizarrón. Voy a combinar estas sílabas para hacer una palabra completa. Miren. Toque cada sílaba. /ni/ /do/ -nido. Ahora Uds. Digan las sílabas palabra completa. mueva y digan la Toque cada sílaba, y su mano bajo la palabrado ni completa. nu do ta pa mo to 74

Teaching Students to Read Big Words 2. Teaching of Common Affixes un-, dis-, re-, Teaching Students to Read Big Words 2. Teaching of Common Affixes un-, dis-, re-, -s, -ed, -ing, -ly, -tion -mente, -ido, -ida, -ito, -ita, -ado, -ada Teacher supports “chunking” by showing students the affixes. Emphasized: Grades 1 -3 75

Grade 2 Example: Teaching of Common Affixes Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 325 C Grade 2 Example: Teaching of Common Affixes Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 325 C Practice Write the words shown and have children copy them. Have children write the base form of the word next to the inflected form. Then have volunteers orally blend each word. Have children complete Practice Book page 162. hugged shopped fanned trapped batted knotted knitted hugging shopping fanning trapping batting knotting knitting 76

Grado 3 Ejemplo: Descifrar palabras largas Grado 3, Tema 4, p. 39 E: Sufijos Grado 3 Ejemplo: Descifrar palabras largas Grado 3, Tema 4, p. 39 E: Sufijos –dad, -tad, -ción, -sión Enseñar Escriba las palabras oscuridad, amistad, invitación y diversión en el pizarrón. Rodee cada sufijo. Un sufijo es un grupo de letras que se añade al final de la raíz de una palabra. –dad y –tad significan “caractarística de algo”. -ción y –tión significan “acción de”. Demuestre como leer la palabra en sílabas. Escriba las palabras claridad, invitación. Pida a un voluntario que rodee cada sufijo, que lea la palabra y que diga su oscuridad amistad invitación significado. diversión 77

Teaching Students to Read Big Words 3. Syllabication Instruction Dividing words into syllable patterns Teaching Students to Read Big Words 3. Syllabication Instruction Dividing words into syllable patterns and types (closed, open, vowel team, silent-e, R-controlled, consonant-le) Emphasized: Grades 2 -3 78

Grade 3 Example: Syllable Instruction Grade 3, Theme 1, Page 91 E Modeling Display Grade 3 Example: Syllable Instruction Grade 3, Theme 1, Page 91 E Modeling Display the following sentence and model how to decode markets: I will go to the markets. If I write V under the vowels and C under the consonants, I see Think Aloud that this word has the VCCV pattern. So I’ll split the word between the consonants r and k. / MAHR • kihtz / That makes sense because a market is a place to buy things. 79

Grado 3 Ejemplo: Descifrar palabras largas Grado 3, Tema 1, página 51 E: Análisis Grado 3 Ejemplo: Descifrar palabras largas Grado 3, Tema 1, página 51 E: Análisis estructural: División en sílabas Escriba las palabras oficina y señaló en el pizarrón. Voy a sepárar las palabras en sílabas. Miren. Toque cada sílaba. /o/ /fi/ /ci/ /na/oficina. Ahora ustedes. Digan las sílabas y digan la palabra completa. Toque cada sílaba, y mueva su mano bajo la palabra completa. Explique la regla para dividir palabras sílabas y demuestre como hacerlo palabras señaló y muchísimo. en con las oficina señaló 80

Activity • Partner up with another person in your grade. • Find the lesson Activity • Partner up with another person in your grade. • Find the lesson from the box below your teacher’s edition. • Practice teaching part of the lesson to your partner as if you were presenting the lesson to students. • Discuss whether the lesson was easy to follow & clear. Grade Topic HM Reading Lectura Kinder Letter-Sound Correspondence Theme 6 p. T 20 Tema 4 p. T 20 1 Blending Theme 9 p. T 145 Tema 1 p. T 86 2 2 -syllable words Theme 6 p. 328 I Tema 1 p. 44 J 3 Multi-syllabic words Theme 1 p. 91 E Tema 1 p. 51 E 81

Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Decoding and Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Decoding and Word Reading) • Decodable text • Dictation • Word work • High-Frequency Words 82

Definition and Purpose of Decodable Text Definition: Text in which most words (i. e. Definition and Purpose of Decodable Text Definition: Text in which most words (i. e. , 80%) are wholly decodable and the majority of the remaining words are previously taught sight words, including both high-frequency words and story words. Purpose: Instruction should always provide students opportunities to apply what they are learning in the context of use. Decodable text builds automaticity and fluency in beginning readers. It is used as an intervening step between explicit skill acquisition and students’ ability to read authentic literature. 83

Reading Decodable Text 1. Student engagement with the text is critical! 2. Students must Reading Decodable Text 1. Student engagement with the text is critical! 2. Students must be prompted to track the text by pointing under (not over or on) the text with their finger to ensure they are actually looking at the words. 3. Teacher MUST monitor student response to make sure students are not just parroting students next to them. 4. Students need to have sufficient practice with word reading (blending) tasks prior to reading the decodable text to ensure they are successful. 5. Students who struggle with reading decodable text need to have opportunities in small groups to read and be monitored more closely by the teacher. This will increase success with the time spent reading during whole-group instruction. 84

Houghton Mifflin Phonics/Decoding Strategy. Poster A - Grade 1 1. Look at the letters Houghton Mifflin Phonics/Decoding Strategy. Poster A - Grade 1 1. Look at the letters from left to right. 2. Think about the sounds for the letters. 3. Blend the sounds to read the word. 4. Ask yourself: Is it a word I know? Does it make sense in what I am reading? 85

