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OPERATIONS MANUAL OPERATIONS MANUAL

OPERATIONS MANUAL PART-A GENERAL / BASIC 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS OPERATIONS MANUAL PART-A GENERAL / BASIC 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS REV 16

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS The commander is responsible for the 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS The commander is responsible for the flight which planned properly to meet safety, legal, economic and Company requirements. Besides to checking and preparing aircraft for flight technically, flight preparation includes; - The preparation of an ATS (Air Traffic Service) flight plan - The preparation of an Operational flight plan - The determination of the usability of aerodromes - The preparation of a Load and Trim Sheet. - The relevant AIS (Aeronautical Information Service) and Meteorology briefing 8. 1. 1. MINIMUM FLIGHT ALTITUDES: As a basic principle, no flight shall be operated below the minimum safe altitudes except for the takeoff/Departure or the approach/landing. Time to time local regulations requires higher minimum flight altitudes. For details see Jeppesen Airway manual section "AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL" 3

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 1. MINIMUM IFR 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 1. MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDES DEFINITIONS MEA (Minimum En Route IFR Altitude): The lowest published altitude(Flight Level) between radio fixes that meets obstacle clearance requirements between those fixes and in many countries assures acceptable navigational signal coverage. MORA (Minimum Off-Route Altitude) : A route MORA provides reference point clearance within 10 NM (18. 5 km) of the route centerline (regardless of the route width) and end fixes. A grid MORA altitude provides a reference point clearance within the section outlined by latitude and longitude lines. MORA values clear all reference points by 1000 ft. (300 m) in areas where the highest reference points are 5000 ft. (1500 m) MSL, or lower. MORA values clear all reference points by 2000 ft. (600 m) in areas where the reference points are above 5000 ft. (1500 m) MSL. 4

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 1. MINIMUM IFR 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 1. MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDES DEFINITIONS MOCA (Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude): The lowest published altitude in effect between radio fixes or VOR airways, off airways routes, or route segments which meets obstacle clearance requirements for the entire route segment. MSA (Minimum Sector Altitude): Altitude depicted on instrument approach, SID or STAR charts and identified as the minimum safe altitude which provides a 1000 ft. (300 m) obstacle clearance within a 25 NM (46 km) (or other value as states) radius from the navigational facility upon which the MSA is predicated. 5

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 2. MINIMUM IFR 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 2. MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDE REQUIREMENTS: When an aircraft is operated for the purpose of commercial air transport, the minimum altitude/flight level at which it is permitted to fly may be governed by national regulations, air traffic control requirements, or by the need to maintain a safe height margin above any significant terrain or obstacle en route. Whichever of these requirements produces the highest altitude/flight level for a particular route will determine the minimum flight altitude for that route. The procedures outlined in the following paragraphs are to be followed when calculating the minimum altitude for the safe avoidance of en-route terrain and obstacles. ONUR AIR should take into account the following factors when establishing minimum flight altitudes: (1) the accuracy with which the position of the aircraft can be determined; (2) the probable inaccuracies in the indications of the altimeters used; (3) the characteristics of the terrain, such as sudden changes in the elevation, along the routes or in the areas where operations are to be conducted; (4) the probability of encountering unfavorable meteorological conditions, such as severe turbulence and descending air currents; and (5) possible inaccuracies in aeronautical charts. 6

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 2. MINIMUM IFR 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 2. MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDE REQUIREMENTS: (continued) ONUR AIR should also consider: (1) corrections for temperature and pressure variations from standard values; (2) ATC requirements; and (3) any foreseeable contingencies along the planned route. During flight preparation, the en-route minimum altitudes must be established for all the route segments. If necessary, diversion procedures must be established for critical cases (engine failure, depressurization) taking into account the topography along the route. For engine failure; the net flight path as defined in the Aircraft Flight Manual must be considered. The net flight path is established considering a drift down procedure taking into account a given drift down speed associated with the expected aircraft weight, the remaining engine being set at MCT (Maximum Continuous Thrust), and considering the effect of: - Air conditioning, - Icing protection system if its use is expected, - Wind and temperature (weather forecast) Furthermore, Point(s) of No-Return (PNR) must be determined and the appropriate procedures established (drift down on course or turn back depending on the aircraft position), should be applied when required. When obstacle is a limit factor, the pilot should be reminded for correct drift-down procedure. Procedures are specified in the appropriate chapter of the FCOM (one engine inoperative). 7

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 2. 1. EN-ROUTE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 2. 1. EN-ROUTE En-route IFR flight levels or altitudes should be higher than the published Minimum En-route IFR altitude (MEA) indicated on en-route Jeppesen charts. The minimum safe en route altitude should, is the higher of the Minimum Off Route Altitude (MORA) and the published Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude (MOCA). Both minimum altitudes are indicated on en-route Jeppesen charts when they exist. In case of incomplete or lack of safety altitude information, obstacles and reference points have to be located on Operational Navigation Charts (ONC) or topographic maps, in order to ensure that the minimum altitude clears all reference points within 10 NM (18. 5 km) of the route centerline (regardless of route width) by 1000 ft (300 m) if the reference point is not higher than 5000 ft (1500 m) MSL or 2000 ft (600 m) if reference point is higher than 5000 ft MSL. If available and not limiting, the grid MORA may be used as minimum flight altitude. These minimum altitudes must be respected along the track with all engines operative unless a procedure has been approved to cope with depressurization. 8

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 2. 2. TERMINAL 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 2. 2. TERMINAL AREA Except during IFR approach or departure when on track with a published minimum altitude on Jeppesen airport charts the minimum altitude must not be lower than the Minimum sector Altitude (MSA). 8. 1. 1. 2. 3. MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDE REQUIREMENTS FOR ENGINE FAILURE • One engine inoperative: In case of one engine inoperative, the following minimum altitude requirements apply: - The net flight path must have a positive gradient at 1500 ft (450 m) above the aerodrome where the landing is assumed to be made after engine failure. - The gradient of the net flight path must have a positive gradient at an altitude of at least 1000 ft (300 m) above all terrain and obstructions along the route within 5 NM (9. 3 km) on either side of intended track. Or From the cruising altitude to the aerodrome where the landing can be made, the net flight path must clear vertically with a negative gradient by at least 2000 ft (600 m) all terrain and obstructions along the route within 5 NM (9. 3 km) on either side of the intended track. 9

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 3. FLIGHT PREPARATION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 3. FLIGHT PREPARATION – MINIMUM FLIGHT ALTITUDE DETERMINATION During flight preparation, the en-route minimum altitudes must be established for all the route segments. If necessary, diversion procedures must be established for critical cases (engine failure, depressurization) taking into account the topography along the route. For engine failure; the net flight path as defined in the aircraft Flight Manual must be considered. The net flight path is established considering a drift down procedure taking into account a given drift down speed associated with the expected aircraft weight, the remaining engine being set at MCT (Maximum Continuous Thrust), and considering the effect of: - Air conditioning, - Icing protection system if its use is expected - Wind and temperature (weather forecast) Furthermore, Point(s) of Non Return (PNR) must be determined and the appropriate procedures established (drift down on course or turn back depending on the aircraft position), when required. When obstacle limited, the pilot should be reminded for correct drift down procedure. Procedures are specified in the appropriate chapter of the FCOM (one engine inoperative). PER-OEI-GEN ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE PER-FPL-GEN-INT GENERAL (for Standard Fuel Planning) 10

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 4. MINIMUM FLIGHT 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 4. MINIMUM FLIGHT ALTITUDE CORRECTION Temperature correction: When the surface ambient temperature en route is well below the ISA value, minimum flight altitudes should be corrected as follows; Surface Temperature Correction to MOCA/MORA ISA -16°c to -30°C MOCA/MORA plus 10% ISA -31°c to -50°C MOCA/MORA plus 20% For more accurate altitude temperature correction data refer to FCOM "Operating Data" Chapter. PER-OPD-GEN 11

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE GENERAL : For performance purposes, all ONUR AIR aircraft are Class A (multi-engine turbojet powered aircraft with a maximum passenger configuration of more than 9 and a maximum take-off weight exceeding 5700 kg) • ONUR AIR shall ensure that, for determining compliance with the requirements, the approved performance data in the Aircraft Flight Manual is supplemented as necessary with other data acceptable to the Authority if the approved performance Data in the Aircraft Flight Manual is insufficient in respect of items such as: • Accounting for reasonably expected adverse operating conditions such as take-off and landing on contaminated runways; and • Consideration of engine failure in all flight phases. • ONUR AIR shall ensure that, for the wet and contaminated runway case, performance data determined in accordance with EASA PART 25 or equivalent acceptable to the Authority is used. All performance on wet or contaminated runways provided by Airbus Industry is determined with EASA PART 25. 12

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE TAKE-OFF • ONUR AIR shall ensure that the take-off weight does not exceed the maximum take-off weight specified in the Aircraft Flight Manual for the pressure altitude and the ambient temperature at the aerodrome at which the take-off is to be made. • ONUR AIR must meet the following requirements when determining the maximum permitted takeoff weight: • The accelerate-stop distance must not exceed the accelerate-stop distance available; • The take-off distance must not exceed the take-off distance available, with a distance not exceeding half of the take-off run available; • The take-off run must not exceed the take-off run available; • Compliance with this paragraph must be shown using a single value of V 1 for the rejected and continued take-off; and • On a wet or contaminated runway, the take-off weight must not exceed that permitted for a takeoff on a dry runway under the same conditions. • When showing compliance with sub-paragraphs above, ONUR AIR must take account of the following: • The pressure altitude at the aerodrome; 13

