Скачать презентацию Open Path Methods Albert J Heber Professor heber purdue Скачать презентацию Open Path Methods Albert J Heber Professor heber purdue

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Open Path Methods Albert J. Heber, Professor heber@purdue. edu Ag. Air. Quality. com Building Open Path Methods Albert J. Heber, Professor [email protected] edu Ag. Air. Quality. com Building Environment Research & Education Agricultural and Biological Engineering Purdue University

Biocurtain at Laying House Biocurtain over 3 fans Lab Biocurtain at Laying House Biocurtain over 3 fans Lab

Inside Biocurtain at Layer House Inside Biocurtain at Layer House

NRC Report on Air Emissions Global/Nat. Local Concern NH 3 Major Minor N-Dep/PM 2. NRC Report on Air Emissions Global/Nat. Local Concern NH 3 Major Minor N-Dep/PM 2. 5 N 2 O Significant Insignificant Climate NOx Significant Minor Haze/Health CH 4 Significant Insignificant Climate VOCs Insignificant Minor Quality H 2 S Insignificant Significant Quality PM 10 Insignificant Significant Haze PM 2. 5 Insignificant Significant Health/Haze Odor Insignificant Major Quality

Comparing Open Path Sensors Type of Sensor FTIR UV OPL Detector cooling Cryocooler - Comparing Open Path Sensors Type of Sensor FTIR UV OPL Detector cooling Cryocooler - - Path Length, m 400 150 -1000 2000 Monostatic Bistatic Monostatic NH 3, VOC*, CH 4 NH 3, H 2 S, Nox H 2 S or NH 3 1 1 4000 Mode Compounds Scan frequency, Hz Detection Limits Hydrogen sulfide Deuterium ppm-m 10 -30 0. 4 -5 6 -25 ppb 75 -600 2. 8 -33 3 -120 Linear upper range Ammonia ppm-m ppb Xenon 1. 5 2 2 2 -50 3 -20 1 -40 Linear upper range Models 903 BLS, TOM BLS

Type of Sensor Scanning FTIR UV OPL Yes ? Reflectors - 200 m 30 Type of Sensor Scanning FTIR UV OPL Yes ? Reflectors - 200 m 30 cube 400 m 60 cube 1000 m 90 cube Real-time quantification Small retro yes, w/ BLS yes Capital cost 140 K $20 K-$45 K $30 K Short term costs none Repump cooler, replace retros New source None Annually $7 K laser/7 yr. Annual costs Recalibration needs

FTIR with 48 -m Closed Cell q q Advantages § Measures greenhouse gases § FTIR with 48 -m Closed Cell q q Advantages § Measures greenhouse gases § Measures ammonia: MDL=<6 ppb, NO 2 § Measures dozens of other gases, SO 2 § Real-time measurement § Quick response: limited by cell volume Disadvantages § Expensive: $75, 000 § Heavy, non-portable

Scanning FTIR - Tomography q q q Layer house Horizontal scanning Vertical scanning Scanning FTIR - Tomography q q q Layer house Horizontal scanning Vertical scanning

Source: Bruce Harris, U. S. EPA, 2004 Source: Bruce Harris, U. S. EPA, 2004

Source: Bruce Harris, U. S. EPA, 2004 Source: Bruce Harris, U. S. EPA, 2004

Field Measurement of Air Pollutants Near Swine Confined Animal Feeding Operations using UV DOAS Field Measurement of Air Pollutants Near Swine Confined Animal Feeding Operations using UV DOAS and FTIR C. D. Secrest (paper presented in 2000) q q Ambient ammonia concentrations 0. 8 km from a large swine facility with lagoons over a two week period were 0 to 900 ppb. An Iowa Study Group recommended that ambient exposure to ammonia should not exceed 150 ppb. The UV DOAS and FTIR were in good agreement. Open-path monitors combined with wind monitors are powerful tools for comparing daytime and nighttime pollutant concentrations, and for determining the effect of wind speed on concentration.

q q q Area sources -> diffuse plumes Open-path -> entire plume length An q q q Area sources -> diffuse plumes Open-path -> entire plume length An array paths maps the plume Source: Bruce Harris, U. S. EPA, 2004

OP-FTIR Measurement Paths for Path-Integrated Optical Remote Sensing (Tomography) wind Source: Bruce Harris, U. OP-FTIR Measurement Paths for Path-Integrated Optical Remote Sensing (Tomography) wind Source: Bruce Harris, U. S. EPA, 2004