Houghton Mifflin Phonics/Decoding Strategy Poster B - Grade 1 1. Look at the letters Houghton Mifflin Phonics/Decoding Strategy Poster B - Grade 1 1. Look at the letters from left to right. 2. Think about the sounds for the letters, and look for word parts you know. 3. Blend the sounds to read the word. 4. Ask yourself: Is it a word I know? Does it make sense in what I am reading? 5. If not, ask yourself: What else can I try? 86

Phonics/Decoding Strategy Grades 2 -6 1. Look carefully at the word. 2. Look for Phonics/Decoding Strategy Grades 2 -6 1. Look carefully at the word. 2. Look for word parts you know and think about the sounds for the letters. 3. Blend the sounds to read the word. 4. Ask yourself: Is it a word I know? Does it make sense in what I am reading? 5. If not, ask yourself: What else can I try? 87

Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Decoding and Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Decoding and Word Reading) • Decodable text • Dictation • Word work • High-Frequency Words 88

Dictation—Definition and Purpose Definition: Teacher regularly dictates words containing previously taught sound/spellings and students Dictation—Definition and Purpose Definition: Teacher regularly dictates words containing previously taught sound/spellings and students use their sound/spelling knowledge and the sound/spelling cards to spell the words. Instruction progresses to sentences including previously taught irregular high-frequency words. Purpose: Dictation connects the decoding (reading) process to the encoding (writing or spelling) process by demonstrating that the sound/spellings students use to read can also be used to communicate through writing. 89

Kindergarten Example: Dictation Kindergarten, Theme 6, Page T 20 Penmanship Writing L, l Tell Kindergarten Example: Dictation Kindergarten, Theme 6, Page T 20 Penmanship Writing L, l Tell children that now they’ll learn to write the letters that stand for /l/: capital L and small l. Write each letter as you recite the penmanship rhymes. Chant each rhyme as children “write” the letter in the air. Penmanship Rhyme: L 1 2 Make a tall, straight line that you start on top. Come down to the bottom go out, and stop. 1 Penmanship Rhyme: L Small l looks like a stick. Just one straight line. It’s easy and quick. 90

Kinder Ejemplo: Dictado Kinder, Tema 4, página T 75 Caligrafía Escribir L, l Explique Kinder Ejemplo: Dictado Kinder, Tema 4, página T 75 Caligrafía Escribir L, l Explique a los niños que van a aprender a escribir las letras que representan el sonido /l/: L mayúscula y la l minúscula. Escriba cada letra conforme recita la rima de caligrafía. Los niños pueden cantar la rima mientras “escriben” la letra en el aire. Rima de caligrafía: L 1 2 Larga y delgada como hilo de seda baja y vuelta a la derecha. 1 Rima de caligrafía: l Hilo de lino delgado y fino baja tranquilo y se acaba el hilo 91

Grade 1 Example: Dictation Grade 1, Theme 1, Page T 26 Connect Sounds to Grade 1 Example: Dictation Grade 1, Theme 1, Page T 26 Connect Sounds to Spelling and Writing Say: Listen as I say mug. What sound do you hear at the beginning of mmmug? (m) Model writing m. Have several children write m on the board as they say /m/. Repeat for s, c, t, using sad, cap, tip. Then have children tell you what letter to write last in bus, him, pot. 92

Grado 1 Ejemplo: Dictado Grado 1, Tema 1, página T 26 Conexión de sonidos Grado 1 Ejemplo: Dictado Grado 1, Tema 1, página T 26 Conexión de sonidos con la ortografía y la escritura Diga: Escuchen cuando digo la palabra erizo. Escuchen /eeeee/rizo. El primer sonido que escucho es /e/, entonces, escribo e. Muestre cómo se escribe la letra e. Dé a los niños papel para que practiquen y escriban e. Continúe con las demás vocales en la página 1 del Cuaderno de práctica. 93

Grade 2 Example: Dictation Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 328 J Connect Sounds to Grade 2 Example: Dictation Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 328 J Connect Sounds to Spelling and Writing Dictate Words with igh, ie Dictate and have children write words such as tight, sigh, die, high, tried. As necessary, help children by pointing out the appropriate spelling of the long i sound on the Sound/Spelling Card. Then write the words on the board, and have children proofread and correct their work. Dictate the following sentence: The baby cried and Mom sighed. Then display the sentence, and have children circle their mistakes and rewrite the words correctly. 94

Grado 2 Ejemplo: Dictado Grado 2, Tema 6, página 328 C Conectar sonidos con Grado 2 Ejemplo: Dictado Grado 2, Tema 6, página 328 C Conectar sonidos con la ortografía y la escritura Dictado de palabras Pida a los niños que escriban caimán, aceite, rey, bailar. Escriba las palabras en el pizarrón y pida a los niños que corrijan sus trabajos. Dicte: Hoy le voy a dar a Moisés un tambor muy grande. Muestre la oración y pida a los niños que rodeen con un círculo sus errores y que vuelvan a escribir las palabras correctamente. 95

Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Decoding and Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Decoding and Word Reading) • Decodable text • Dictation • Word work • High-Frequency Words 96

Word Work Definition and Purpose Definition: Word work is an umbrella term encompassing all Word Work Definition and Purpose Definition: Word work is an umbrella term encompassing all the building, sorting, and manipulating activities used to practice sound/spelling patterns in words. Purpose: SBRR tells us that children need 4 -14 repetitions of, or opportunities to work with, a sound/spelling for it to become embedded in their memory. Word work, along with blending and reading decodable text, helps accomplish this need for repetition. 97

Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Decoding and Alphabetic Principle Instruction • PA warm up • Letter/Sound Correspondence • Blending (Decoding and Word Reading) • Decodable text • Dictation • Word work • High-Frequency Words 98