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE TAKE-OFF • The ambient temperature at the aerodrome; and ONUR AIR need not consider those obstacles which have a lateral distance grater than: • 300 m(1000 ft) if the pilot is able to maintain the required navigational accuracy through the obstacle accountability area; or 600 m(2000 ft) , for flights under all other conditions. • When showing compliance with sub-paragraphs above for those cases where the intended flight path does require track changes of more than 15°, an operator need not consider those obstacles which have a lateral distance greater than: • 600 m(2000 ft) , if the pilot is able to maintain the required navigational accuracy through the obstacle accountability area; or • 900 m(3000 ft) for flights under all other conditions. • ONUR AIR shall establish contingency procedures to satisfy the requirements of SHT -OPS and to provide a safe route, avoiding obstacles, to enable the aircraft to either comply with the enroute requirements, or land at either the aerodrome of departure or at take-off alternate aerodrome. 14

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE EN-ROUTE – ONE ENGINE INOP • ONUR AIR shall ensure that the one engine inoperative en-route net flight path data shown in the Aircraft Flight Manual, appropriate to the meteorological conditions expected for the flight, complies with either sub-paragraphs at all points along the route. The net flight path must have a positive gradient at 1500 ft above the aerodrome where the landing is assumed to be made after engine failure. In meteorological conditions requiring the operation of ice protection systems, the effect of their use on the net flight path must be taken into account. • The gradient of the net flight path must be positive at least 1000 ft above all terrain and obstructions along the route within 9. 3 km (5 NM) on either side of the intended track. 15

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE EN-ROUTE – ONE ENGINE INOP The net flight path must permit the aircraft to continue flight from the cruising altitude to an aerodrome where a landing can be made in accordance with the net flight path clearing vertically, by at least 2000 ft, all terrain and obstructions along the route within 9. 3 km (5 NM) on either side of the intended track in accordance with sub-paragraphs (1) to (4) below: 1. The engine is assumed to fail at the most critical point along the route; 2. Account is taken of the effects of winds on the flight path; 3. Fuel jettisoning (as applicable) is permitted to an extent consistent with reaching the aerodrome with the required fuel reserves, if a safe procedure is used; and 4. The aerodrome where the aircraft is assumed to land after engine failure must meet the following criteria: • The performance requirements at the expected landing weight are met; and • Weather reports or forecasts, or any combination thereof, and field condition reports indicate that a safe landing can be accomplished at the estimated time of landing. 16

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE LANDING – DESTINATION AND ALTERNATE AERODROMES i) PIC shall ensure that the landing weight of the aircraft determined in accordance with SHT-OPS 1 Item 108 does not exceed the maximum landing weight specified for the altitude and the ambient temperature expected for the estimated time of landing at the destination and alternate aerodrome. ii) For instrument approaches with a missed approach gradient greater than 2, 5 % an operator shall verify that the expected landing mass of the aeroplane allows a missed approach with a climb gradient equal to or greater than the applicable missed approach gradient in the one-engine inoperative missed approach configuration and speed (see applicable requirements on certification of large aeroplanes). The use of an alternative method must be approved by the Authority. iii) For instrument approaches with decision heights below 200 ft, PIC must verify that the approach weight of the aeroplane, taking into account the take-off weight and the fuel expected to be consumed in flight, allows a missed approach gradient of climb, with the critical engine failed and with the speed and configuration used for go-around of at least 2. 5%, or the published gradient, whichever is the greater. The use of an alternative method must be approved by the Authority. 17

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE DISPATCH CONSIDERATION TO RELEASE THE FLIGHTS FOR THE COMMANDER 1. PIC shall ensure that the landing mass of the aeroplane determined for the estimated time of landing at the destination aerodrome and at any alternate aerodrome allows a full stop landing from 50 ft above threshold: a. For turbo-jet powered aeroplanes, within 60% of the landing distance available; or b. For steep approach procedures the Authority may approve the use of landing distance data factored in accordance with subparagraphs 1(a) above as appropriate, based on a screen height of less than 50 ft, but not less than 35 ft. c. When showing compliance with subparagraphs 1(a) above, the Authority may exceptionally approve, when satisfied that there is a need, the use of short landing operations with any other supplementary conditions that the Authority considers necessary in order to ensure an acceptable level of safety in particular case. 2. When showing compliance with subparagraph (1) above, PIC must take account of the following: a. The altitude at the aerodrome; b. Not more than 50% of the head-wind component or not less than 150% of the tailwind component; and c. The runway slope in the direction of landing if greater than +/-2%. 18

8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE (continued) DISPATCH CONSIDERATION TO RELEASE THE FLIGHTS FOR 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE (continued) DISPATCH CONSIDERATION TO RELEASE THE FLIGHTS FOR THE COMMANDER 3. When showing compliance with subparagraph (1) above, it must be assumed that: a. The aeroplane will land on the most favorable runway, in still air; and b. The aeroplane will land on the runway most likely to be assigned considering the probable with speed and direction and the ground handling characteristics of the aeroplane, and considering other conditions such as landing aids and terrain. 4. If PIC is unable to comply with subparagraph 3(a) above for a destination aerodrome having a single runway where a landing depends upon a specified wind component, an aeroplane may be dispatched if 2 alternate aerodromes are designed which permit full compliance with subparagraphs 1, 2 and 3. Before commencing an approach to land at the destination aerodrome the commander must satisfy himself/herself that a landing can be made in subparagraphs Landing. Destination and Alternate Aerodromes i, iii and subparagraphs 1, 2 above. 5. If PIC is unable to comply with subparagraph 3(b) above for the destination aerodrome, the aeroplane may be dispatched if an alternate aerodrome is designed which permits full compliance with subparagraphs 1, 2 and 3. The pilot must check before departure that the available runway length at destination is at least equal to the required landing distance for the forecasted landing weight. In case of aircraft system failure affecting landing distance known before the dispatch, the available runway length must be at least equal to the required landing distance with failure, i. e. the required landing distance without failure multiplied by the coefficient given in the Flight Manual or the MEL. 19

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE LANDING – WET AND CONTAMINATED RUNWAYS PIC shall ensure that when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or a combination thereof, indicate that the runway at the estimated time of arrival may be wet, the landing distance available is at least 115% of the required landing distance on dry runway as determined above. PIC shall ensure that when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or a combination thereof, indicate that the runway at the estimated time of arrival may be contaminated, the landing distance available must be at least the landing distance determined in accordance with sub-paragraph above, or at least 115% of the landing distance determined in accordance with approved contaminated landing distance data or equivalent, accepted by the Authority, whichever is greater. (Refer to FCOM) A landing distance on a wet runway shorter than that required by sub-paragraphs above, but not less than that required for landing on dry runway, may be used if the Aircraft Flight Manual includes specific additional information about landing distances on wet runways. (Refer to FCOM) A landing distance on a specially prepared contaminated runway shorter than that required by subparagraphs above, but not less than that required for landing on dry runway, may be used if the Aircraft Flight Manual includes specific additional information about landing distances on contaminated runways. (Refer to FCOM) When showing compliance with sub-paragraphs above, the criteria for landing on dry runway shall be applied accordingly except that the 60% margin shall not be applied to subparagraphs above. 20

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE IN-FLIGHT Before commencing an approach to land, the commander must satisfy himself/herself that, according to information available to him/her, the weather at the aerodrome and the condition of the runway intended to be used should not prevent a safe approach, landing or missed approach, having regard to the performance information contained in the Operations Manual. The flight crew should use the Landing Distances published in the QRH as the reference for In. Flight landing performance computation. The In-Flight Landing Distances reflect the performance achievable in a typical operational landing without margin, assuming realistic airborne phase from threshold to touchdown and deceleration on ground to full stop. The In-Flight Landing Distances consider: - Touchdown within the touchdown zone - Maximum manual braking initiated immediately after main gear touchdown - Normal system delays in braking activation in case of auto brake - Prompt selection of max reverse thrust, maintained to 70 kt, and idle thrust to full stop (when credit is used) - Antiskid and all spoilers operative. . 21

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 1. 5. AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE FACTORED LANDING DISTANCE The definition of the In-Flight Landing Distance is not deemed to include margins. It assumes a stabilized approach in outside conditions consistent with the computation assumptions. In order to cover the variability in flying techniques and unexpected conditions at landing, the flight crew should apply an appropriate margin to the in-flight landing distances (either determined with or without failure). ONUR AIR recommendation is to add a margin of 15% to the in-flight landing distance. Under exceptional circumstances, the flight crew may disregard this margin. Some MEL items affect the landing distance. For these items, the MEL provides a coefficient that the flight crew must apply on top of the In-Flight Landing Distance. Even in the case of an in-flight failure, the flight crew must apply the MEL coefficients on top of the In- Flight Landing Distance. GENERAL FORMULA OF THE LANDING DISTANCE ASSESSMENT Taking the above into consideration, the flight crew should determine the landing distance (either with or without failure) following the below general formula: Landing Distance= In-Flight Landing Distance x Safety Margin x MEL/CDL Coefficient (if any) 22

