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Olives Olive Production Manual Louise Ferguson, G. Steven Sibbett, and George C. Martin Olives Olive Production Manual Louise Ferguson, G. Steven Sibbett, and George C. Martin

Classification • Family - Oleaceae – Genera • Fraxinus (ash) • Ligustrum (privet) • Classification • Family - Oleaceae – Genera • Fraxinus (ash) • Ligustrum (privet) • Syringa (lilac) • Olea (olive)

Olea europaea • • • Long lived evergreen trees Wood resists decay Top dies Olea europaea • • • Long lived evergreen trees Wood resists decay Top dies - stock sprouts Roots only 3 - 4 ft (1 m) deep Dense foliage, poor light penetration, cascading multiple branches, heavy fruit on terminals

Leaves • Thick, leathery, oppositely arranged • Each leaf grows for 2 yrs – Leaves • Thick, leathery, oppositely arranged • Each leaf grows for 2 yrs – Spring abscission in 2 to 3 years • Stomata on lower surface only – nestled in peltate trichomes

Cultivars • Ascolano 9 gm / 18. 8% Blk Grn • Manzanillo 5 gm Cultivars • Ascolano 9 gm / 18. 8% Blk Grn • Manzanillo 5 gm / 20% Fr, Blk, Oil • Sevillano 13. 5 gm / 14. 4% Blk, Grn, Sp. Gm • Barouni 7. 4 gm / 16. 5% Fr Blk • Mission 4. 1 gm / 21. 8% Blk Gr Oil

Manzanillo • • • Most widely planted Most popular for canning Low spreading 15 Manzanillo • • • Most widely planted Most popular for canning Low spreading 15 - 30 ft. Rooted Stem cuttings Not tolerant to cold Olive knot - Verticillium wilt

Sevillano • • Second most popular Spreading 25 - 35 ft tall Trained low Sevillano • • Second most popular Spreading 25 - 35 ft tall Trained low for easy harvest Largest fruit in California Grafting 1 yr rooted cuttings Somewhat resistant to cold Bruises easily

Ascolana • • • Rounded shape 20 - 30 ft tall Bruises easily Only Ascolana • • • Rounded shape 20 - 30 ft tall Bruises easily Only 3 % of acreage in CA Canned ripe olives Fairly resistant to olive knot

Mission • • • From Mexico in 1769, not Italy Tall upright, 40 - Mission • • • From Mexico in 1769, not Italy Tall upright, 40 - 50 ft Topped to facilitate harvest Small, low 6. 5 : 1 fruit-to-pit ratio Rooted cuttings Trees survive 8 o. F

Mission Harvest • Picked green - Spanish Green Processing because they are late and Mission Harvest • Picked green - Spanish Green Processing because they are late and need to avoid frost. • Red coloration - Ripe olive processin • For oil because of high (21. 8% oil) • High monounsaturated fatty acid

Barouni • • • From Tunisia in 1905 Small tree 15 - 25 ft. Barouni • • • From Tunisia in 1905 Small tree 15 - 25 ft. spreading Large fruit, low fruit to pit ratio Resistant to cold For fresh use - process quality low Used for black-ripe table olives

Flowering • • Summer 2000 - Induction in veg buds Nov. 2000 - Floral Flowering • • Summer 2000 - Induction in veg buds Nov. 2000 - Floral induction Winter 2000 / 2001 - Chilling Spring 2001 - Flowers open

Chilling is Critical • Optimum Flowering if chilling temps – Maximum 60 to 65 Chilling is Critical • Optimum Flowering if chilling temps – Maximum 60 to 65 o. F – Minimum 35 to 40 o. F • Poor flowering if – Constant 55 o. F • No flowering if – No temp > 45 o. F or < 60 o. F

Influence of Leaves • Very little dormancy – Veg. Buds grow at or > Influence of Leaves • Very little dormancy – Veg. Buds grow at or > 70 o. F • Inflorescence formation – Requires leaves on fruiting shoots – Thus, prevent defoliation • Hot winds can defoliate

Flower Buds • Abnormally cold spring temps – Detrimental to flower buds • Floral Flower Buds • Abnormally cold spring temps – Detrimental to flower buds • Floral differentiation 8 - 10 weeks before May bloom – Irrigate to prevent stress – Start season with moist profile • Playing catch up will not do

Stress • Causes predominance – Of male flowers – Why? • Girdling can increase Stress • Causes predominance – Of male flowers – Why? • Girdling can increase flowering – Danger of Olive Knot – Not a problem in Israel – Root reduction

Pollination • Monoecious • Flowers borne axially along shoot in panicles • Self and Pollination • Monoecious • Flowers borne axially along shoot in panicles • Self and cross pollination occurs

Fruit Set • 500, 000 flowers per tree • Need maximum of 10, 000 Fruit Set • 500, 000 flowers per tree • Need maximum of 10, 000 fruit (2%) – 98% abscise in 14 days – Goal is 3 tons per acre yield • Sometimes insufficient perfect flowers to set full crop • Need 10% set if inflorescence limited