High-Frequency Words • A small group of words that account for a large percentage High-Frequency Words • A small group of words that account for a large percentage of the words in print. Many highfrequency words are irregular, that is, not readily decodable by sounding out. Only 100 words account for approximately 50 percent of the words in English print. Fry, Fountoukidis and Polk, The New Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists 1985 The quick and automatic recognition of the most common words appearing in text is necessary for fluent reading. Blevins, Phonics from A to Z 1998 99

Words in the English Language • 50% are wholly decodable • 37% are only Words in the English Language • 50% are wholly decodable • 37% are only off by one sound • 50% of the words we read are made up of the first 107 high-frequency words. Hanna, P. R. , J. S. Hanna, R. E. Hodges, and E. H. Rudorf, Jr. 1966. Phoneme-grapheme correspondences as cues to spelling improvement. Washington, DC: U. S. Office of Educ. 100

Houghton Mifflin Reading/Lectura High-Frequency Word Pattern of Instruction Kindergarten See Daily Lesson Plans Learning Houghton Mifflin Reading/Lectura High-Frequency Word Pattern of Instruction Kindergarten See Daily Lesson Plans Learning to Read band of instruction listed under Opening Routines Word Pattern Board and High-Frequency Word Spiral Review and Work band of instruction listed under Word Pattern Board. Grade 1 See Daily Lesson Plans Learning to Read band of instruction listed under High-Frequency Words and Work band of instruction listed under Word Pattern Board. 101

Kindergarten Example: High-Frequency Words Kindergarten, Theme 6, Page T 22 Teach Tell children that Kindergarten Example: High-Frequency Words Kindergarten, Theme 6, Page T 22 Teach Tell children that today they will learn to read and write a word that they will often see in stories. Say is and use it in context. A lion is big. A mouse is small. A lion is loud. A mouse is quiet. Write is on the board and have children spell it as you point to the letters. Say: Spell is with me, i-s, is. Then lead a cheer, clapping on each beat, to help children remember the spelling: i-s, is! 102

Kinder Ejemplo: Palabras de uso frecuente Kinder, Tema 4, página T 22 Enseñar Diga Kinder Ejemplo: Palabras de uso frecuente Kinder, Tema 4, página T 22 Enseñar Diga a los niños que aprenderán a leer y escribir un, una palabra que verán a menudo en los cuentos. Diga un y úsela en contexto. Tengo un juguete. Juegan con un tren. Es un tapete. Necesito un tenedor. Escriba un en el pizarrón y pida a los niños que la deletreen mientras señala cada letra. Deletreen un conmigo, u-n, un. Pida a los niños que repitan algunas frases: un perro, un libro, un pájaro. Luego, pídales que utilicen la palabra un para responder a las preguntas: ¿Qué animal hace “guau, guau”? (un perro) ¿Qué lees? (un libro) ¿Qué animal vuela? (un pájaro) 103

Grade 2 Example: High Frequency Words Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 328 K Word Grade 2 Example: High Frequency Words Grade 2, Theme 6, Page 328 K Word Pattern Board Riddle Have children make up riddles about words from the Word Pattern Board. Have partners or small groups try to guess the answers to the riddles. Also provide a brief cumulative review of previously taught high-frequency words. alphabet heart mind 104

High Frequency Words in Spanish • Because Spanish text has a more transparent orthography High Frequency Words in Spanish • Because Spanish text has a more transparent orthography (i. e. all words are decodable once students are taught advanced decoding skills. ) the use of the high frequency word instruction diminishes in later grades-the focus is on learning advanced decoding skills and accurately and fluently decoding words and building automaticity with word recognition. 105

Objectives You will learn: • To define alphabetic principle • To become familiar with Objectives You will learn: • To define alphabetic principle • To become familiar with the research on the alphabetic principle • To identify the high priority skills of alphabetic principle • To identify and implement alphabetic principle instruction within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons. 106

Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura Vocabulary 107 Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura Vocabulary 107

Objectives You will learn: • To define vocabulary instruction and relevant skills • Research Objectives You will learn: • To define vocabulary instruction and relevant skills • Research behind vocabulary instruction • High priority skills of vocabulary • To identify and implement vocabulary components within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading and Lectura lessons 108

Essential Instructional Content 1. Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in Essential Instructional Content 1. Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words. 2. Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. 3. Automaticity and Fluency with the Code: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text. 4. Vocabulary Development: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. 5. Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning. 109

Vocabulary Development The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and Vocabulary Development The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. 110

Vocabulary Knowledge • What is it? . . . – Expressive Vocabulary: Requires a Vocabulary Knowledge • What is it? . . . – Expressive Vocabulary: Requires a speaker or writer to produce a specific label for a particular meaning. – Receptive Vocabulary: Requires a reader or listener to associate a specific meaning with a given label as in reading or listening. 111

Critical Elements in Vocabulary Knowledge • The National Reading Panel report (2000) indicates the Critical Elements in Vocabulary Knowledge • The National Reading Panel report (2000) indicates the following components as essential in Vocabulary Knowledge: Multiple Methods Preinstruction can have significant effects on learning. Direct & Indirect Repetition & Multiple Exposures to Words In Varied Contexts Assessment should match instruction. Promise of computer technology 112

Meaningful Differences Words heard per hour Words heard in a 100 -hour week Words Meaningful Differences Words heard per hour Words heard in a 100 -hour week Words heard in a 5, 200 hour year 4 years Welfare 616 62, 000 3 million 13 million Working Class 1, 251 125, 000 6 million 26 million Professional 2, 153 215, 000 11 million 45 million Hart & Risley 1995, 2002 113

Importance of Independent Reading Research has shown that children who read even ten minutes Importance of Independent Reading Research has shown that children who read even ten minutes a day outside of school experience substantially higher rates of vocabulary growth between second and fifth grade than children who do little or no reading. Anderson & Nagy, 1992 114