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING THE USABILITY OF AERODROMES 8. 1. 2. 1. GENERAL An aerodrome is adequate if. - Landing and over flying permission has been obtained. - It can be reached while respecting the rules of the air. - The available runway length is sufficient to meet aircraft performance requirements (required takeoff and landing distance). - The flight crew members have the required qualification, experience and documentation including up-to-date approach and aerodrome charts for each pilot. (For aerodrome documentation refer to Jeppesen Airway Manual). - Rescue and fire fighting aerodrome category is compatible with the aircraft. (Refer to ICAO Doc 9137 -AN/898 - Part 1 : Airport Services Manual - Rescue and fire fighting). Following table is to be used as guideline only: 23

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING THE USABILITY OF AERODROMES 8. 1. 2. 1. GENERAL - If rescue and fire fighting category is not compatible with the aircraft type, OCC Department makes application to airport authority to upgrade the rescue and fire fighting category of the aerodrome. Also OCC Department keeps records of the application and upgrade confirmation messages in the offices. - The pavement strength is compatible with aircraft weight (Refer to Jeppesen Airway Manual – Airport directory or ICAO Annex 14, Attachment b : Aerodrome Design Manual - Pavement) or derogation is obtained from airport authority. - At the expected time of use; The aerodrome is available and equipped with necessary auxiliary services, such as: Air Traffic Services, communications, weather reporting and emergency services. - At the expected time of use; navaids, approach aids, lighting needed for the approved approaches are available - At the expected time of use; the aerodrome is equipped with the necessary ramp handling facilities; refuel, tow bar, step, cargo loading, ground power unit, air starter, catering water services, toilet services. - For international flight, police, custom and immigration services are available at the expected time of use. 24

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING THE USABILITY OF AERODROMES 8. 1. 2. 1. GENERAL - An aerodrome is suitable if: - The aerodrome is adequate for the operation and, - The meteorological conditions satisfy the planning minima given here after for the expected landing time and meet the approach. Runway and aircraft capabilities and crew qualifications. - Operational Flight Plan shall consist of and specify any required alternate aerodrome(s), including En-Route alternates for flight duration exceeding 1 hour flight time. 25

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 2. 1. PLANNING 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 2. 1. PLANNING MINIMA FOR TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE AERODROMES. A take-off alternate must be selected if a landing at the aerodrome of departure is not possible due to weather conditions which are below landing minima (considering one engine out). The take-off alternate shall be located within 1 hour flight time/one engine out cruising speed. Weather conditions required for a take-off alternate shall be such to allow a one engine out landing, meeting at least CAT I minima 8. 1. 2. 2. 2. PLANNING MINIMA FOR DESTINATION AND EN-ROUTE ALTERNATE AERODROMES A destination aerodrome and/or destination alternate aerodrome(s) shall only be selected when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts - or any combination thereof - indicate that, during a period commencing 1 hour before and ending 1 hour after the ETA at that aerodrome. 26

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 2. 2. PLANNING 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 2. 2. PLANNING MINIMA FOR DESTINATION AND EN-ROUTE ALTERNATE AERODROMES An adequate aerodrome may be suitable for destination or en-route alternate if the weather reports or forecasts indicate that, during a period commencing 1 hour before and ending 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome, the weather conditions will be at or above the planning minima as follow: Note : The planning minima for ETOPS en-route alternate aerodromes is defined in the ETOPS Chapter 8. 5. 27

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 3. SELECTION OF 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 3. SELECTION OF AERODROMES 8. 1. 2. 3. 1. DESTINATION AERODROMES An aerodrome may be selected as destination for an operation, if it is adequate for this operation 8. 1. 2. 3. 2. TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE AERODROME When performance or meteorological conditions preclude (not posible) return to departure aerodrome, a take-off alternate aerodrome must be selected. This take-off alternate shall be suitable and located within. FOR TWO ENGINE AIRCRAFT : - Either, one hour still air flight time at the one-engine-inoperative cruising speed (max. continuous power speed) in ISA conditions based on the actual take-off weight; - Or the granted ETOPS diversion time (see ETOPS Chapter 8. 5. ) limited to two flight hours and if authorized for ETOPS. TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE DISTANCE : The following table gives a conservative figure for each aircraft type based on the maximum take-off weight: 28

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 3. 3. DESTINATION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 3. 3. DESTINATION ALTERNATE AERODROME At least one suitable destination alternate aerodrome must be selected for each IFR flight unless: - Either, the planned duration of the flight from take-off to landing does not exceed 6 hours; and two separate runways are available at the destination and the meteorological conditions will support a VMC approach and landing from the minimum sector altitude for one hour before and one hour after the aircraft's estimated time of arrival (ETA). NOTE : Runways on the same aerodrome are considered to be separate runways when: - They are separate landing surfaces which may overlay or cross such that if one of the runways is blocked, it will not prevent the planned type of operations on the other runway; and - Each of the landing surfaces has a separate approach procedure based on a separate aid. Or - the destination is isolated and no suitable destination alternate aerodrome exists (island hold). In this case the alternate fuel is replaced by the fuel necessary to fly for two hours at cruise speed (refer to fuel planning - Chapter 8. ). * TWO SUITABLE DESTINATION ALTERNATES MUST BE SELECTED WHEN: The appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination indicate that from one hour before to one hour after the aircraft's ETA the weather conditions will be below the applicable planning minima; or No meteorological information is available. 29

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 4. AERODROME CATEGORIES 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 4. AERODROME CATEGORIES - Category A aerodromes satisfy all of the following requirements: . An approved instrument approach procedure; . At least one runway with no performance limited procedure for take-off and/or landing; . At least one runway not shorter than 7500 feet. At least one runway not narrower than 45 m. . Approach climb gradient not higher than %2, 5. Published circling minima not higher than 1000 ft. AAL(Above Aerodrome Level); and. Night operations capability. - Category B aerodromes do not satisfy the Category a requirements or require extra considerations such as: . Non-standard approach aids and/or approach patterns; or. Unusual local weather conditions; or. Unusual characteristics or performance limitations; . Any other relevant considerations including obstructions, physical layout, mlighting etc. - Category C aerodromes require additional considerations to Category B aerodromes. 30

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 5. USE OF 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 2. 5. USE OF AERODROME CATEGORY B AND C USE OF AERODROME CATEGORY B: Prior to operating to a Category B aerodrome, the commander should be briefed, or self briefed by means of programmed instruction, on the Category b aerodrome(s) concerned and should certify that he has carried out these instructions. Please refer to 5. 2. 3. 1. ( For list of CAT B Aerodromes, please see OM PART C ) USE OF AERODROME CATEGORY C : Prior to operating to a Category C aerodrome, the commander should be briefed and visit the aerodrome as an observer and/or undertake instruction in a flight simulator approved by the Authority for that purpose. ( For list of CAT C Aerodromes, please see OM PART C. ) 31

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. METHODS FOR THE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AIRPORT OPERATING MINIMA FOR IFR FLIGHTS 8. 1. 3. 1. CONCEPT OF MINIMA: The term minima refers to the aerodrome weather conditions and defines the minimum visibility (horizontal and vertical) prescribed for taking off or landing a civil aircraft. 32

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. METHODS FOR THE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AIRPORT OPERATING MINIMA FOR IFR FLIGHTS 8. 1. 3. 1. CONCEPT OF MINIMA: Different concepts of minima: Ø Aircraft capability given in the Aircraft Flight manual, defines the lowest minima for which the aircraft has been certified. Ø Aerodrome operating minima noted on the aerodrome chart, established in accordance with the national authorities of the aerodrome. Ø Operator's minima approved by the national authority of the operator. They are the lowest minima that the operator is allowed to use on a specified aerodrome. They cannot be lower than the aircraft capability and the minima published on the aerodrome chart except when specifically approved by the national authority of the aerodrome. These operator's minima are also called "aerodrome operating minima" by the operator (but with a different meaning than in the previous case). Ø Crew minima are the minima that the crew is authorized to operate. They are based upon the qualification of the flight crew members. 33

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 2 APPLICATION OF 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 2 APPLICATION OF MINIMA 1. Except in emergencies, strict adherence to the aerodrome operating minima as set forth in the following paragraphs is mandatory 2. It should be clearly understood that regulations such as the following can not cater for every possible situation which may arise, and pilots are therefore expected to use their best judgment in every situation, maintaining the highest possible standard of safety whilst complying, whenever possible, with the rules outlined herein. 3. Each minimum published on the Jeppesen charts is the lowest permissible for the particular type of operation; no reduction below the published values is authorized. 4. Whenever any requirement of the OM governing the application of a published minimum (e. g. availability of ground facilities or airborne equipment components, crosswind limitation, crew qualification) cannot be met, the published minima shall be increased accordingly. 34

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 3. AIRPORT OPERATING 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 3. AIRPORT OPERATING MINIMA As a general rule the aerodrome operating minima are the minima indicated on the Jeppesen Approach charts. However, at the commander's discretion, if other factors indicate that the operation cannot be conducted with the required standard of safety the selected minima can be higher than the allowed operating minima. Notam may affect minima. For all weather operations refer to Chapter 8. 4 NOTE: The Flight Crew shall not authorize aerodrome operating landing minima below 800 meters visibility unless RVR information is provided for aircraft landing operations. NOTE: The Flight Crew will not continue an instrument approach to land at any airport beyond a point at which the limits of the operating minima specified for the approach in use would be infringed. NOTE: The Flight Crew will not continue an instrument beyond a designated point in the approach unless reported visibility, weather conditions or controlling RVR are equal to or above those specified for the approach in use. 35

