Скачать презентацию Optimizing the use of the codling moth granulovirus Скачать презентацию Optimizing the use of the codling moth granulovirus

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Optimizing the use of the codling moth granulovirus: Final Report L. Lacey S. Arthurs Optimizing the use of the codling moth granulovirus: Final Report L. Lacey S. Arthurs R. Fritts R. Behle A. Knight

OBJECTIVES: 1. 2. 3. 4. Determine the lowest dosage of Cp. GV that will OBJECTIVES: 1. 2. 3. 4. Determine the lowest dosage of Cp. GV that will provide effective control of codling moth larvae. Determine optimal intervals for spray application. Continue to assess the shelf life of commercial formulations at various temperatures. Investigate the potential of several adjuvants for protecting Cp. GV from solar degradation.

Significant findings: Season-long treatments of Cp. GV (Cyd-X) at 3 rates (1, 3 and Significant findings: Season-long treatments of Cp. GV (Cyd-X) at 3 rates (1, 3 and 6 oz acre) and 3 application intervals (7, 10 and 14 days) resulted in significantly fewer deep entries and surviving larvae but did not reduce the proportion of fruit damaged by codling moth. ● There was a significant trend of fewer deep entries and higher larval mortality rates with increasing rate of Cp. GV and shorter application interval. ● In replicated ½ acre plots, Cp. GV provided > 90% larval mortality at 1, 2 and 3 oz/acre, but was not as effective as Guthion in protecting fruit. ● Bioassay procedures to screen adjuvants providing possible UV protection of Cp. GV formulations were developed. ●

Significant findings continued: The efficacy of 3 commercial Cp. GV formulations were significantly reduced Significant findings continued: The efficacy of 3 commercial Cp. GV formulations were significantly reduced (52 -77%) by exposure to UV light (9. 36 × 106 joules/m 2) in a solar simulator. Although lignin encapsulation provided significant protection of Cp. GV exposed to simulated sunlight in laboratory studies, under field conditions it did not. The Cyd-X and Virosoft formulations of Cp. GV maintained larvicidal activity after storage at 2 and 25˚C for over 132 weeks, but activity was sharply reduced after storage at 35º for 16 and 40 weeks, respectively.

Applying Cp. GV in the orchard Experimental orchard Trees treated individually in a randomized Applying Cp. GV in the orchard Experimental orchard Trees treated individually in a randomized plot design Commercial orchard Blocks sprayed using operational equipment

Field evaluations of Cp. GV n Experimentally assess efficacy of weekly applications of Cyd-X Field evaluations of Cp. GV n Experimentally assess efficacy of weekly applications of Cyd-X at 1, 2, 3 oz/ac n Determine optimal spray interval and dosage of Cyd-X applied every 7, 10 or 14 days at 1, 3, or 6 oz/ac n % and degree of fruit damage, larval mortality, sampling overwintering larvae

Fruit damage, deep entries and CM mortality following different treatments of Cyd-X in individual Fruit damage, deep entries and CM mortality following different treatments of Cyd-X in individual tree plots.

Grower applications Assessment of: n Fruit damage n larval mortality n adult populations n Grower applications Assessment of: n Fruit damage n larval mortality n adult populations n overwintering larvae

Fruit damage, CM mortality and interception trap catches following different treatments of Cyd-X in Fruit damage, CM mortality and interception trap catches following different treatments of Cyd-X in ½ acre blocks in a 21 acre commercial orchard (data for 1 st generation).

Cp. GV and MD is effective Fruit injury and codling moth populations in 3 Cp. GV and MD is effective Fruit injury and codling moth populations in 3 A organic Golden Delicious treated with Cp. GV and MD (Parker Heights, WA) Year #Application % CM fruit s/season injury/1000 fruit Moths/pheromon e trap 1 st gen. 2 nd gen. 1 st flight 2 nd flight 2003 14 1. 27* 0. 84* 27. 1 5. 3 2004 8 0. 13 0. 21 6. 2 5 2005 12 0. 17 0. 1 13. 5 10 1 Cp. GV (Cyd-X) applied at 2 or 3 fl. oz/A and 100 gal. / A, * assuming 300 fruit/tree