Variation in the Amount of Independent Reading Percentile Rank Minutes Per Day Words Read Variation in the Amount of Independent Reading Percentile Rank Minutes Per Day Words Read Per Year Books Text 98 65. 0 67. 3 4, 358, 000 4, 733, 000 90 21. 2 33. 4 1, 823, 000 2, 357, 000 80 14. 2 24. 6 1, 146, 000 1, 697, 000 70 9. 6 16. 9 622, 000 1, 168, 000 60 6. 5 13. 1 432, 000 722, 000 50 4. 6 9. 2 282, 000 601, 000 40 3. 2 6. 2 200, 000 421, 000 30 1. 8 4. 3 106, 000 251, 000 20 0. 7 2. 4 21, 000 134, 000 10 0. 1 1. 0 8, 000 51, 000 2 0 0 0 8, 000 R. C. Anderson, 1992 115

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High Priority Skills for Kindergarten By the end of Kindergarten students will: • Name High Priority Skills for Kindergarten By the end of Kindergarten students will: • Name pictures of common objects • Use words to describe location, size, color, and shape • Use names and labels of basic concepts • Learn new vocabulary through stories and instruction 118

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High Priority Skills for Grade 1, 2 and 3 By the end of grades High Priority Skills for Grade 1, 2 and 3 By the end of grades 1, 2, and 3 students will • Learn and use unfamiliar words that are introduced in stories and texts. • Increase their knowledge of vocabulary through independent reading. 122

Two Types of Vocabulary Instruction arning e Word-l truction egy ins strat Specific word Two Types of Vocabulary Instruction arning e Word-l truction egy ins strat Specific word instructio n 123

Specific Intention word ins truction al vocab ulary ins truction i concepts n specifi Specific Intention word ins truction al vocab ulary ins truction i concepts n specifi and word c meaning s 124

Critical Methods for Specific Word Instruction • Multiple exposures • Use synonyms and antonyms Critical Methods for Specific Word Instruction • Multiple exposures • Use synonyms and antonyms • Make up a novel sentence • Classify with other words • Direct definitions • Relate the definition to one's own experiences • Use visuals to demonstrate word meanings 125

Kindergarten Example: Specific Word Instruction. Multiple Exposure & Using Visuals Vocabulary: Kindergarten Theme 1, Kindergarten Example: Specific Word Instruction. Multiple Exposure & Using Visuals Vocabulary: Kindergarten Theme 1, Week 2, Page T 57 Vocabulario: Kinder, Tema 1, Semana 2, página T 57 Naming Words: Parts of the Body • Speaking and Viewing: Using the Theme Poster art, help children describe the picture of the Gingerbread Man. Point to his head, arms, feet. Discuss his features: nose, mouth, and eyes. Explain that they are made with raisins and icing. • Recite the familiar refrain from The Gingerbread Man: “Run, run, as fast as you can. You can’t catch me I’m the Gingerbread Man!” Have children commit the words to memory. • Have children pose like the Gingerbread Man, pointing to their heads, eyes, noses, mouths, arms, hands, legs and feet. Say, “This cookie has arms, legs, a head, eyes, and a mouth just like people have. ” 126

Kindergarten Example: Specific Word Instruction Multiple Exposure & Using Visuals (continued) • “Each of Kindergarten Example: Specific Word Instruction Multiple Exposure & Using Visuals (continued) • “Each of our body parts has a name. Let’s name them. I’ll say the word. You point: eyes, nose, mouth, feet, hands. These words are called naming words. ” • “Now I’ll point and you give me the naming word. ” (Point to ears, hair, shoulders, elbow, hand. ) • “There are many more words for parts of the body. Who can point to them? ” (neck, wrist, ankle, foot, toe, finger, thumb, back, chest) • End the oral language portion of the lesson by singing the familiar song “Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes. ” If children aren’t familiar with the song, teach them to point as they sing. 127

Grade 1 Example: Specific Word Instruction Multiple Exposures & Classify with other Words Vocabulary: Grade 1 Example: Specific Word Instruction Multiple Exposures & Classify with other Words Vocabulary: Grade 1, Theme 1, Week 1, Page T 54 Names for Animals Reread page 15 of I am Six, point to each word as you read. Ask children to find the words that name animals. (snake, mouse, hamster) • Ask children to name other animals. As children suggest more animal names, write them on a word web. Periodically stop and read the web with the class, pointing to each animal name as you read. • Review the web once again, and have children suggest other animals to add to the web. • Remind children that they can use these words in their writing. 128

Grado 1 Ejemplo: Specific Word Instruction Multiple Exposures & Classify with other Words Vocabulario: Grado 1 Ejemplo: Specific Word Instruction Multiple Exposures & Classify with other Words Vocabulario: Grado 1, Tema 1, Semana 1, página T 54 Nombres de los familiares Vuelvan a leer Amo a Memo y pida a los niños que señalen las palabras mientras van leyendo. Pídales que busquen las palabras que nombran a los miembros de la familia. (Papi, Mami, Memo) • Pida a los niños que nombren a otros miembros de la familia. Escriba sus respuestas en el pizarrón formando una red de palabras. Deténgase por momentos y lea la red de palabras señalando el nombre de cada miembro de la familia mientras los va leyendo. • Repase la red de palabras con los niños y pregúnteles si se acuerdan de algún otro miembro de la familia. • Recuerde a los niños que pueden usar estas palabras cuando escriban. 129

