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Opportunities and Challenges in the Nebraska Ethanol Industry Governor’s Ethanol Coalition August 2007 Presentation Opportunities and Challenges in the Nebraska Ethanol Industry Governor’s Ethanol Coalition August 2007 Presentation by Todd Sneller Nebraska Ethanol Board

Historical Perspective “Induced Employment”: Lincoln, NE- 1933; Governor’s car being filled up with corn Historical Perspective “Induced Employment”: Lincoln, NE- 1933; Governor’s car being filled up with corn alcohol gasoline ( E-10)

Ethanol: An Economic Catalyst for Nebraska n n n “Unquestionably, the most important valueadded Ethanol: An Economic Catalyst for Nebraska n n n “Unquestionably, the most important valueadded product to the State’s economy is, and will continue to be, ethanol production. ” “Policy decisions at the federal level along with increased demand for ethanol could dramatically increase U. S. net farm income and create many jobs over the next few years. ” “Nebraska must communicate that it is eager to attract desirable businesses such as…biofuel plants…through a combination of tax breaks and innovative policies. ”

Ethanol Production By Incentive 1985 -2007 No Incentive 1985 -1989; LB 1124 1990 -2000; Ethanol Production By Incentive 1985 -2007 No Incentive 1985 -1989; LB 1124 1990 -2000; LB 605 20012005; Overlap of LB 605 & LB 536; LB 536 2003 -2012

Oil: Hidden Costs By including externalities, the true cost of oil may exceed $150 Oil: Hidden Costs By including externalities, the true cost of oil may exceed $150 per barrel

Ethanol Plants in Nebraska 17 plants producing nearly 1. 1 billion gallons per year Ethanol Plants in Nebraska 17 plants producing nearly 1. 1 billion gallons per year Operating Location mgy bu/year Hastings 65 24 Columbus 100 37 Abengoa Bioenergy Corp. York 55 20 Cargill, Inc. Blair 100 37 Aurora 35 13 Hastings 55 20 Plainview 32 12 KAAPA Ethanol Minden 60 22 Trenton Agri Products, LLC Trenton 45 17 U. S. Bio Platte Valley, LLC Central City 96 36 Midwest Renewable Energy Sutherland 20 7 Cornhusker Energy Lexington 80 30 Mead 24 9 Jackson 55 20 Ord 118 44 Madrid 55 20 Ravenna 80 30 Chief Ethanol Fuels ADM Corn Processing Nebraska Energy AGP Corn Processing, Inc. Husker Ag E 3 Bio. Fuels Siouxland Ethanol US Bioenergy - Ord Mid America Bio Energy Abengoa Bioenergy

Plants under construction Husker Ag Plainview Abengoa Bioenergy Corp KAAPA 140 52 Sutherland 100 Plants under construction Husker Ag Plainview Abengoa Bioenergy Corp KAAPA 140 52 Sutherland 100 37 Ravenna 20 7 Minden Midwest Renewable Energy 17 Blair Cargill 46 50 19 356 132 Sub-Total Under Construction Aventine Aurora West, LLC Aurora 110 41 ASA Biofuels Albion 118 44 E-Energy Adams, LLC Adams 50 19 Cambridge 84 31 Norfolk 53 20 Atkinson 20 7 Carlton 100 37 Wood River 110 41 Fairmont 100 37 Mid American Agri Products, LLC Elkhorn Valley Ethanol, LLC NEDAK ALTRA, Nebraska, LLC Bio. Fuels Solutions Advanced Bio Energy, LLC

Emerging Issues n n n n n Jobs/Training Energy/Natural Gas/Coal Transportation (Rail/truck) Remediation Safety Emerging Issues n n n n n Jobs/Training Energy/Natural Gas/Coal Transportation (Rail/truck) Remediation Safety Training Water Distillers feeds Pipeline E 85 expansion/E 10 Saturation

Annual NE Ethanol Production Capacity and Corn Use Status (as of 07 -2007) Installed Annual NE Ethanol Production Capacity and Corn Use Status (as of 07 -2007) Installed capacity Under construction Permitted Total Ethanol (Mil. gal) Corn use (Mil. bu) 950 300+ [25%] +800 530 [40%] +2, 100 3, 690 750 1, 320 [97%]

Economic Benefits of Ethanol Production n n n n Increased Economic Value for Cattle/Dairy Economic Benefits of Ethanol Production n n n n Increased Economic Value for Cattle/Dairy Industry; Feed Manufacturing Stimulates Transportation Sector; Rail/Truck Quality Jobs; Retention of Skilled Workers Plants Well Suited for Rural Communities Expands Local Tax Base & Tax Revenues Value-Added Industry; Promotes Export of Finished Products Growth Industry that Attracts Capital to the State; Plant Expansion Potential Increases Capital Outlay and Related Economic Activity Stimulates Allied Industries and Enhances Infrastructure

Ethanol Related Opportunities Ethanol development provides opportunities for expansion of Nebraska businesses and industries. Ethanol Related Opportunities Ethanol development provides opportunities for expansion of Nebraska businesses and industries. The impact of an expanded ethanol industry extends well beyond the agricultural sector.