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 4. TAKE-OFF OPERATING 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 4. TAKE-OFF OPERATING MINIMA • The take-off minima’s shown in the following Tables according to aircraft types, will be used as a basic for ONUR AIR operations. Additionally the following procedures will also be taken into account: A take-off must not commence unless: - The visibility or RVR is equal or better than the take-off visibility or RVR limits. - The weather conditions (ceiling and visibility) at the departure airport are equal or better than the applicable minima for landing at that airport or at a suitable take-off alternate as defined in planning minima paragraph. When no reported meteorological visibility or RVR is available, the commander may determine that sufficient visual reference exists to permit a safe take-off. When the reported meteorological visibility is below that required for take-off and RVR not reported, a take-off may only be commenced if the commander can determine that the actual visibility along the take off runway is equal or better than the required minimum. For all ONUR AIR aircraft, performance is such that in the event of a power loss at any point during take-off, the aircraft can either stop or continue to a height of 1500 feet above the aerodrome while clearing all obstacles by the required margins. Therefore the take-off minima may not be less than those given in Table 1, below according to aircraft types. 36

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 4. TAKE-OFF OPERATING 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 4. TAKE-OFF OPERATING MINIMA (1) The higher values apply to Category D aeroplanes. (2) For night operation, at least runway edge and runway end lights are required. (3) The reported RVR/Visibility representative of the initial part of the take-off run may be replaced by pilot assessment. (4) The required RVR value must be achieved for all of the relevant RVR reporting points except as stated in (3) above. 37

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 4. TAKE-OFF OPERATING 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 4. TAKE-OFF OPERATING MINIMA (Jeppesen ATC EU-OPS 1 AERODROME OPERATING MINIMUMS (AOM) 6 TAKE-OFF MINIMUMS (EU-OPS 1) Page 603) 1 For RVR/VIS below 400 m Low Visibility Procedure must be in use. 2 The reported RVR/VIS of the initial part of take-off run can be replaced by pilot assessment. 3 For additional information about Approved Operators refer to the description below this table. 4 The required RVR value must be achieved for all relevant RVR reporting points except the initial part of take-off run. 5 For night operations at least RL and runway end lights are required. Approved Operators: a. Subject to the approval of the Authority and provided the requirements in paragraphs 1. to 5. below have been met, an operator may reduce the take-off minimum to 125 m/150 m when: 1. Low Visibility Procedures are in force, 2. High intensity CL spaced 15 m or less and HIRL spaced 60 m or less are in operation, 3. Crews have satisfactorily completed training in a simulator approved for this procedure, 4. A 90 m visual segment is available from the cockpit at the start of the take-off run, 5. The required RVR value has been achieved for all of the relevant RVR reporting points. b. Subject to approval of the Authority, an operator of an aircraft using an approved lateral guidance system or an approved HUD/HUDLS for take-off may reduce the take-off minimum to not lower than RVR 75 m provided runway 38 protection and facilities equivalent to Category III landing operations are available.

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. APPROACH OPERATION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. APPROACH OPERATION MINIMA For approach, aircraft are classified in Categories: A, B, C, D, E. These categories are function of the indicated air speed at the threshold (VAT) in landing configuration at the maximum certificated landing weight. VAT : 1. 3 Vso (stalling speed) or VAT = 1. 23 Vsig (V Stall in Ground Effect) (fly-by-wire aircraft). TR 36 39

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: The system minima (weather conditions function of the approach aid) for "Non Precision Approach" shall not be lower than the Minimum descent Height (MDH) value given in table 2 below: SRA: Surveillance Radar Approach VDF: Very high frequency direction-Heading station (finding) 40

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: MINIMUM DESCENT HEIGHT (MDH): Non-precision approach procedures are based on the use of ILS without glide slope (LLZ only), VOR/DME, NDB/DME, SRA, RNAV or GPS. The MDH on a non-precision approach shall not be less than the highest of : - The obstacle clearance height (OCH) for the category of aircraft; - The system minimum, as contained in Table 2 or - Any State minima if applicable. VISUAL REFERENCE : No pilot may continue an approach below Minimum Descent Height (MDH) unless at least one of the following visual references for the intended runway is distinctly visible to, and identifiable by the pilot: - Elements of the approach light system; - The threshold, or its markings, lights or identification lights; - The visual glide slope indicator(s); - The touchdown zone, zone markings or zone lights; - The runway edge lights; or - Other visual references accepted by the Authority. 41

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: REQUIRED RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR): The minimum RVR or a non-precision approach depends on the MDH and on the approach lighting and runway lighting/marking available as shown in Tables 3, below. For night operations at least runway edge, threshold and runway end lights must be illuminated. Ref : SHT-OPS 1 Appendix 9 Table 5. If table which is presented at reference is different than above table, most limited values will be used during operation. 42

Jeppesen ATC EU-OPS 1 AERODROME OPERATING MINIMUMS (AOM) 8 DETERMINATION OF RVR/CMV FOR CAT Jeppesen ATC EU-OPS 1 AERODROME OPERATING MINIMUMS (AOM) 8 DETERMINATION OF RVR/CMV FOR CAT I PRECISION, APV AND NON-PRECISION APPROACHES (EUOPS 1) APPROACH LIGHT SYSTEMS The values in Table 6 are derived from the following formula: Required RVR/VIS(m) = [(DH or MDH(ft) x 0. 3048)/ tan α] – length of approach lights (m) The formula can also be used when calculating RVR values for steeper approaches angles (α) with the approval of the authority. 43

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: 44

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: CONSTANT ANGLE APPROACH PROFILE Flight crews will utilize a constant-angle descent down to a visual point (VDP). This method will be used when adequate distance to touchdown information is available. Adequate Distance to Touchdown : For the purpose of establishing whether adequate distance to touchdown information is available, the following sources can be utilized. A. DME information at the airfield that a pilot can utilize to establish his distance from touchdown whilst on the final approach track having passed the Final approach Fix (FAF). B. FMGS/FMS distance to touchdown provided the accuracy is positive or GPS primary is annunciated in the PROG page. C. A radio beacon such as VOR or NDB is within 5 NM from touch down and it is located on the final approach track. Note: The crew will ONLY consider a step-down descent to MDA (maintain MDA until MAP) when there is insufficient distance to touchdown information (e. g. NDB approach without DME information). The advantages of flying a constant-angle approach profile are: - Provides a more stabilized flight path, - Reduces workload, and, - Reduces the risk of error. 45

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: FLIGHT PATH ANGLE (FPA) The basic calculation determines the height required to be lost over the distance between the FAF and the Threshold. From this figure a FPA is deduced and a descent table formulated. Procedure: 1. Identify distance between FAF and Threshold, 2. Identify ‘Height to loose‘ by subtracting ( Threshold Elev+ 50 ft ) from FAF Altitude, 3. Calculate the required Descent Gradient by using the following formula: Altitude Gradient % = ________ (Distance x 60) 4. Calculate the required Flight Path Angle ( FPA) by using the following formula: Flight Path Angle (FPA) = Gradient % x 0, 57° 5. If the required Flight Path Angle is : • FPA is ≤ 3° then use 3° • FPA > 3° then round-down FPA to nearest decimal point e. g. FPA = 3. 36° then use 3. 3° FPA Calculate profile as per procedure listed above under ‘ Descent Gradient only published on Approach Chart. 46

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 1. NON-PRECISION APPROACHES SYSTEM MINIMA: VISUAL DESCENT POINT ( VDP) The VDP is the location, at the MDA, where the aircraft can be flown on approximately a threedegree glide path to the runway. The VDP is the last point from which a stabilized approach to landing can be conducted. Regulations require that the aircraft not descent below MDA without the required visual reference. If the aircraft is descending and, a go-around is required, the aircraft will lose some altitude from the point of initiating the go-around procedure to achieving a position climb profile. Therefore, an altitude margin must be added to the MDA when the crew identifies the VDP. This will ensure that the aircraft does not descent below MDA in the event of a go-around at the VDP. Procedure: 1. Identıfy MDH for runway intended. 2. Calculate the VDP by using the following formula : MDH VDP = _______ nm (FPA x 100) 47

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 2. PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 2. PRECISION APPROACHES CAT I CATEGORY I : For permission approach purposes, a Category I operation is one using ILS with : - A runway visual range ( RVR ) not less than 550 meters, and - A decision height ( DH ) not lower than 200 feet. Note: PAR approach is not authorized. THE DH SHALL BE NOT LESS THAN THE HIGHEST OF : - The OCH for the category of aircraft; - The minimum DH in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), if stated; - The minimum height to which the precision approach aid can be used without the required visual reference; - 200 feet; or - Any State minima if applicable. 48

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 2. PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 2. PRECISION APPROACHES CAT I VISUAL REFERENCE: No pilot may continue a precision approach Cat I below the DH unless at least one of the following visual references for the intended runway is distinctly visible to , and identifiable by the pilot: - Elements of the approach lighting system; - The threshold, or its markings, lights or identification lights; - The visual glide slope indicator(s); - The touchdown zone, zone markings or zone lights; or - The runway edge lights. 49