Oxford 10/15/99: average flux - 1. 12 g/s 14 0. 2 3 concentrations are Oxford 10/15/99: average flux - 1. 12 g/s 14 0. 2 3 concentrations are in mg/m 0. 2 0. 4 0. 2 10 0. 6 0. 4 Height [meters] Controlled release simulation of an area source under unstable air conditions – worst case 0. 4 0. 6 0. 7 0. 1 0. 4 0. 3 0. 5 0. 1 120 160 Crosswind Distance [meters] 0. 1 0. 3 80 0. 5 40 0. 4 0 200 240 Oxford 10/15/99: Run #2 flux - 1. 15 g/s 3 2 concentrations are in mg/m 0. 14 10 0. 5 0. 3 0. 2 Height [meters] 0. 1 0. 4 0. 3 0. 5 6 0. 5 0. 2 0. 3 80 0. 3 40 0. 5 0 0. 6 2 0. 2 6 120 160 Crosswind Distance [meters] Oxford 10/15/99: Run #3 flux - 1. 01 g/s 14 concentrations are in mg/m 3 2 0. 7 0. 5 Source: Bruce Harris, U. S. EPA, 2004 80 0. 3 40 120 160 Crosswind Distance [meters] 0. 2 0 0. 7 2 0. 5 0. 2 6 0. 3 10 0. 2 Height [meters] 240 0. 1 3 concentrations are in mg/m 10 2 200 Oxford 10/15/99: Run #1 flux - 1. 22 g/s 14 3 Height [meters] 120 160 Crosswind Distance [meters] 0. Height [meters] 0. 6 80 0. 4 40 0. 3 Reconstructed plumes Actual release rate = 1. 7 g/s Calculated flux = 1. 2 g/s Measured σθ = 50. 7° Pasquill-Gifford Stability A - Unstable 0 0. 7 2 0. 2 6

Height [meters] Controlled release simulation of an area source under stable air conditions – Height [meters] Controlled release simulation of an area source under stable air conditions – best case Oxford 10/19/99: average flux - 1. 45 g/s 14 concentrations are in mg/m 3 10 2. 6 1. 8 3. 5 1. 8 2 0. 9 6 0 40 80 120 160 Crosswind Distance [meters] 200 240 concentrations are in mg/m 3 10 1. 9 0. 9 6 0 40 80 2. 8 3. 8 0. 9 2 120 160 Crosswind Distance [meters] 1. 9 Oxford 10/19/99: Run #2 flux - 1. 6 g/s Height [meters] 14 3 concentrations are in mg/m 10 1. 1 2. 1 6 1. 1 Reconstructed plumes Actual release rate = 1. 7 g/s Calculated flux = 1. 5 g/s Measured σθ = 12. 7° Pasquill-Gifford Stability C-D - Neutral Height [meters] Oxford 10/19/99: Run #1 flux - 1. 29 g/s 14 80 2. 1 40 3. 2 4. 2 0 1. 1 2 120 160 Crosswind Distance [meters] 200 240 Height [meters] Oxford 10/19/99: Run #3 flux - 1. 49 g/s 14 3 concentrations are in mg/m 10 10. 5 3. 5 7 3. 5 6 7 0 40 80 120 160 14 2 200 240 Height [meters] Crosswind Distance [meters] Oxford 10/19/99: Run #4 flux - 1. 75 g/s 14 3 concentrations are in mg/m 10 6 2 1 2. 9 3. 9 0 40 80 120 160 Crosswind Distance [meters] 2 2 1 Source: Bruce Harris, U. S. EPA, 2004 200 240

FTIR References Harris, D. B. , and E. L. Thompson, Jr. 1998. Evaluation of FTIR References Harris, D. B. , and E. L. Thompson, Jr. 1998. Evaluation of ammonia emission from swine operations in North Carolina. Proc. Emission Inventory-Living in a Global Environment, VIP-88, pp. 420 -429. AWMA, Pittsburgh, PA. Harris, D. B. , E. L. Thompson, Jr. , D. A. Kirchgessner, J. W. Childers, M. Clayton, D. F. Natschke, W. J. Phillips. 1999. Multi-pollutant concentration mapping around a concentrated swine production facility using open-path FTIR spectrometry. Workshop on Atmospheric Nitrogen Compounds II: Emissions, Transport, Transformation, Deposition and Assessment, NCSU, Raleigh, NC, pp. 237 -246. Childers, J. W. , E. L. Thompson, Jr. , D. B. Harris, D. A. Kirchgessner, M. Clayton, D. A. Natschke, W. J. Phillips. 2001. Multi-pollutant measurements around a concentrated swine production facility using open-path spectrometry. Atm. Env. 35: 1023 -1936. Childers, J. W. , Thompson, E. L. , Jr. , Harris, D. B. , Kirchgessner, D. A. , Clayton, M. , Natschke, D. A. , Phillips, W. J. (2001) Application of standardized quality control procedures to open-path fourier transform infrared data collected at a concentrated swine production facility. Env. Science & Tech. 35: 1859 -1866. Source: Bruce Harris, U. S. EPA, 2004