Opportunities – Related Industries Parts Providers Service Providers Opportunities – Related Industries Parts Providers Service Providers

Current and Projected Job Demand n n n July 2007 NE Ethanol Industry Jobs: Current and Projected Job Demand n n n July 2007 NE Ethanol Industry Jobs: 885 Direct Jobs at 17 Plants 1, 500 Indirect (“induced”) Jobs Six Plants w/ major expansion underway -Expansions to be completed by 1 Q ’ 08 -100 new Direct Jobs from expansions (est. ) -165 Induced Jobs from expansions (est. ) 9 Plants Under Construction -400 Direct Jobs in new plants by 1 Q ’ 08 -630 Induced Jobs in new plants 1, 300 new Direct and Induced Jobs by 1 Q ’ 08

Ethanol Sector Jobs and Wages n Ethanol jobs listed on Nebraska sites: General Manager Ethanol Sector Jobs and Wages n Ethanol jobs listed on Nebraska sites: General Manager Office Manager Plant Manager Commodities Manager Controller Process Supervisor Maintenance Supervisor n n n Lab Supervisor Administrative Assistant Accounts Payable Commodities Administrator Risk Management Assistant Grain Merchandiser Sales and Contracting Average annual salary at Nebraska ethanol plants in 2006 was $50, 000. Demand for transportation sector jobs is high. Demand for skilled trade positions is high.

Future Challenges Continued Development Will Require: • Expansion of engineering and construction services • Future Challenges Continued Development Will Require: • Expansion of engineering and construction services • Efficient permitting of new and expanding facilities • Continued development of livestock industry to provide new distillers feed markets and products • Supply trained workers for ethanol and related businesses • Support training and education programs at colleges • Foster competitive business environment • Increase supply of potential feedstocks for ethanol production • Maintain a public policy framework that encourages the production and use of biofuels • Enhance transportation efficiency • Create awareness of quality and quantity of ethanol related jobs

Putting Water Use in Context n n n Virtually all types of manufacturing use Putting Water Use in Context n n n Virtually all types of manufacturing use water at some point in the production process. Current ethanol processing technology uses approximately 3 gallons of water for each gallon of ethanol. Ethanol process improvements indicate water use can be reduced to 1. 5 to 1.

Water Conservation Opportunities • Reduce Energy Consumption (less cooling tower evaporation & blowdown) • Water Conservation Opportunities • Reduce Energy Consumption (less cooling tower evaporation & blowdown) • Recycle waste and blowdown streams • Treat makeup water (less blowdown) • Use air or groundwater to reject heat (less evaporation and blowdown)

Water Conservation Opportunities Gallons Fresh Water/ Gallon Ethanol less than: • <3 – Current Water Conservation Opportunities Gallons Fresh Water/ Gallon Ethanol less than: • <3 – Current Best Practice • 1. 5 – Achievable with proven technology at extra capital cost • 0 – Possible in future with new technologies

Putting Water Use in Context n 17 ethanol plants are currently operating in Nebraska; Putting Water Use in Context n 17 ethanol plants are currently operating in Nebraska; 9 plants are actively under construction; 37 additional plants have been proposed for Nebraska sites. If ALL current and proposed plants were operating, they would use about two-tenths of 1 percent of the water pumped in the state. * *Based on USGS estimates.

Putting Water Use in Context n n A large (100 mgy) ethanol plant uses Putting Water Use in Context n n A large (100 mgy) ethanol plant uses the same amount of water annually as it takes for four center-pivot irrigation systems to water a section of land. In water-short area, ethanol plant developers buy land that has irrigation wells and convert the water use from irrigation to ethanol production.

Most Recent Studies Show Positive Net Energy Balance for Corn Ethanol Energy balance here Most Recent Studies Show Positive Net Energy Balance for Corn Ethanol Energy balance here is defined as Btu content a gallon of ethanol minus fossil energy used to produce a gallon of ethanol

Total Energy Conclusions n n Corn-based fuel ethanol achieves moderate percent reductions in GHG Total Energy Conclusions n n Corn-based fuel ethanol achieves moderate percent reductions in GHG emissions, large percent cuts in oil use. Its total production is limited relative to transport fuel use. Cellulosic ethanol can achieve much greater percent GHG benefits than corn ethanol. Per mile oil use benefits are comparable to corn ethanol. Potential production is far greater.

Ethanol Production should remain a targeted industry in Nebraska n n n Ethanol production Ethanol Production should remain a targeted industry in Nebraska n n n Ethanol production will continue to be an economic stimulus for many product and service sectors in Nebraska. It is an industry ideally suited for rural communities. Ethanol production will become an increasingly more important part of Nebraska’s economic base.

Slide Seven Nebraska’s Competitive Advantage for Ethanol Production Nebraska continues to provide some of Slide Seven Nebraska’s Competitive Advantage for Ethanol Production Nebraska continues to provide some of the highest returns for ethanol investors.

Slide Four Nebraska’s Competitive Advantage for Ethanol Production Corn Supply • Nebraska had net Slide Four Nebraska’s Competitive Advantage for Ethanol Production Corn Supply • Nebraska had net exports of 459 million bushels of corn for the 2006 -07 crop year. • Net exports for current (2008 -09) crop year are projected to be 195 million bushels – which would be a quantity sufficient to produce an additional 550 million additional gallons of ethanol.

For more information, contact: Todd Sneller Nebraska Ethanol Board Lincoln, NE 402 -471 -2941 For more information, contact: Todd Sneller Nebraska Ethanol Board Lincoln, NE 402 -471 -2941 www. ne-ethanol. org