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On Russian concepts of soil memory – expansion of Dokuchaev's pedological paradigm Alexander Tsatskin On Russian concepts of soil memory – expansion of Dokuchaev's pedological paradigm Alexander Tsatskin Zinman Institute of Archaeology University of Haifa, Israel 1

This talk presents a review of book Victor O. Targulian and Sergei V. Goryachkin This talk presents a review of book Victor O. Targulian and Sergei V. Goryachkin (eds) Soil Memory: Soil as a Memory of Biosphere-Geosphere. Anthroposphere Interactions 2008 (in Russian, with Foreword by V. O. Targulian, S. V. Goryachkin and Concluding Remarks by V. O. Targulian, S. V. Goryachkin, N. A. Karavaeva in English) 2

Soil Memory Book contents I. General approaches to Soil memory – 11 authors II. Soil Memory Book contents I. General approaches to Soil memory – 11 authors II. Mineral carriers of soil memory – 14 authors III. Biological carriers of soil memory – 3 authors IV. Anthropogenic soil memory – 10 authors 3

Anthropic Albic Luvisol in the Russian plain Model of soil evolution since the late Anthropic Albic Luvisol in the Russian plain Model of soil evolution since the late Glacial through the Holocene photo by Victor Targulian 1

Significance of Evolutionary Pedology Dan Richter and Dan Yaalon (2012) “The Changing Model of Significance of Evolutionary Pedology Dan Richter and Dan Yaalon (2012) “The Changing Model of Soil” Revisited Henry Lin (2011) Three Principles of Soil Change and Pedogenesis in Time and Space Paleopedology commission of the IUSS and SSS Division of the EGU both invest efforts to promote studies on soil polygenesis, surface soils records and archives 5

Model of soil formation Complex soil bioticabiotic system Input of energy & matter Outcomes Model of soil formation Complex soil bioticabiotic system Input of energy & matter Outcomes of composition, structure & information 6

Soil functioning and self-organization 7 Soil functioning and self-organization 7

profiles Reversible or steady state (? ) Soil reaching a steady state horizons aggregates profiles Reversible or steady state (? ) Soil reaching a steady state horizons aggregates Increasing structure & system complexity with time TIME 8

Residual solid phase micro-results SMR Fluctuating processes of soil functioning – formation of SMR Residual solid phase micro-results SMR Fluctuating processes of soil functioning – formation of SMR Accumulation of SMR within soil system Specific pedogenic processes SPP Records of solid phase carriers 9

After Lin (2011), note random processes 10 After Lin (2011), note random processes 10

Types of soil development-noadditional deposition Transgressive Regressive Climate & biota impact time A A Types of soil development-noadditional deposition Transgressive Regressive Climate & biota impact time A A B B 1 B 2 A B B 2 solum thickening A solum reducing 11

Soil memory Capability of a soil system to store and record in its stable Soil memory Capability of a soil system to store and record in its stable properties the information about conditions (factors) and processes of formation and development, evolution and degradation 12

Sedimentary system: book-like record 4 green 3 brown sedimentation 2 yellow 1 green time Sedimentary system: book-like record 4 green 3 brown sedimentation 2 yellow 1 green time 13

Soil system: palimpsest record Albic Luvisol: texture-contrast soil Nearly zero sedimentation of southern taiga Soil system: palimpsest record Albic Luvisol: texture-contrast soil Nearly zero sedimentation of southern taiga A C A AC Bm C Time zero BC C O A E Bt C 14

Conclusions Soil Memory concept develops Dokuchaev’s paradigm Via (a) Theoretical principles of soil memory Conclusions Soil Memory concept develops Dokuchaev’s paradigm Via (a) Theoretical principles of soil memory as ability of soils to store variable over time environment forcing 1

(b) New Scientific Evidence on Russian soil records - Holocene soil records related to (b) New Scientific Evidence on Russian soil records - Holocene soil records related to European vegetation periods - Radiocarbon dating of Holocene soils; - Clay minerals, Fe minerals and carbonate nodules as earlier records - Waterlogged soils in a historic perspective - Phytoliths, soil organic matter and microbiota - Anthropic changes in agricultural soils 16

Soil memory concept – The RUSSIAN CONCEPT - challenges earlier idea that soil is Soil memory concept – The RUSSIAN CONCEPT - challenges earlier idea that soil is a mirror of landscape; Focus is put on duality of soil as s “super” complex biotic-abiotic system whose formation includes both selforganization (soil functions) and evolution (a palimpsest record) 17

Are Soil memory - Soil polygenesis - Soil archives – Soil records all synonyms? Are Soil memory - Soil polygenesis - Soil archives – Soil records all synonyms? YES – and NO 18

What’s a really important message? That soils may be records of earlier land history What’s a really important message? That soils may be records of earlier land history HAS TO BE demonstrated in every specific case – Soil Memory IS LIKELY AN INHERENT PROPERTY of soil Anyway, it is a useful idea to be kept in mind even when dealing with hazardous substances in anthropic soils. Use it – you may be surprised for good… Thanks! 19