Fruit Formation • • Embryo development Mature ovule (seed) Mature ovary (fruit) Requires rapid Fruit Formation • • Embryo development Mature ovule (seed) Mature ovary (fruit) Requires rapid pollen growth – Delays caused by cool temperature • Parthenocarpic fruit (shotberries)

Sigmoidal Fruit Growth • Endocarp (pit) enlarges to full size and hardens in 6 Sigmoidal Fruit Growth • Endocarp (pit) enlarges to full size and hardens in 6 weeks • Endosperm (liquid to solid) • Embryo development • Embryo maturity (September)

Maturation • Gradual growth – Mesocarp (flesh) – Exocarp (skin and peel) • Color Maturation • Gradual growth – Mesocarp (flesh) – Exocarp (skin and peel) • Color change (harvest index) – Green straw (optimal) Red (maybe) Black (unacceptable)

Harvesting • Profit or loss depends on accuracy of harvest in October • Delaying Harvesting • Profit or loss depends on accuracy of harvest in October • Delaying harvest = heavier fruit (more valuable) • Delaying too long = black fruit & frost damage • Oil content increases in January

Fruit Thinning to Avoid Alternate Bearing • Hand thinning – Both hands - heavy Fruit Thinning to Avoid Alternate Bearing • Hand thinning – Both hands - heavy rubber gloves – Strip fruit while leaving leaves • Leave 6 fruit / foot of twig • Complete 3 weeks after full bloom • Effective but not cost effective

Thinning by Pruning • Prune more heavily on “on” years • Prune more lightly Thinning by Pruning • Prune more heavily on “on” years • Prune more lightly on “off” years • However, not cost effective

Chemical Thinning • NAA effective but must treat prior to knowledge of crop size Chemical Thinning • NAA effective but must treat prior to knowledge of crop size • Treat 12 -18 days after full bloom (FB) • Apply 10 ppm for each day after FB – 15 days after FB = 150 ppm – Dilute spray (300 - 400 gal water per acre

Thinning Ornamental Olives • Olives in landscape are more desirable if all the fruit Thinning Ornamental Olives • Olives in landscape are more desirable if all the fruit are removed • Use 200 ppm 2 -3 days before FB – Use second spray 1 week later • Large trees require power sprayer – 10 - 15 gal per tree • Detrimental if temperature > 100 o. F

Processing Olives • Types – Black-ripe (BR) - 99% in CA – California-style green Processing Olives • Types – Black-ripe (BR) - 99% in CA – California-style green – Spanish-style green (<1%) • Pickling - process of adding lactic or acetic acid

Chemical Composition of Ripe Mission Olives (%) • • • Water Brix Oil Sugars Chemical Composition of Ripe Mission Olives (%) • • • Water Brix Oil Sugars Protein Mannitol 55. 0 13. 1 21. 4 4. 6 1. 7 4. 4

Oleuropein • A glucoside (bitter factor in fresh olives) • Destroyed by dilute alkali Oleuropein • A glucoside (bitter factor in fresh olives) • Destroyed by dilute alkali at room temperature • Remove alkali (1 - 2% lye) and bitterness does not return

Pigments • • • Anthocyanins are major pigment Increases until fruit is ripe Decreases Pigments • • • Anthocyanins are major pigment Increases until fruit is ripe Decreases in overripened fruit Light increases formation 10 times more anthocyanin in fruit ripened in light vs dark

Salt Free Storage • Acidulant solution – 0. 67% lactic acid – 1. 00% Salt Free Storage • Acidulant solution – 0. 67% lactic acid – 1. 00% acetic acid – 0. 30% sodium benzolate – 0. 30% potassium sorbate

Traditional Brine System • Concrete or wooden tanks • Capacity - 20 tons • Traditional Brine System • Concrete or wooden tanks • Capacity - 20 tons • 5. 0 - 7. 5% Na. Cl – 20 - 30 o Salometer – Saturated solution - 26. 5% salt = 100 o on Salometer

Storage Containers • Open-top redwood tanks 5 x 6 ft • Holds 2. 5 Storage Containers • Open-top redwood tanks 5 x 6 ft • Holds 2. 5 tons of olives • Polyethylene 6 mil plastic prevents contact between olives and inside of tank • No fermentation in this system • Flavor better than in brine

California Style Black Olives • Paraffin or plastic lined 20 T tank • Four California Style Black Olives • Paraffin or plastic lined 20 T tank • Four overhead pipes – Water – Dilute dye – Dilute brine – Compressed air

Lye (Na. OH) Treatment • 3 - 5 applications of 0. 5 - 1. Lye (Na. OH) Treatment • 3 - 5 applications of 0. 5 - 1. 5% • Better color by – Reducing lye concentration – Increasing treatment numbers – Reducing duration