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 2. PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 2. PRECISION APPROACHES CAT I RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR): The minimum RVR is governed by the DH and the approach lighting and runway lighting/marking available as shown in Table 5 below. For night operations at least runway edge, threshold and runway end lights must be illuminated. NOTE : Approach Lighting SYS must consist of; Runway standard lighting, edge lights, thresholds lights, runway end lights and touch down zone lights with centerline lights in case of RVR 450 m. CMV: Converted Meteorological Visibility: A value (equivalent to an RVR) which is derived from the reported meteorological visibility by using particularly conversion factors. Jeppesen will publish all RVR values above 2000 m as CMV. FALS : Full Approach Light System barrette centerline IALS : Intermediate Approach Light System BALS : Basic Approach Light System more NALS : No Approach Light System - HIALS 720 m or more, distance coded centerline, - HIALS (420 m – 519 m), single source, barrette. - HIALS (210 m – 419 m), MIALS or ALS of 210 m or 50 - HIALS, MIALS or ALS less than 210 m or no approach

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 2. PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 2. PRECISION APPROACHES CAT I RVR (RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE) / CMV (Converted Meteorological Visibility): (Jeppesen) The lowest RVR values to be used by an operator for Lower Than Standard CAT I operations are shown in Table 11 below. (Jeppesen Air Traffic Control "Page 607" EU-OPS 1 AERODROME OPERATING MINIMUMS (AOM)) FALS : Full Approach Light System barrette centerline IALS : Intermediate Approach Light System BALS : Basic Approach Light System more NALS : No Approach Light System lights (JEPPESEN ATC) - HIALS 720 m or more, distance coded centerline, - HIALS (420 m – 519 m), single source, barrette. - HIALS (210 m – 419 m), MIALS or ALS of 210 m or - HIALS, MIALS or ALS less than 210 m or no approach 51

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 3. PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 3. PRECISION APPROACH CAT II CATEGORY II: A category II operation is a precision instrument approach and landing using ILS or MLS with: - a RVR of not less than 300 m, and - a Decision Height below 200 ft and not lower than 100 ft The DH shall be not lower than: . the minimum DH specified in the AFM, . the minimum height to which the precision approach aid can be used without the required visual reference. the OCH/OCL for the category of the aircraft. the DH to which the flight crew is authorized to operate 100 ft 52

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 3. PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 3. PRECISION APPROACH CAT II CATEGORY II: VISUAL REFERENCE: No pilot may continue a precision approach Cat II below the DH unless following visual references is attained and can be maintained. The visual reference must contain: - A segment of at least 3 consecutive lights being: . The center light of the approach lights, or. Touchdown zone lights, or. Runway center line lights, or. Runway edge lights, or. A combination of these - and a lateral element of the ground pattern: . an approach lighting crossbar, or. the landing threshold, or a barrette of the touchdown zone lighting. 53

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 3. PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 3. PRECISION APPROACH CAT II CATEGORY II: RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE: The minimum RVR is governed by the DH and the approach lighting and runway lighting/marking available as shown in Table 6. NOTES : (1) "Auto-coupled to below DH" means continued use of the automatic flight control system down to a height which is not greater than 80% of applicable DH (through minimum engagement height for automatic flight control system, DH to be applied may be affected). (2) 300 m may be used for a category D aircraft conducting an auto land. 54

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 4. PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 4. PRECISION APPROACH CAT III CATEGORY III: Category III is subdivided in category III A and in category III B. Category III operation is a precision instrument approach and landing using ILS or MLS (Microwave Landing System) with: Note 1: For aeroplanes certificated in accordance with CS-AWO 321 (b)3. or equivalent. Note 2: Flight control system redundancy is determined under CS-AWO by the minimum certificated decision height. Note 3: The fail-operational system referred to may consist of a fail-operational hybrid system. 55

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 4. PRECISION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 4. PRECISION APPROACH CAT III VISUAL REFERENCE : For Cat III A operations, no pilot may continue an approach below DH unless a visual reference containing at least 3 consecutive lights being: - The center line of the approach lights, or - The touchdown zone lights, or - The runway center line lights, or The runway edge lights, or - A combination of these is attained and can be maintained. For Cat III B operations, no pilot may continue an approach below the DH unless a visual reference containing at least one center line light is attained and can be maintained. 56

57 57

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 5. COMMENCEMENT 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 5. COMMENCEMENT AND CONTINUATION OF AN APPROACH An approach may be started irrespective of the RVR, but it may not be continued past the Outer Marker (on) or equivalent position unless the reported controlling RVR/visibility is equal to or better than the specified minimum. Once past the Outer Marker or equivalent position, the approach may be continued to the landing regardless of reported RVR/Visibility provided that the required visual reference has been established at the DH/MDH, and is maintained. Where no Outer Marker or equivalent position exists the pilot in command shall make the decision to continue or stop the approach before descending below 1000 feet above the aerodrome on the final approach segment. NOTE : The equivalent position can be established by means of a DME distance, a suitably located NDB or VOR, SRE(Surveillance Radar Element) or PAR fix or any other suitable fix that independently establishes the position of the aircraft. Near by RVR limitation, following requirements need to check before commencing approach - crew qualification requirements; - onboard equipment requirements; - ground based equipment requirements, 58

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 6 VISUAL 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 6 VISUAL MANEUVERING (CIRCLING) Visual maneuvering (circling) is the term used to describe the visual phase of an instrument approach required to position an aircraft for landing on a runway which is not suitably located for a straight-in approach. The following standards should apply for establishing circling minima for operations: The MDH for circling operation should not be lower than the highest of: - the published circling OCH for the aeroplane category; - the minimum circling height derived from Table 8; or - the DH/MDH of the preceding instrument approach procedure; The MDA for circling should be calculated by adding the published aerodrome elevation to the MDH and the minimum visibility for circling should be the highest of: - the circling visibility for the aeroplane category, if published; - the minimum visibility derived from Table 8; or - the RVR/CMV derived for the preceding instrument approach procedure. 59

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 7. VISUAL 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 7. VISUAL APPROACH - A visual approach is an approach wherein an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, operating clear of clouds with at least 5000 meters of flight visibility and having received air traffic control authorization, may deviate from the prescribed approach procedure and proceed to an airport by visual reference to the surface. - Visual approaches are not permitted unless the reported weather conditions at the airfield are equal to, or better than the minima prescribed in the table below: If no circling minima is specified, then the cloud ceiling must be above the Minimum Safe Altitude and the reported visibility at least 5000 meters. AAL: Above Aerodrome Level 60

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 8. EFFECT 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 8. EFFECT OF FAILED OR DOWNGRADED GROUND EQUIPMENT These instructions are intended for pre-flight and pre-approach. It is not expected however that the commander would consult such instructions after passing the Outer Marker or equivalent position. If ground aids failure announced on final approach, the approach could be continued at the commander's discretion. If, however, failures are announced before final, their effect on the approach should be considered as described in Table 9, and the approach may have to be stopped 9 to allow review. CONDITIONS APPLICABLE TO THE TABLE 9 NOTE 1: . Multiple failures of runway lights other than indicated in Table 9 are not acceptable. Deficiencies of approach and runway lights are treated separately. Category II or III operations - A combination of deficiencies in runway lights and RVR assessment equipment is not allowed. . Failures other than ILS affect RVR only and not DH. NOTE 2: . "No DH" operations (CAT IIIB operations) - An operator should ensure that, for aircraft authorized to conduct "no DH" operations with the lowest RVR limitations, the following applies in addition to the content of the Table 9. - RVR. At least one RVR value must be available at the airport - Runway lights: . No runway edge lights, or no center lights - Day only min RVR 200 m (Night not allowed). No TDZ lights - No restrictions 61. No standby power to runway lights - day only RVR 200 m(Night not allowed)

Table 9 Jeppesen ATC 13 FAILED OR DOWNGRADED EQUIPMENT (EU-OPS 1) 62 Table 9 Jeppesen ATC 13 FAILED OR DOWNGRADED EQUIPMENT (EU-OPS 1) 62

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 9. AIRPORT 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 3. 5. 9. AIRPORT OPERATING MINIMA FOR COMMANDERS WITH INSUFFICIENT EXPERIENCE ON TYPE Commanders with less than 100 hrs. or 40 sectors as PIC on the aeroplane type must add to CATII and CATIII RVR an increment of 100 m, unless he has been previously qualified for CATIII operations with a JAA operator. 8. 1. 4. EN- ROUTE OPERATING MINIMA FOR VFR FLIGHTS JEPPESEN visual minimas will be. 8. 1. 5. PRESENTATION AND APPLICATION OF AERODROME AND EN-ROUTE OPERATING MINIMA Refer to JEPPESEN Airway Manual : - ‘’ INTRODUCTION ‘’ chapter for presentation of aerodrome and enroute operating minima. - ‘’ TERMINAL ‘’ chapter for application of aerodrome operating minima. - ‘’ ENROUTE ‘’ charts for application of enroute operating minima. 63

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 5. 1. ENROUTE METEOROLOGICAL 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 5. 1. ENROUTE METEOROLOGICAL DATA Meteorological charts are issued four times a day at fixed intervals 00: 00, 06: 00, 12: 00 and 18: 00 UTC and are normally available at least 9 hours before such times. WIND CHARTS Usually the following wind charts are available and shall be used to determine the wind en-route and to the alternate(s): SIGNIFICANT WEATHER CHARTS The usually cover two layers, between FL 100 - FL 250 and FL 250 - FL 450 Such charts may show, as appropriate to the flight, significant en-route weather phenomena such as: . Thunderstorms, . Tropical cyclones, . Severe squalls, . Moderate or Severe Turbulence, . Type of clouds - particularly cumulonimbus type clouds, . Surface position of convergence zones, . Surface position of frontal systems, . Tropopause height, . Jet streams, . Information on the location and times of volcanic eruptions. These charts shall be used to determine hazardous WX conditions en-route and to check route 64 planning.