Laboratory studies Quantitative bioassays n Shelf life at 36, 77, and 95˚F n UV Laboratory studies Quantitative bioassays n Shelf life at 36, 77, and 95˚F n UV sensitivity n

Weeks in storage after which less than 95% mortality of codling moth larvae occurs Weeks in storage after which less than 95% mortality of codling moth larvae occurs (100, 000 fold dilution) 36˚F - 2˚C 77˚F - 25˚C 95˚F - 35˚C Carpovirusine 116 2 -4 2 Virosoft 132+ 40 Cyd-X 140+ 16 + end point not yet determined

Evaluation of formulation components as ultraviolet light protectants Solar simulator and half apple system Evaluation of formulation components as ultraviolet light protectants Solar simulator and half apple system used to bioassay Cp. GV formulations Apples were sprayed with Cp. GV suspensions in a De. Vries spray cabinet

Mean CM mortality on apples treated with standard rate of Cp. GV (1000 -fold Mean CM mortality on apples treated with standard rate of Cp. GV (1000 -fold dilution) and exposed to 9. 36 × 106 joules/m 2 simulated sunlight plus controls. Virosoft UV 29. 7 No UV 95. 1 % red. 68. 8 Carpovirusine Cyd-X 20. 4 90. 2 77. 4 46. 8 98. 2 52. 3

Evaluation of spray-dried lignin-based formulations as ultraviolet light protectants Evaluation of spray-dried lignin-based formulations as ultraviolet light protectants

Evaluation of spray-dried lignin-based formulations as ultraviolet light protectants Percentage neonate mortality on irradiated Evaluation of spray-dried lignin-based formulations as ultraviolet light protectants Percentage neonate mortality on irradiated fruit with three rates of virus Formulation High dose Med. dose Low dose (3 × 1010 OB/L) (3 × 109 OB/L) (3 × 108 OB/L) Untreated 21. 4 c 21. 4 b 21. 4 Cyd-X 55. 7 b 44. 5 a 37. 8 Virus/Lignin 95. 4 a 41. 7 a 37. 3 Data show average for five replicate tests (n = 25) Letters show Fisher’s LSD at P < 0. 05

Evaluation of spray-dried lignin-based formulations as ultraviolet light protectants Field tests (Golden Delicious), 14 Evaluation of spray-dried lignin-based formulations as ultraviolet light protectants Field tests (Golden Delicious), 14 d spray interval, n=10 trees Formulation First generation 1 Second generation 2 % fruit damage % mortality Untreated 6. 1 38. 5 b 33. 8 27. 4 c Blank Lignin 6. 3 36. 3 b 32. 1 17. 8 c Cyd-X 11. 1 93. 2 a 26. 2 64. 6 ab Virus/Lignin 9. 1 87. 8 a 27. 9 71. 4 a Cyd-X (½ rate) - - 28. 5 65. 7 ab Virus/Lignin (½ rate) - - 23. 2 58. 6 b 1 Four applications at 6. 57 × 1012 granules/ha 2 Three applications, ½ trees sprayed at a reduced rate (2. 2 × 10 12 granules/ha)

Cp. GV Technology Transfer: Presentations n Presentations to grower groups – – n WTFRC Cp. GV Technology Transfer: Presentations n Presentations to grower groups – – n WTFRC Tilth, Oregon Organic Grower meetings WOPDMC Technical Presentations – – Society for Invertebrate Pathology WC 43 Regional Project on Microbial Control Entomological Society of America

Cp. GV Technology Transfer: Publications n Trade magazines – – n Grower - 2005 Cp. GV Technology Transfer: Publications n Trade magazines – – n Grower - 2005 Good Fruit Grower – May 2005 Local Ag. Periodicals 2005 Tilth Producers Quarterly 2005 Journals – – – J. Econ. Ent. 2005 J. Invert. Pathology 2005 Biol. Control 2004 J. Ent. Soc. B. C. 2005 J. Ent. Sci. 2004 WOPDMC, 2004 -2006

Conclusions and future work n n n Good population control but there is room Conclusions and future work n n n Good population control but there is room for improvement Feeding stimulants Pear ester Lignin formulations Resistance – – Cp. GV could provide tool for managing CM resistant to conventional insecticides Evidence for CM tolerance to Cp. GV