Grade 2 Example: Specific Word Instruction Synonyms & Antonyms Vocabulary: Grade 2, Theme 1, Grade 2 Example: Specific Word Instruction Synonyms & Antonyms Vocabulary: Grade 2, Theme 1, Selection 2, page 79 I Synonyms Teach • Ask children to listen as you read these sentences: Julius liked to twirl when he danced. Julius liked to turn when he danced. Julius liked to spin when he danced. • Repeat the words twirl, turn, spin, and ask children to think about the meaning of each word. Lead children to conclude that the words have almost the same meaning. Tell children that the words have the same, or almost the same, meaning are called synonyms. Point out that knowing synonyms can help children as they read, and can also help them make their writing and speaking more interesting. 130

Grade 2 Example: Specific Word Instruction Synonyms & Antonyms (continued) Display this sentence from Grade 2 Example: Specific Word Instruction Synonyms & Antonyms (continued) Display this sentence from page 56 of Julius: Julius made big messes and spread the newspaper everywhere before anyone could read it. • Ask each child to write on a slip of paper a synonym that could be used in this sentence to replace big. Have a volunteer restate what a synonym is. Ask each child to read the sentence aloud with the synonym she or he wrote. Practice • Display Transparency 1 -14. Ask a volunteer to read the two lists of words. Have partners work together to match synonyms in the two lists. Then ask each partner to choose three words from the list. The partner says a sentence with the word. The other partner repeats the sentence, inserting the synonym. 131

Grado 2 Ejemplo: Specific Word Instruction Synonyms & Antonyms Destrazas de vocabulario: Grado 2, Grado 2 Ejemplo: Specific Word Instruction Synonyms & Antonyms Destrazas de vocabulario: Grado 2, Tema 1, página 79 I Sinónimos Enseñar • Pida a los niños que escuchen mientras lee las oraciones: Julio protegía a Maya por la noche. Julio cuidaba a Maya por la noche. Julio defendía a Maya por la noche. • Repita las palabras protegía, cuidaba, defendía y pida a los niños que piensen en el significado de cada palabra. Guíe a los niños para que concluyan que las palabras tienen casi el mismo signficado. Dígales que las palabras que tienen el mismo, o casi el mismo, significado se llaman sinónimos. Señale que saber Sinónimos pueden ayudarles a comprender lo que leen y puede hacer que hablen y escriben en forma más interesante. 132

Grado 2 Ejemplo: Specific Word Instruction Synonyms & Antonyms (continued) • Muestre esta oración Grado 2 Ejemplo: Specific Word Instruction Synonyms & Antonyms (continued) • Muestre esta oración de la página 56 de Julio: Julio lo ensuciaba todo y esparcía las pájinas del periódico antes de que nadie lo hubiera leído. • Pida a cada niño que anote un sinónimo que podría usarse en esta oración para reemplazar a leído. Pida a un voluntario para que vuelva a decir qué es un sinónimo. Pida a cada niño que lea la oración en voz alta incluyendo el sinónimo que escribió. Practicar • Muestre la Transperencia 1 -14. Pida a un voluntario para que lea las dos listas de palabras. Pida a los niños que trabajen en parejas y que emparejen los sinónimos de las dos listas. Luego, pida a cada compañero que escoja tres palabras de la lista. Un niño dice una oración que contiene la palabra. El otro compañero repite la oración, insertando el sinónimo para la palabra. 133

truction gy ins strate g learnin Wordtermine ents de ds on d elp stu truction gy ins strate g learnin Wordtermine ents de ds on d elp stu iliar wor ies to h f unfam Strateg aning o ir own. the me the 134

Word-Learning Strategies Commonly Taught 1. dictionaries and other reference aids 2. word parts 3. Word-Learning Strategies Commonly Taught 1. dictionaries and other reference aids 2. word parts 3. context clues 135

Steps in Explicit Strategy Instruction • Direct explanation • Modeling • Guided practice • Steps in Explicit Strategy Instruction • Direct explanation • Modeling • Guided practice • Feedback • Application Dickson, Collins, Simmons, and Kame’enui, 1998 136

Grade 3 Example: Word-Learning Strategy Instruction Developing Key vocabulary: Grade 3, Theme 1, Week Grade 3 Example: Word-Learning Strategy Instruction Developing Key vocabulary: Grade 3, Theme 1, Week 1, Page 17 A • Use Transparency 1 -1 to introduce vocabulary words from The Lost and Found. • Unlike real life, characters in a fantasy often deal with strange settings, events, and situations. Model how to figure out the meaning of the word situations from clues in the sentence. • For the remaining sentence, ask students to use what they know to figure out the Key Vocabulary word. Have students explain how they figured out each word. Remind students that it’s helpful to use Phonics/Decoding Strategy when they read. For students who need more help with decoding, use the review below. 137

Grado 3 Ejemplo: Word-Learning Strategy Instruction Vocabulario: Grado 3, Tema 1, Semana 1, página Grado 3 Ejemplo: Word-Learning Strategy Instruction Vocabulario: Grado 3, Tema 1, Semana 1, página 17 A • Use la Transparencia 1 -1 para ayudarlos a desarrollar el conocimiento del Vocabulario clave. A diferencia de la vida real, a menudo los personajes de un cuento fantástico se enfrentan a ambientes, sucesos, y situaciones extrañas. • Demuestre cómo usar las claves de contexto para hallar el significado de la palabra situaciones. • Para cada oración restante, pida a los estudiantes que hallen las claves de contexto y que definan cada palabra del Vocabulario clave. 138

Activity: Specific Word Instruction in HM Reading and Lectura • Partner up! • Each Activity: Specific Word Instruction in HM Reading and Lectura • Partner up! • Each partner, practice the vocabulary instruction listed below for your grade-level. Note which method you used. Grade Kinder Example in Lesson Theme 1/Tema 1 T 57 First Theme 1/Tema 1 T 54 Second Theme 1/Tema 1 79 I Third Theme 1/Tema 1 17 A 139

