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on of oluti Ev tions Rela ublic P 2 C H A P T on of oluti Ev tions Rela ublic P 2 C H A P T E R This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

Topics Covered in Chapter 2 n A short history of public relations n Trend Topics Covered in Chapter 2 n A short history of public relations n Trend lines in today’s practice Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

Ancient Beginnings n The Rosetta Stone was basically the first publicity release. n Olympic Ancient Beginnings n The Rosetta Stone was basically the first publicity release. n Olympic games used promotional techniques to promote athletes as heroes. n Julius Caesar used parades, writings posted on walls and a book, Commentaries, to promote his activities. n Saint Paul, the New Testament author, qualifies for the public relations hall of fame. Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

The Middle Ages n The Roman Catholic Church was a major practitioner of public The Middle Ages n The Roman Catholic Church was a major practitioner of public relations. n Bankers in Venice practiced the art of investor relations to adopt corporate philanthropy. Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

Early Beginnings In America n Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to convince settlers to move Early Beginnings In America n Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to convince settlers to move to Virginia n Seven Cities of Gold & the Fountain of Youth n Harvard College’s published a fundraising brochure n King’s college news release for its commencement exercises Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

American Development in the 19 th Century n Davy Crockett was a frontier hero American Development in the 19 th Century n Davy Crockett was a frontier hero created to draw political support away from Andrew Jackson. n Phineas T. Barnum was a showman and master of the pseudoevent. n Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to convince settlers to move to Virginia. n Seven Cities of Gold & the Fountain of Youth. Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

American Developments in 19 th Century cont. n Harvard College’s published a fundraising brochure. American Developments in 19 th Century cont. n Harvard College’s published a fundraising brochure. n King’s college sent a news release for its commencement exercises. n Tom Paine’s Common Sense pamphlet was an early example of political communication to a national audience. Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

American Developments in 19 th Century cont. n The Federalist Papers influenced the makeup American Developments in 19 th Century cont. n The Federalist Papers influenced the makeup of the new political system and laid the foundation for distributing syndicated opinion pieces via the mass media. n Amos Kendall was probably the first presidential press secretary. n The publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Godey’s Ladies Book as well as women’s protests by Carrie Nation and Amelia Bloomer qualify as public relations operations. Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

American Developments in 19 th Century cont. n In 1888, the Mutual Life Insurance American Developments in 19 th Century cont. n In 1888, the Mutual Life Insurance Company hired a journalist to write news releases designed to improve its image. n In 1889, Westinghouse Corporation established what is thought to be the first in-house publicity department. n In 1897, the term public relations was first used by the Association of American Railroads in a company listing. Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

American Developments in 19 th Century cont. The Golden Age of the Press Agent American Developments in 19 th Century cont. The Golden Age of the Press Agent Examples: Exaggeration n Davy Crockett Annie Oakley Daniel Boone Gifts Voluminous Publicity Lack of Ethics Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

1900 to 1950: The Age of Pioneers n In 1900, the first publicity agency 1900 to 1950: The Age of Pioneers n In 1900, the first publicity agency called the Publicity Bureau was established in Boston. n In 1904, George F. Parker and Ivy Ledbetter Lee opened a publicity office in New York. n During this period the practice of public relations was reformed and the concept moved from press agentry the more journalistic approach of distributing accurate public information. Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

1900 to 1950: The Age of Pioneers cont. Samuel Insull Used innovative tactics (magazine, 1900 to 1950: The Age of Pioneers cont. Samuel Insull Used innovative tactics (magazine, films and news release) Henry Ford America’s first major industrialist Teddy Roosevelt A master at generating publicity Ivy Lee The first public relations counselor George Creel Organized a massive public relations effort during World War I Edward Bernays The “father” of modern public relations Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

1900 to 1950: The Age of Pioneers cont. Arthur Page Credited with making public 1900 to 1950: The Age of Pioneers cont. Arthur Page Credited with making public relations a part of higher management Benjamin Sonnenber Proposed sponsorship as a way to reach opinion leaders Jim Maron Became famous for his media-grabbing stunts Rex Harlow Consider to be the “father of public relations research” Leon Baxter Credited with founding the first political campaign management firm Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

1900 to 1950: The Age of Pioneers cont. Henry Rodgers Established a public relations 1900 to 1950: The Age of Pioneers cont. Henry Rodgers Established a public relations firm to service the movie industry Eleanor Lambert Credited with putting American designers on the fashion “map" Elmer Davis Head of the Office of War Information Moss Kendrix The first African American to acquire a major corporate account Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

1950 to 2000: Public Relations Comes of Age The following factors attributed to the 1950 to 2000: Public Relations Comes of Age The following factors attributed to the expansion of public relations during this period: n Economy n Major increases in urban and suburban populations n The growth of big business, big labor, and big government n Scientific and technological advances n The communications revolution n Financial considerations Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

1950 to 2000: Public Relations Comes of Age cont. § In the 1960 s, 1950 to 2000: Public Relations Comes of Age cont. § In the 1960 s, issues management was added to the job description of the public relations professionals. § By the 1980 s, the concept of public relations as a management function was in full bloom. § By 2000, scholars and practitioners conceptualized the practice of public relations as “relationship management. ” § The concept of dialogue emerged from “relationship management” and focuses more on interpersonal channels rather than mass media distribution. Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

1950 to 2000: Public Relations Comes of Age cont. The following technological and social 1950 to 2000: Public Relations Comes of Age cont. The following technological and social changes transformed aspects of public relations during this period: §Feminization of the industry The field changed from a male-dominated one to one with about 70% female practitioners. §Recruitment of minorities The number of minorities falls short of equaling the population at large. “The public relations industry, long an enclave of well-paid, college-educated, white professionals, is finally waking up to the reality that it needs to do better PR to attract people of color. - Tannette Johnson-Elie, columnist, Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009

Transformation of the Field: The Next 50 Years While feminization of the field and Transformation of the Field: The Next 50 Years While feminization of the field and the recruitment of a more diverse workforce are already established trends, the following are major trends that will transform the industry in the coming years: Recognition of a multicultural world § The public demand for transparency for all society’s institutions § The expanding role of public relations § Corporate Social Responsibility § Increased emphasis on measurement and evaluation § Managing the 24/7 new cycle § Fragmentation of mass media The rise of social media § Outsourcing of public relations firms § The need for lifelong learning § Recruitment of minorities § Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009