FTIR References Childers, J. W. , E. L. Thompson, Jr. , D. B. Harris, FTIR References Childers, J. W. , E. L. Thompson, Jr. , D. B. Harris, D. A. Kirchgessner, M. Clayton, D. A. Natschke, W. J. Phillips. 2000. Comparison of an innovative algorithm to classical least squares for analyzing open-path fourier transform infrared spectra collected at a concentrated swine production facility. Appl. Spect. 56: 325 -336. Hashmonay, R. A. , D. A. Natschke, K. Wagoner, D. B. Harris, E. L. Thompson, Jr. , M. G. Yost. 2001. Field evaluation of a method for estimating gaseous fluxes from area sources using open-path fourier transform infrared. Env. Sci. Tech. 35: 2309 -2313. Harris, D. B. , E. L. Thompson, Jr. , Vogel, C. A. , Hashmonay, R. A. , Natschke, D. A. , Wagoner, K. Yost, M. G. Innovative approach for measuring ammonia and methane fluxes from a hog farm using open-path fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. 94 th Annual Conf. of the AWMA, VIP-102 -CD, AWMA, Pittsburgh, PA 2001. Hashmonay, R. A. and D. B. Harris. 2001. Particulate matter measurements using openpath Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. 94 th Annual Conference of the Air & Waste Management Association, VIP-102 -CD, AWMA, Pittsburgh, PA. Harris, D. B. , R. C. Shores, L. G. Jones. Ammonia Emission Factors from Swine Finishing Operations. Int. Emissions Inventory Conference, “One Atmosphere, One Inventory, Many Challenges. ” www. epa. gov/ttn/chief/conferences/ei 10/index. html. Source: Bruce Harris, U. S. EPA, 2004

Notice that a complete flux measurement (flux sampling of plume to large height) overestimates Notice that a complete flux measurement (flux sampling of plume to large height) overestimates the flux by ~ 10% (this is because of the neglect of turbulent flux) Neutral Stability Flux measurement plane Wind ponds C plume in neutral conditions along measurement plane sheds Source: Lowry Harper USDA-ARS, 2004 25 m ponds sheds 15 m 5 m

Notice that even if you go to z=50 m you don’t capture all the Notice that even if you go to z=50 m you don’t capture all the flux Unstable (daytime) Flux measurement plane Wind C plume in unstable conditions along measurement plane Source: Lowry Harper USDA-ARS, 2004 Smeared plume 25 m 15 m 5 m

Stable (nighttime) Flux measurement plane Wind C plume in stable conditions along measurement plane Stable (nighttime) Flux measurement plane Wind C plume in stable conditions along measurement plane Source: Lowry Harper USDA-ARS, 2004 25 m 15 m 5 m

Backward Lagrangian Stochastic (BLS) Dispersion Models q q q q Backward Lagrangian Stochastic Modeling Backward Lagrangian Stochastic (BLS) Dispersion Models q q q q Backward Lagrangian Stochastic Modeling Introduced by Flesch, T. K. , and J. D. Wilson. 1995. Backward-time Lagrangian stochastic dispersion models and their application to estimate gaseous emissions. J. Applied Meteorology 34: 1320 -1332. Utilizes point or line measurement Ultrasonic or cup anemometers Flexible and easy to use. Surface layer model. Locate < 1 km. Commercial software available www. thunderbeachscientific. com

UV-DOAS q q q q Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy 1 -1000 ppb path UV-DOAS q q q q Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy 1 -1000 ppb path length Fast scanning, compact, tunable EPA Equivalent Method for SO 2, O 3 and NO 2. Also measures ammonia, benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, Hg, HF, HNO 2, HCHO Continuous operation MDL for ammonia = 2. 8 to 5. 8 ppb Source: Myers, J. , T. Kelly, C. Lawrie, and K. Riggs. 2000. ETV Technology Evaluation Report. Opsis, Inc. AR-500 Ultraviolet Open-Path Monitor. ETV Advanced Monitoring Systems Center, Battelle.

EPA Lab for Ambient Measurements TEOM UV-DOAS TEOM 1 -min averaging and recording intervals EPA Lab for Ambient Measurements TEOM UV-DOAS TEOM 1 -min averaging and recording intervals UV-DOAS MET tower

Collocated UV’s Collocated UV’s

Micromet Setup at Lagoons FTIR & Tomography UV & BLS FTIR & BLS Source: Micromet Setup at Lagoons FTIR & Tomography UV & BLS FTIR & BLS Source: Bruce Harris, U. S. EPA, 2004

Equipment Required per Team q q q Two FTIR scanning systems with 20 retros Equipment Required per Team q q q Two FTIR scanning systems with 20 retros Two UV systems Four computers for optical remote sensors One computer for data QAQC and analysis Two 3 D ultrasonic anemometers (2 and 12 m) Complete weather station Two, 12 -m towers for FTIR/UV systems One, 2 m tower for ultrasonic anemometer Software for computed tomography method Software for BLS method Van and trailer

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