Objectives You will learn: • To define vocabulary instruction and relevant skills • Research Objectives You will learn: • To define vocabulary instruction and relevant skills • Research behind vocabulary instruction • High priority skills of vocabulary • To identify and implement vocabulary components within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading and Lectura lessons 140

Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura Comprehension & Fluency 141 Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura Comprehension & Fluency 141

Objectives • To define comprehension instruction and relevant skills • Research behind comprehension instruction Objectives • To define comprehension instruction and relevant skills • Research behind comprehension instruction • High priority skills of comprehension • To identify and implement comprehension components within daily Houghton Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons 142

Comprehension 143 Comprehension 143

Comprehension The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to Comprehension The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning. 144

Critical Elements in Comprehension of Text • The National Reading Panel report (2000) identifies Critical Elements in Comprehension of Text • The National Reading Panel report (2000) identifies the following elements as essential in Comprehension instruction: Multiple opposed to a single strategy Teaching rather than mentioning or assessing Teaching students to become strategic takes time. Active involvement of students Seven categories of strategies provide evidence of efficacy. 145

Research on Reading Comprehension tells us that. . . Readers who comprehend well are Research on Reading Comprehension tells us that. . . Readers who comprehend well are also good decoders. Implications: Teach decoding and word recognition strategies. Time spent reading is highly correlated with comprehension. Implications: Provide for lots of in-class reading, outside of class reading, independent reading. Encourage students to read more, read widely, and help them develop a passion for reading. Big Ideas in Beginning Reading, Univ. of Oregon http: //reading. uoregon. edu/comp_why. php 146

Factors that Impact Reading Comprehension Reader Based Factors • • • Phonemic awareness Alphabetic Factors that Impact Reading Comprehension Reader Based Factors • • • Phonemic awareness Alphabetic understanding Fluency with the code Vocabulary knowledge Prior knowledge Engagement and interest Text Based Factors • • Narrative vs. expository Genre considerations Quality of text Density and difficulty of concepts Big Ideas in Beginning Reading, Univ. of Oregon http: //reading. uoregon. edu/comp_why. php 147

Causes of Reading Comprehension Failure • Inadequate instruction • Insufficient exposure and practice • Causes of Reading Comprehension Failure • Inadequate instruction • Insufficient exposure and practice • Deficient word recognition skills • Significant language deficiencies • Inadequate comprehension monitoring and selfevaluation • Unfamiliarity with text features and task demands • Inadequate reading experiences 148

Using Curriculum Maps • Review the curriculum map for your grade to answer the Using Curriculum Maps • Review the curriculum map for your grade to answer the following questions: – What are the high priority skills for the next 3 months? _______________ – What other skills may be necessary to teach before the high priority skills? ___________________________ – What skills do you predict to be difficult for some children? _____________ 149

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Summary of Critical Comprehension Skills Students should be able to: • Identify and answer Summary of Critical Comprehension Skills Students should be able to: • Identify and answer questions about character, setting, story events, theme, and plot • Re-tell a story or the main idea of the passage • Identify supporting details of a passage • Make evaluative judgments about a reading • Make inferences about readings 157

We can support students’ reading comprehension by : • • • Preparing students for We can support students’ reading comprehension by : • • • Preparing students for reading – Priming background knowledge – Setting a purpose for reading – Making predictions Explaining the comprehension skill or strategy Modeling how to use the comprehension skill or strategy Providing guided practice for students in using the skill or strategy Providing feedback to students on their use of the skill or strategy Providing opportunities for application of the skill or strategy 158

Steps in Explicit Strategy & Skill Instruction • Direct explanation • Modeling • Guided Steps in Explicit Strategy & Skill Instruction • Direct explanation • Modeling • Guided practice • Feedback • Application Dickson, Collins, Simmons, and Kame’enui, 1998 159

Let’s look at some examples. . . . 160 Let’s look at some examples. . . . 160

Kindergarten Example Strategy Focus: Summarize Kindergarten Theme 6, Pages T 62, T 83 Teacher-Student Kindergarten Example Strategy Focus: Summarize Kindergarten Theme 6, Pages T 62, T 83 Teacher-Student Modeling Remind children that to retell a story, good readers think about the characters and what they do. – Who are the characters in the story? – What happened in the story so far? 161

Kinder Ejemplo Estrategia: Predecir/Inferir Kinder Tema 4, página T 72, T 83 Demostración: Maestro/estudiante Kinder Ejemplo Estrategia: Predecir/Inferir Kinder Tema 4, página T 72, T 83 Demostración: Maestro/estudiante Recuérdeles a los niños que las predicciones pueden ser acertadas o equivocadas. – Antes de leer, predije que el niño y su papá tal vez fueran al cine, pero no ocurrió. Tal vez la próxima vez, mis ideas sean como las del autor. – ¿Que nos dicen el título y las ilustraciones? 162

Grade 1 Example-Strategy Focus: Question Grade 1, Theme 6, page T 109 -T 110 Grade 1 Example-Strategy Focus: Question Grade 1, Theme 6, page T 109 -T 110 • Have children turn to Anthology page 164. Together, read the selection title, the name of the author/illustrator, and Strategy focus. • As you read the story, ask yourself about each animal and what it does. Teacher Modeling Model how to ask questions about the story. Think aloud I see from the picture on page 155 that the girl sees a mouse. I also see a picture of a cat on the wall. I ask myself, is that the girl’s cat. Will the girls call her cat to catch the mouse? Quick Write You may want children to record their questions by writing in their journals Purpose Setting Have children preview pages 166 -167 and ask their own questions about the animals. Tell children to also use their other reading strategies as they read. 163