Color Formation • Lye helps – Natural phenolic compounds to oxidize and polymerize – Color Formation • Lye helps – Natural phenolic compounds to oxidize and polymerize – Causing formation of black pigment – Provided aeration is present

Calcium Helps Fix Color • Color formation most rapid at 8. 0 to 9. Calcium Helps Fix Color • Color formation most rapid at 8. 0 to 9. 5 p. H • Retention better in hard water • Ca(Cl)2 (0. 1 - 0. 5%) improves color retention

Lye Removal • Lye removed by changing water in tanks at least twice daily Lye Removal • Lye removed by changing water in tanks at least twice daily • Solution stirred frequently with paddles of compressed air • Lye removed in 3 - 4 days

Canning • 7. 0 - 7. 5 p. H at time of canning retains Canning • 7. 0 - 7. 5 p. H at time of canning retains color • Packed in C-enamel lined cans • Filled with 2 - 2. 5 % salt brine • Cans exhausted at 199 to 205 o. F for 5 min to reach 170 o. F or higher

Finish Canning • Rebrined and sealed at 170 o. F in a double seamer Finish Canning • Rebrined and sealed at 170 o. F in a double seamer • Olives in glass containers processed in retort for 70 min. at 240 o. F

Spanish-Style Pickled Green Olives • Fruit reaches full size but harvested before color changes Spanish-Style Pickled Green Olives • Fruit reaches full size but harvested before color changes • Promptly placed in shallow paraffin or plastic-coated concrete pickling vats

Lye Treatment • Dilute lye (1. 25 - 1. 75%) at 54 - 70 Lye Treatment • Dilute lye (1. 25 - 1. 75%) at 54 - 70 o. F penetrates 3/4 way to pit in 8 - 12 hrs. • Small amt of untreated bitter flesh characteristic of green olives • 1 drop of phenolphthalein to cut surface shows depth of lye penetration

Post Lye Treatment • Olives washed in cold H 2 O 24 -36 hrs Post Lye Treatment • Olives washed in cold H 2 O 24 -36 hrs • Water changed every 4 - 6 hrs • Then response to indicator very faint

Fermentation • Washed, lye-treated olives transferred to 50 gal oak barrels • Head replaced Fermentation • Washed, lye-treated olives transferred to 50 gal oak barrels • Head replaced and hoops driven • 11% brine added through side bung – Lactic acid content 0. 8 - 1. 2% – 3. 8 p. H or less • Fermentation at 75 - 80 o. F for 1 -12 mo

Producing Olive Oil • Spain, Italy, and Greece (in that order) produce 80% of Producing Olive Oil • Spain, Italy, and Greece (in that order) produce 80% of world’s oil • They consume 75% • USA < 1% of world’s olive oil • International Olive Oil Agreement • Administered by International Olive Oil Council in Madrid, Spain

Fatty Acid Profile • • Oil Saturated Unsaturated Mono Poly Olive 1 st CP Fatty Acid Profile • • Oil Saturated Unsaturated Mono Poly Olive 1 st CP 3 88 9 Olive 2 nd CP 11 83 5 Pecan C P 9 73 18 Cardin Pecan 5 85 10 Walnut EP 9 18 73 CP = Cold Pressed, EP= Expeller Pr

Definition of Olive Oil • Olive oil - obtained solely from olives • Excludes Definition of Olive Oil • Olive oil - obtained solely from olives • Excludes oil extracted by solvents or reesterification processes, or any mixtures with other oils • Pure olive oil cannot be any olive residue oils

Virgin Oil • Mechanically pressed from olive fruit without using heat - cold pressing Virgin Oil • Mechanically pressed from olive fruit without using heat - cold pressing • Only washed, decantation, and centrifugation (natural product) • May have vintage years on label

Grades of Virgin Oil • Virgin Olive Oil Extra – Extra Vergine (Italian) – Grades of Virgin Oil • Virgin Olive Oil Extra – Extra Vergine (Italian) – Vierge Extra (French) • Pure unadulterated oil from top quality olives • Perfect taste and odor • Max of 1% acid and strong odors

Other Olive Oils • Virgin Olive Oil Fine or Fino – Almost perfect taste Other Olive Oils • Virgin Olive Oil Fine or Fino – Almost perfect taste but 1. 5% acid • Semi-fine or Ordinary Olive Oil – Good taste maximum acidity 3. 3% • Virgin Olive Oil Lampante > 3. 3% – Not for human consumption

Poorer Grades • Refined oils – Caustic soda used to purify virgin oil from Poorer Grades • Refined oils – Caustic soda used to purify virgin oil from cull fruits • Blended oil – Blend of refined and virgin oil – Most imported olive oil in USA

Residue Oil • Olive-residue oil obtained by treating pomace with solvents Residue Oil • Olive-residue oil obtained by treating pomace with solvents

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