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 5. 2. AIRPORT METEOROLOGICAL 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 5. 2. AIRPORT METEOROLOGICAL DATA METARS and TAFS are produced by airport met, offices and used by commanders to decide whether actual/forecast conditions would allow safe landing within the permitted aerodrome operating minima. METARS (Aviation routine weather reports); are compiled half-hourly or hourly and usually contain the following coded information: . Type of report (METAR or SPECI/special report), . ICAO station identifier, . Time of observation. Wind direction, . Horizontal visibility, . RVR - if visibility is less than 1. 500 m, . Weather phenomena - if any -, . Clouds in six character groups (FEW 010) + CB/TCU (towering cumulus), temperature/dew point, . QNH, . Supplemental information-if applicable - such as recent weather, winds hear, . Trend: . BECMG (. . becoming. . ) indicates an expected permanent change, . TEMPO (. . temporarily. . ) indicates a temporary fluctuation of wx conditions, . PROB (. . probably. . ) indicates a probable (given in percent) change; . AT at a specific time, . FM from. . . , . TL until. . . , . CAVOK if visibility is 10 km or more, if no clouds are reported/expected below 5. 000 ft and no thunderstorm, or precipitation is reported, . SKC sky clear, . NSC no significant clouds, . NSW no significant weather TAF (Terminal/Aerodrome Forecast); is usually valid for a period of not less than 9 hrs. but no more than 24 hrs. Routine aerodrome forecasts valid for less than 12 hours should normally be issued every 3 hours, all others every 6 hours. The structure is similar to the METAR but lists forecast WX conditions. 65

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 7. DETERMINATION OF THE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 7. DETERMINATION OF THE QUANTITIES OF FUEL AND OIL 8. 1. 7. 1. FUEL At any time during a flight the Fuel On Board must be enough to deal with the planned operation and the possible deviations. The final authority and responsibility for fuel loads rests with the commander. 8. 1. 7. 1. 1. FUEL PLANNING The fuel planning must satisfy the following requirements: - TAXI FUEL: Fuel expected to be used prior to take-off, including engine start, taxi and APU consumption. Maximum ramp weight may not be exceeded with taxi fuel on board. - TRIP FUEL: Fuel for take-off and flight to destination, taking into account: . The known level of performance of the aircraft (performance factor). . Climb, cruise and descent at the planned speed and altitudes, and touchdown at the destination airfield. . The meteorological conditions forecast. . Expected ATC routings and anticipated delays. . An instrument approach and landing at the destination runway. 66

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 7. DETERMINATION OF THE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 7. DETERMINATION OF THE QUANTITIES OF FUEL AND OIL 8. 1. 7. 1. 1. FUEL PLANNING CONTINGENCY FUEL: Contingency fuel is to cover unforeseen contingencies, such as unfavorable variations in cruise altitude or track, deviations from the forecast wind values or any other unforeseen adverse circumstances. - Fuel amounting not less than 5% of the planning trip fuel for domestic flights or 3% of the planning trip fuel for international flights accordingly SHT OPS Annex-4. (Please see page 8 -36. 1/arka resim) Location of the 3% ERA (En-Route Alternate) aerodrome for the purpose of reducing the contingency fuel to 3%. * An amount of fuel sufficient for 20 minutes flying time based upon the planned trip fuel consumption that a fuel consumption monitoring programmed for individual aircraft has been established and that valid data determined by means of such programmed for fuel calculation are used, or * The trip fuel calculation method is statistically deviation between actual consumption trip fuel and the trip fuel which is approved by the DGCA (For further details, look at the SHT-OPS 1, Edition 3, Fuel Policy) or, * An amount of fuel of not less than that which would be required to fly for 5 minutes at holding speed at 1500 ft (450 m) above the destination airport in standard conditions, if an approved programmed has been established to monitor the fuel consumption on each individual route/aircraft 67 contingency fuel for that route/aircraft combination

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 7. DETERMINATION OF THE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 7. DETERMINATION OF THE QUANTITIES OF FUEL AND OIL 8. 1. 7. 1. 1. FUEL PLANNING ALTERNATE FUEL: Fuel for flight to alternate airfield, taking into account: . The known level of performance of the aircraft (performance factor). . A missed approach at the destination airport. . The meteorological conditions forecast. . Climb at optimum climb speed, cruise at Long Range Cruise speed, descent to the alternate airport. . Approach and landing at alternate airport. . When two destination alternates are required, alternate fuel should be sufficient to proceed to the alternate which requires the greater amount of alternate fuel FINAL RESERVE FUEL: . Fuel to fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 1500 ft (450 m) above destination airport elevation in standard conditions, calculated with estimated weight on arrival at the alternate or the destination when no alternate is required. 68

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 7. DETERMINATION OF THE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 7. DETERMINATION OF THE QUANTITIES OF FUEL AND OIL 8. 1. 7. 1. 1. FUEL PLANNING EXTRA FUEL OR HOLDING FUEL : . Minimum additional fuel for ETOPS critical fuel scenario to cope with enroute engine failure or loss of pressurization (refer to 8. 05). . The quantity of fuel on board should be sufficient to permit deviation to enroute alternate in case of depressurization or engine failure. . The commander may decide to add fuel to this minimum quantity if he expects significant deviations from present flight planning or any holding purposes to be expected. But the increase of aircraft weight due to the extra fuel will decrease take-off and climb performance and will increase the fuel consumption (refer to "Fuel Transportation" paragraph hereafter). 8. 1. 7. 1. 2. FUEL TRANSPORTATION (TANKERING) For fuel tankering, use computer flight plan tankering section 8. 1. 7. 1. 3. DECISION POINT PROCEDURE When planning to a destination airport via an en-route decision point the fuel required is the greater of (a) or (b) below: The reclearance fuel planning is the greater of F 1 or F 2: F 1 = Taxi + Trip AB + 5% DB + BX + Hold + Extra Fuel F 2 = Taxi + Trip AE + 5% AE + EY + Hold + Extra Fuel A: Departure, B: Destination, D: Decision point, E: En-route alternate, X: Destination alternate, Y: En-route alternate’s alternate 69

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 7. DETERMINATION OF THE 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 7. DETERMINATION OF THE QUANTITIES OF FUEL AND OIL 8. 1. 7. 1. 4 EMERGENCY FUEL DECLARATION Commander must declare an emergency when the estimated fuel upon landing at the nearest suitable airport is expected to be less than the approved minimum quantity or 30 minutes, whichever is greater. 8. 1. 7. 2. OIL The minimum oil quantity requested for any flight is equal to the minimum quantity specify for a particular engine, plus the estimated oil consumption. The estimated oil consumption should cover the flight time the aircraft can be operated with the minimum quantity of fuel requested by the fuel planning plus 15 minutes. The hourly oil consumption is determined by the maintenance The minimum and maximum oil quantities and the maximum average estimated oil consumption (if no data from maintenance available) are indicated in FCOM "Standard Operating Procedure" chapter. 70

8. 1. 8. MASS AND BALANCE 8. 1. DEFINITIONS MANUFACTURER'S WEIGHT EMPTY (MWE): The 8. 1. 8. MASS AND BALANCE 8. 1. DEFINITIONS MANUFACTURER'S WEIGHT EMPTY (MWE): The weight of the structure, power plant, furnishings, systems and other items of the equipment that are considered an integral part of the aircraft. It is essentially a "dry" weight, including only those fluids contained in closed systems (e. g. hydraulic fluid). OPERATIONAL WEIGHT EMPTY (OWE): The manufacturer's weight empty plus the operator's item i. e. the flight and cabin crew and their baggage, unusable fuel, engine oil, emergency equipment, seats documents. • Operational Empty Weight (OEW) : The manufacturer’s weight empty plus the operator’s items, i. e. the flight and cabin crew and their baggage, unusable fuel, engine oil, emergency equipment, toilet chemicals and fluids, galley structure, catering equipment, seats, documents, etc…(Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance) DRY OPERATING WEIGHT (DOW): It is the weight of aircraft in operating configuration. It is obtained by addition of the basic weight , crew member , fly away-kit and pantry load. • Dry Operating Weight (DOW) : The total weight of an aircraft ready for a specific type of operation excluding all usable fuel and traffic load. Operational Empty Weight plus items specific to the type of flight, i. e. catering, newspapers, pantry equipment, etc…(Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance) ZERO FUEL WEIGHT (ZFW): The weight obtained by addition of the Total Traffic Load and the Operational Weight Empty. Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW) : The weight obtained by addition of the total traffic load (payload including cargo loads, passengers and passenger’s bags) and the dry operating weight. (Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance) Landing Weight (LW) : The weight at landing at the destination airport. It is equal to the Zero Fuel Weight plus the fuel reserves. Takeoff Weight (TOW): The weight at takeoff at the departure airport. It is equal to the landing weight at destination plus the trip fuel (fuel needed for the trip), or to the zero fuel weight plus the takeoff fuel (fuel needed at the brake release point including reserves). (Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance) DRY OPERATING INDEX (DOI) - The applicable index on the aeroplane index system corresponding to the specific DOW. TAKE-OFF FUEL: The weight of the fuel on board at take-off. OPERATING WEIGHT (OW): The weight obtained by addition of the Operational weight empty and the take-off fuel. TOTAL TRAFFIC LOAD: The weight of the payload including cargo loads, passengers and passengers bags. TAKE-OFF WEIGHT (TOW): The weight at take off. It is equal to the addition of the Zero Fuel Weight and Take 71 off Fuel.