Grado 1 Ejemplo Estrategia clave: Preguntar Grado 1, Tema 6, página T 109 -T Grado 1 Ejemplo Estrategia clave: Preguntar Grado 1, Tema 6, página T 109 -T 110 • Pida a los niños que miren la página 164 de la Antología. Lean juntos el título de la selección, el nobre del autor/ilustrador, y la Estrategia clave. Mientras lee, pregúntense qué hacen estos animales. Demostración de la maestra Demuestre cómo hacer preguntas acerca del cuento. Pensar en voz alta…Veo en la ilustración de la página 165 que la niña ve un ratón. Veo también el cuadro de un gato en la pared. Me pregunto, ¿será el gato de la niña? ¿Llamará la niña al gato para que atrape al ratón? 164

Grado 1 Ejemplo Estrategia clave: Preguntar (cont. ) Grado 1, Tema 6, página T Grado 1 Ejemplo Estrategia clave: Preguntar (cont. ) Grado 1, Tema 6, página T 109 -T 110 Escrtitura rápida Puede pedir a los niños que escriban sus preguntas en su diario. Establecer un propósito Pida a los níños que anticipen lo que sucederá en las páginas 166 y 167. Pídales que hagan preguntas acerca de los animales. Invite a los niños a buscar respuestas a sus preguntas mientras leen. Recuérdeles que utilicen sus otras estrategias de lectura mientras leen. 165

Grade 2 Example Strategy Focus: Monitor/Clarify • Grade 2 Theme 1, Page 50 • Grade 2 Example Strategy Focus: Monitor/Clarify • Grade 2 Theme 1, Page 50 • Teacher-Student Modeling: Ask children how they can make sure they understand what they are reading. Explain that they can stop and ask themselves questions, or monitor what they are reading. Ask children what they could do if they didn’t understand what was happening on page 51. 166

Grado 2 Ejemplo Estrategia clave: Revisar/Aclarar Grado 2 Tema 1, página 50 • Demostración: Grado 2 Ejemplo Estrategia clave: Revisar/Aclarar Grado 2 Tema 1, página 50 • Demostración: Maestro/Estudiante: Pregunteles a los niños cómo pueden asegurarse de que comprenden lo que están leyendo. Explíqueles que pueden detenerse y hacerse preguntas o revisar lo que están leyendo. Pregunteles a los niños qué podrían hacer si no comprendieran lo que ocurre en la página 51. (Ellos podrían volver a leer, mirar las ilustraciones para buscar pistas o seguir leyendo para ver si pueden comprender el suceso. ) 167

Grade 3 Example Strategy Focus: Predict/Infer • Grade 3 Theme 1, Page 98 • Grade 3 Example Strategy Focus: Predict/Infer • Grade 3 Theme 1, Page 98 • Teacher-Student Modeling: Discuss clues on page 99 that can help students predict what lies ahead on the hike. • Have someone read aloud the final sentence on page 99, and ask what predictions students can make. Point out that bears roar too. Ask students to explain why that prediction is unlikely. 168

Grado 3 Ejemplo Estrategia clave: Predecir/Inferir Grado 3 Tema 1, página 98 • Demostración: Grado 3 Ejemplo Estrategia clave: Predecir/Inferir Grado 3 Tema 1, página 98 • Demostración: Maestro/Estudiante: Comente las pistas de la página 99 que puden ayudar a los estudiantes a predecir qué vienen más adelnate en la caminata. – La familia camina contra la corriente de los rápidos; esuchan un rugido. • Pida a alguien que lea en voz alta la última oración de la página 99 y pregunte a los estudiantes qué predicciones pueden hacer. – La familia hallará una cascada. • Señale que los osos también rugen. Pídales que expliquen por qué esa predicción es poco probable. – Si fuera el sonido de un animal, se asustarían y retrocederían. 169

Activity • Work with a group of three to practice just the Comprehension portions Activity • Work with a group of three to practice just the Comprehension portions of your Houghton-Mifflin Reading/Lectura instruction. One person in your group should act as the teacher, one as a student, and one as a coach, providing feedback on the lesson. Take turns performing each role. Grade K Activity Theme 6, Page T 83/Tema 4, página T 83 1 Theme 6/Tema 6, p. T 109 2 Theme 1/Tema 1, p. 50 3 Theme 1/Tema 1, p. 98 170

Objectives • To define comprehension instruction and relevant skills • Research behind comprehension instruction Objectives • To define comprehension instruction and relevant skills • Research behind comprehension instruction • High priority skills of comprehension • To identify and implement comprehension components within daily Houghton-Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons 171

Fluency 172 Fluency 172

Objectives You will learn: • To define fluency instruction and relevant skills • Research Objectives You will learn: • To define fluency instruction and relevant skills • Research behind fluency instruction • To identify high priority skills of fluency • To identify and implement fluency components within daily Houghton-Mifflin & Lectura lessons • Other fluency building activities 173

Automaticity and Fluency with the Code • The effortless, automatic ability to read words Automaticity and Fluency with the Code • The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text. • A fluent reader’s focus is on understanding the passage by reading each word accurately and with speed to enable comprehension. • The term fluency incorporates two things: • Accuracy and Pace Adapted from Harn (2005) 174

Critical Elements in Automaticity & Fluency with the Code • The National Reading Panel Critical Elements in Automaticity & Fluency with the Code • The National Reading Panel report (2000) identifies the following elements as essential in Automaticity and Fluency instruction: Repeated Readings Corrective Feedback Not all children need all. . . differentiate! Keep the end in mind. . Fluency is only part of the picture! Relatively brief sessions (15 -30 minutes) 175

Frustration: How it Feels to Read Without Fluency 176 Frustration: How it Feels to Read Without Fluency 176

Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension (National Institute for Literacy (2001) Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension (National Institute for Literacy (2001) • Fluency “may be almost a necessary condition for good comprehension and enjoyable reading experiences” (Nathan & Stanovich, 1991, pg. 176). • If a reader has to spend too much time and energy figuring out what the words are, she will be unable to concentrate on what the words mean (Coyne, Kame’enui, & Simmons, 2001). 177

Teaching Reading is Urgent 88% of students who met the end of first grade Teaching Reading is Urgent 88% of students who met the end of first grade ORF goal met or exceeded Oregon’s State Benchmark Test. Similar correlations have been found for CO, IA, FL, and PA. Performance at the end of first grade strongly predicts performance on third grade high stakes test. Torgeson, 2005 178

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Let’s look at some examples. . 182 Let’s look at some examples. . 182

Fluency Example Grade 2 Theme 1, page 67 & Grado 2, Tema 1 página Fluency Example Grade 2 Theme 1, page 67 & Grado 2, Tema 1 página 67 • Rereading for Fluency • Have children choose part of the story to reread orally in small groups, or suggest that they read page 66 through the last complete paragraph. Model fluent reading and coach children to read with feeling and expression. • For additional fluency practice with easier text, work with small groups to reread the Reader’s Library selection “Big Hog’s House Hunt. ” Model and coach as needed 183

Fluency Example Grade 2, Theme 1, page 41 J High frequency Words Daily Cumulative Fluency Example Grade 2, Theme 1, page 41 J High frequency Words Daily Cumulative Review • Provide children with daily opportunities to review these important high-frequency words. Display them on the Word Pattern Board, and have children practice recognizing, chanting, spelling, and writing the words. Also, display and review other high-frequency words yet to be mastered. • began*, their*, begin*, there*, goes*, thought*, gone*, very* *Previously taught in grade 1 184

Fluency Example Grado 2, Tema 1, página 41 J Palabras de uso frecuente Repaso Fluency Example Grado 2, Tema 1, página 41 J Palabras de uso frecuente Repaso diario acumulativo • Dé diariamente a los niños oportunidades para repasar estas importantes palabras de uso frecuente. Muéstrelas en el tablero de palabras y pida a los niños que practiquen el reconocer, recitar, deletrear, y escribir las palabras. También, muestre y repase otras palabras de us frecuente que todavía no dominen. • sí*, amigo*, día*, bien*, gusta*, debajo*, cuatro*, está* *Enseñada en grado 1 185

Additional Fluency Building Activities Fluency building should be short-term practice scheduled frequently within and Additional Fluency Building Activities Fluency building should be short-term practice scheduled frequently within and across days to build skill to a level of automaticity. 186

Two Major Components for Automaticity and Fluency with the Code 1. Building automaticity at Two Major Components for Automaticity and Fluency with the Code 1. Building automaticity at the sound or word level 2. Building automaticity reading in connected text 187

Letter-Sound/Word Automaticity Example: The 1 Minute Dash Preparation: (a) Identify a set of letter-sounds/words Letter-Sound/Word Automaticity Example: The 1 Minute Dash Preparation: (a) Identify a set of letter-sounds/words students can correctly identify. (b) Create/use multiple cards of each letter-sound/word in the set. Activity: 1. Set a goal (i. e. , 30 letter sounds correct). 2. Do a 1 -minute small-group practice. Position cards so all can see. 3. Start the stop watch. 4. Present the first letter sound/word card so all students answer. 5. Provide quick corrective feedback on errors. 6. Continue presenting letters/words adjusting the pace of presentation systematically. 7. Letter-sounds/words correctly identified go in one pile. Place errors in a second pile. 8. At the end of 1 minute, tally the number of letter sounds/words correct. 9. Review errors and repeat activity for 1 more minute. 188

Word Reading Automaticity Examples 1. Paired peer practice. Pair a higher performer with a Word Reading Automaticity Examples 1. Paired peer practice. Pair a higher performer with a child who needs fluency practice. Use similar procedures as in 1 -Minute Dash. Each child may use his/her set of known but not fluent words. 2. Word recognition grid. Prepare a 5 x 5 grid of 5 words. One word per row randomly ordered. Include a short review of words. Then, do a timed recall of the words. 189

Word Reading Example: 5 x 5 Grid (Modification of Region XIII Texas Educational Service Word Reading Example: 5 x 5 Grid (Modification of Region XIII Texas Educational Service Center) 190

Connected Text Fluency Instructional Strategy Individual Strategy: Repeated Reading For individual students needing to Connected Text Fluency Instructional Strategy Individual Strategy: Repeated Reading For individual students needing to increase reading fluency use the following steps: 1. Identify short reading passages (approx. 150 words) students can read with >95% accuracy 2. Have student read for 1 -minute as quickly and accurately as possible and determine words correct per minute (cold reading) 3. Identify and mark a target rate approximately 30% faster than cold reading 4. Have student independently reread passage with timer until they obtain target rate 5. Teacher repeats step 2 to determine if goal was determined 6. Graph progress (Adapted from Howell & Nolet, 2001) 191

Example of Repeated Reading Steps 1. Identify passages student can read with high accuracy Example of Repeated Reading Steps 1. Identify passages student can read with high accuracy (>95%) 2. Collect cold reading cwpm 3. Determine 30% increase wpm and mark 4. Student practices reading out loud with timer to reach goal 5. Teacher does hot timing again 6. Monitor and graph progress 192

Objectives You will learn: • To define fluency instruction and relevant skills • Research Objectives You will learn: • To define fluency instruction and relevant skills • Research behind fluency instruction • To identify high priority skills of fluency • To identify and implement fluency components within daily Houghton-Mifflin Reading & Lectura lessons • Other fluency building activities 193