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 2. LOADING RESPONSIBILITY 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 2. LOADING RESPONSIBILITY To comply with aircraft weights and CG certified limitations indicated in the flight manual for all phases of the flight, weight and CG must be checked within prescribed limits before the flight. Aircraft weights and CG are calculated using a "Load and Trim Sheet" form or a "Computerized Load and Trim Sheet". The correct loading of the aircraft is the legal responsibility of the commander. In practice, the actual loading of the aircraft and load and trim sheet preparation is completed by ground handling operations personnel. When necessary cockpit crew can complete load & trim sheet “ALL NETS ARE FITTED AND CONTROLLED” is written and signed by ground handling operations personnel on load and trim sheet. The commander must assure the load is distributed in a correct and safe manner and that it is properly stowed and secured. 72

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 2. LOADING RESPONSIBILITY 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 2. LOADING RESPONSIBILITY The following assumptions are considered by the commander: . The weighing report showing the weight and the basic index of the empty aircraft has been correctly compiled. . The freight has been correctly weighed and loaded in accordance with the Load and Trim Sheet. The commander is personally responsible for: . Checking that sufficient fuel and oil of the correct grade are on board and correctly loaded and distributed. . Checking the Load and Trim Sheet calculation. . Checking “ALL NETS ARE FITTED AND CONTROLLED” is written and signed by ground handling operations personnel on load and trim sheet. . Checking there is no NOTOC or NOTOC does not contravene the ONUR AIR AOC. . Accepting and signing the Load and Trim Sheet. If deemed necessary, the commander has full authority to modify the aircraft loading such as number of passengers, usable cabin seats and cargo compartments loading and distribution. 73

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 3. LOAD AND 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 3. LOAD AND TRIM SHEET PREPARATION The method for preparation of the load and trim sheet is given in FCOM LOADING Chapter. The CG limits given in the Load and Trim sheet include tolerances to cope with the combination of the following independent errors: - Error on initial conditions (Dry Operating Weight and Index) - Error on cargo loading (weight and distribution) - Error on passenger boarding (weight and distribution) - Error due to graphical method and the following movements: - Landing gear, flaps and slats movements - Movements in the cabin 8. 1. 8. 4. PASSENGERS AND CARGO WEIGHT DETERMINATION The following standard masses for passengers are authorized by the Turkish DGCA for use in ONUR AIR operations. SHT-OPS 1 Part J Item 130 Table 1. Weight for adults and children include 5 kg for cabin baggage. 74

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 4. PASSENGERS AND 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 4. PASSENGERS AND CARGO WEIGHT DETERMINATION HOLIDAY CHARTER FLIGHTS Weights will be used for all flights from/to ANTALYA, BODRUM and DALAMAN or Flights which are listed in “ONUR AIR COMMERCIAL CONDITION LIST”. All other Flights which are not listed in ONUR AIR COMMERCIAL CONDITION LIST or not start/finish from ANTALYA, BODRUM, DALAMAN will use EXCEPT HOLIDAY CHARTERS Weights. Following Table will be used for Saudia Arabian Airlines Wet-Lease Operation only on the Charter flights: Children are defined as persons of an age of two years and above but who are less than 12 years of age. Note: The weight of infants under 2 years old carried by an adult is not considered. Infants occupying separate passenger seats must be considered as children ( 35 kg ) Corrections have to be made if the actual weight of passengers with their hand baggage is known or if the average weight can be estimated as obviously different than the standard weight given above. When the passenger checked baggage (loaded in the cargo compartment) are not weighed, the following standard weight per piece of checked baggage is used: 75

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 4. PASSENGERS AND 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 4. PASSENGERS AND CARGO WEIGHT DETERMINATION The cargo has to be weighed and positioned so as to respect both individual Unit Load device position weight limitation and total cargo compartment weight limitation as given in FCOM LOADING Chapter and in the Weight and Balance Manual. In such a case, it is not necessary to perform additional fuel measurement through magnetic fuel level indicators (dipsticks) to cross check FQI indication as the accuracy of dipsticks is less than FQI failure (dispatch under MEL) Whenever possible and practicable, the specific gravity of fuel - as obtained from the fuelling crew shall be used. As this often is not practicable, the following specific gravity values may be used : (15˚C fuel temp) Jet fuel JP - 1 0, 796 kg/liter Jet fuel JP - 4 0, 76 kg/liter AVGAS 0, 71 kg/liter OIL 0, 88 kg/liter 76

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 6. GENERAL INSTRUCTION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 6. GENERAL INSTRUCTION FOR LOAD AND TRIM SHEET VERIFICATIONS The commander has to recalculate the Load and Trim Sheet considering possible last Minute Changes in paying particular attention to: . The correct DOW and DOI. The number and the distribution of passengers. The cargo loading which should be in accordance with the Cargo Manifest. The fuel quantity and distribution The fuel index given by the Load and Trim Sheet takes into account the fuel specific gravity and assumes that the fuel is loaded normally (as mentioned in the AFM) and does not apply in case of unusual loading. For aircraft fitted with a trim tank, particular care should be taken to the actual fuel quantity in the trim tank as any deviation of fuel quantity in the trim tank has a tremendous effect on the CG. Check fuel imbalance is within prescribed limits. . The MTOW, MZFW and associated CG. The expected landing weight below MLW. 77

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 6. GENERAL INSTRUCTION 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 6. GENERAL INSTRUCTION FOR LOAD AND TRIM SHEET VERIFICATIONS (continued) In case a computerized Load and Trim Sheet is produced, above data may be checked, computation is assumed to be correct. Passenger headcount is not taken in the aircraft in Istanbul, Izmir and Antalya Airport on the gates which have the gate reader capability. As a procedure; cabin crew during the boarding only controls the passengers boarding ticket with the flight number and flight route (departure/destination). After the boarding of the passengers complete, it is enough to take confirmation from the ground handling operation personnel by checking Passenger Total on Board from the gate and Load & Trim Sheet in the aircraft. However, concerning with the safety and security reasons, responsible captain can still ask for headcount from cabin crew in the aircraft. . 8. 1. 8. 7. LAST MINUTE CHANGE PROCEDURES (LMC) In case of Last Minute change loading, the commander will correct the previous load and trim sheet. The LMC limits are shown in the following table to prepare new W&B sheet. " 78

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 8. SEATING POLICY 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 8. 8. SEATING POLICY The load and trim sheet is prepared assuming a particular passenger seating distribution. If a seat allocation system is used in connection with the preparation of the load and trim sheet any possible errors in the CG position will be covered / compensated by the operational CG envelope - provided the passengers are seated as allocated. Free seating however might require a repositioning of passengers in the cabin. The Commander shall instruct the cabin crew to re-seat passengers so as to create the actual seating distribution in compliance with the assumed distribution on the load and trim sheet. 8. 1. 9. ATC FLIGHT PLAN Flights are normally operated on an instrument flight plan. For safety reasons, the ATC must be informed of the expected operation before each flight, an ATC flight plan must to be filled for each flight and special procedures or maneuverability limitation must be indicated. 8. 1. 9. 2. PILOT AND ATC AGREEMENT ……. A pilot must not accept a clearance with which he cannot safely comply or which exceeds the capabilities of the aircraft. The commander is the final authority as to the operation of the aircraft; he is directly responsible for the operation of the aircraft. An ATC clearance is not an authorization for a pilot to deviate from any regulation or to conduct an unsafe operation. If, due to severe weather, an immediate deviation is required, the pilot's emergency authority will be exercised. A pilot should question any clearance or any part of a clearance that he does not understand. 79

8. 1. 9. 3. ATC CLEARANCE (sadece başlıklar konmuştur…) No flight requiring an ATC 8. 1. 9. 3. ATC CLEARANCE (sadece başlıklar konmuştur…) No flight requiring an ATC clearance shall commence take-off without such clearance. All ATC clearances and altimeter settings shall be read back including the full callsign. … ACCEPTANCE & READ-BACK OF ATC CLEARANCE LIMITS DEPARTURE PROCEDURE ROUTE OF FLIGHT ALTITUDE HOLDING INSTRUCTIONS ARRIVAL ROUTE COMMUNICATIONS APPROACH CLEARANCE 8. 1. 9. 4. COMPLYING WITH A CLEARANCE 8. 1. 9. 5. CLEARANCE RECORDING 8. 1. 9. 6. CANCELLING AN IFR FLIGHT PLAN The flight plan is normally cancelled by the "Tower". 8. 1. 10. OPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLAN (OFP) / COMPUTER FLIGHT PLAN (CFP) Before each flight an operational flight plan must be prepared by flight operations (dispatch office) or by the flight crew. It is normally obtained through a computerized process. The operational flight plan provides the flight crew with necessary information to perform the flight. 80

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 10. OPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLAN 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 10. OPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLAN (OFP) / COMPUTER FLIGHT PLAN (CFP) Before each flight an operational flight plan must be prepared by flight operations (dispatch office) or by the flight crew. It is normally obtained through a computerized process. The operational flight plan provides the flight crew with necessary information to perform the flight. The operational flight plan must be checked by the flight crew and approved by the commander before the departure. Amendments due to flight crew requirements, ATC clearance or limitations such as aircraft (MEL) Minimum Equipment List or (CDL) Configuration Deviation list items, may require the operational flight plan be updated by the flight crew. OFP's shall always be prepared in duplicate and signed by the commander. An OFP prepared by a dispatch office, must show the name of the flight operations officer. The copy of the OFP remains on ground with the dispatch office or at the station, whichever is applicable, whilst the original will be filed with the operational return documents after the flight or series of flights is completed by that crew. The operational flight plan will be calculated with updated performance of the aircraft, ATC cleared route, the weather forecast on the route and the actual aircraft weights. The operational flight plan is usually made of two parts: Sample of a new flight plan is in OM Part A page 8 -47 with explanations: ‘ 8. 1. 10. 1. ONUR AIR COMPUTER FLIGHT PLAN’ 81

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 11. OPERATOR'S AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 11. OPERATOR'S AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL LOG 8. 1. 1. AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL LOG (ATL) The aircraft technical log (log book) is the legal medium for written communication between flight crews and maintenance personnel. The aircraft technical log is a system for recording defects and malfunctions discovered during the operation and for recording details of all maintenance carried out on the particular aircraft to which the aircraft technical log applies whilst that aircraft is operating between scheduled visits to the base maintenance facility. In addition, it is used for recording operating information relevant to flight safety and must contain maintenance data that the operating crew need to know. All irregularities should be recorded even though they may be regarded as items that are "always that way", . Recording these item is necessary until flight crews are advised by an insert in the way" appropriate aircraft operating manual that maintenance is aware of the problem and that no further recording of that particular defect is necessary. Daily check done according following table; Crew duty times are kept in Voyage Report, when technical data is kept in Technical log. The information entered in the ATL shall be up to date, legible and correctable in the case of an error provided each correction is identifiable and errors remain legible. The data in the ATL can not be erased. 82 All relevant parties shall follow above procedure strictly.

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 11. OPERATOR'S AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 11. OPERATOR'S AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL LOG 8. 1. 1. 4. ATL ERASE / CORRECTION PROCEDURE The information entered in the ATL shall be up to date, legible and correctable in the case of an error provided each correction is identifiable and errors remain legible. During minor errors, authorized person must put horizontal single line on wrong phrase within unerasable pen and apply his/her initial to suitable closest place. If error is major, relevant page must be cancelled by diagonal two line and new page must be filled. The data in the ATL can not be filled erased All relevant parties shall follow above procedure strictly. 83

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 11. OPERATOR'S AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 11. OPERATOR'S AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL LOG 8. 1. 11. 2. PROCEDURE FOR ONUR AIR HIL ( HOLD ITEM LIST ) PAGE USAGE. Refer to MME 2. 1 Aircraft Tech Log Utilisation, MME 2. 1. 1 MEL Application, Technical Order TT-HAT 6. 1. 2. 3 (Lotus Nr. T-00018) 8. 1. 11. 3. SAMPLE OF LVO APPROACH & AUTOLAND SYS PERFORMANCE REPORT 84

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 12. LIST OF DOCUMENTS, 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 12. LIST OF DOCUMENTS, FORM AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION TO BE CARRIED 8. 1. 12. 1. LIST OF A/C DOCUMENTS AND MANUALS TO BE CARRIED (ON BOARD LIBRARY) 8. 1. 12. 1. 1. LIST OF A/C DOCUMENTS Commander shall ensure that required mandatory documents are available in the aircraft before each flight and also should check the availability of other documents in the aircraft documentation folder. Mandatory required documents according to SHT-OPS Item 27 are e. g. : 1. the Certificate of Registration; 2. the Certificate of Airworthiness; 3. the original or a copy of the Noise Certificate (if applicable), including an English translation, where one has been provided by the Authority responsible for issuing the noise certificate; 4. the original or a copy of the Air Operator Certificate; 5. the Aircraft Radio License; and 6. the original or a copy of the Third Party Liability Insurance Certificate(s). Each flight crew member shall, on each flight, carry a valid flight crew license with appropriate rating(s) and medical certificate for the purpose of the flight. If any documents given above lost or missed, flight can be conducted until aircraft arrived home base of operator 85

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 12. LIST OF DOCUMENTS, 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 12. LIST OF DOCUMENTS, FORM AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION TO BE CARRIED 8. 1. 12. 1. LIST OF A/C DOCUMENTS AND MANUALS TO BE CARRIED (ON BOARD LIBRARY) 8. 1. 12. 1. 2. LIST OF A/C MANUALS TO BE CARRIED Onur Air ensures that: - the current parts of the Operations Manual relevant to the duties of the crew are carried on each flight, those parts of the Operations Manual which are required for the conduct of a flight are easily accessible to the crew on board the aeroplane, and - the current Aeroplane Flight Manual is carried in the aeroplane unless the Authority has accepted that the Operations Manual prescribed in SHT OPS 1 App. 46 and EU OPS 1. 1045, Appendix 1, Part B contains relevant information for that aeroplane. 8. 1. 12. 2. REPETITIVE DEFECTS REPORT As explained in MMOE (Maintenance and Management Organization Exposition) Part L 2. 3, defects, which are occurred more than 3 times in 10 days period on a specific aircraft called as repetitive defects. These defects followed by maintenance department with special software. Before each flight dispatcher take report from that software and placed in flight envelope. 86

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 12. LIST OF DOCUMENTS, 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 12. LIST OF DOCUMENTS, FORM AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION TO BE CARRIED 8. 1. 12. 1. LIST OF A/C DOCUMENTS AND MANUALS TO BE CARRIED (ON BOARD LIBRARY) 8. 1. 12. 3 FLIGHT SPECIFIC DOCUMENTATION SUPLY BY DISPATCH - OPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLAN MINIMUM TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFP: The operational flight plans issued by SITA are the only OFP that are allowed to be used in Onur Air flights. Before signing, captain needs to be sure that OFP received from SITA*. - ATS FLIGHT PLAN - AERODROME AND FIR NOTAM’S MINIMUM TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR Notam Reports: The Notam reports issued by SITA are the only Notam that are allowed to be used in Onur Air flights. Before flight, captain needs to be sure that Notam received from SITA*. -METEOROLOGICAL REPORT (Terminal and alternate forecasts valid for the time of flights, appropriate upper wind charts and significant weather charts) MINIMUM TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR Meteorological Reports: The meteorological reports issued by SITA are the only weather reports that are allowed to be used in Onur Air flights. Before flight, captain needs to be sure that weather reports received from SITA*. - Any others documents required by states concerned with the flight. *SITA (Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques). 87

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 12. LIST OF DOCUMENTS, 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 12. LIST OF DOCUMENTS, FORM AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION TO BE CARRIED 8. 1. 12. 1. LIST OF A/C DOCUMENTS AND MANUALS TO BE CARRIED (ON BOARD LIBRARY) 8. 1. 12. 4. FLIGHT SPECIFIC DOCUMENTATION The following documentation or copies there of shall be carried on board and shall be, with in a reasonable time of being requested to do so by a person authorized by an Authority, produced by the commander of the aeroplane to that person: . Aeroplane Technical Log, . Flight and Maintenance Report, . Operational Flight Plan, ATS Flight Plan (in case of "repetitive" ("stored") flight plans, the appropriate details), . Current maps, charts, and associated documents or equivalent data to cover the intended operation of the aeroplane including any diversion which may reasonably be expected. . NOTAM/AIS/MET briefing documentation, . Weight and Balance Documentation, . Special Categories of Passenger Notification, . Special Loads Notification, Dangerous Goods Notification, . Dangerous Goods Transport Document, . General Declaration. Documents deemed necessary for operations by specific state authorities, e. g. Cargo manifest 88 (s), passenger manifest(s)

8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 12. LIST OF DOCUMENTS, 8. OPERATING PROCEDURES 8. 1. FLIGHT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 8. 1. 12. LIST OF DOCUMENTS, FORM AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION TO BE CARRIED 8. 1. 12. 1. LIST OF A/C DOCUMENTS AND MANUALS TO BE CARRIED (ON BOARD LIBRARY) 8. 1. 12. 4. FLIGHT SPECIFIC DOCUMENTATION FORMS. Occurrence Report Forms, . Aeroplane Technical Log Forms, . Air Traffic Incident Forms (as specified by ICAO Doc. 4444, Attachment J), . Bird Strike Forms, . Dangerous Goods Occurrences Report Forms. NOTE: For storage periods refer to Chapter 2. 1. The company shall, within a reasonable time of being requested to do so by the Authority, produce any documents and records related to flight operations or maintenance and give access to such documents and records to any person authorized by the Authority. 89