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Old Testament Survey: The Book of Psalms “Blessed is the man Who walks not Old Testament Survey: The Book of Psalms “Blessed is the man Who walks not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stands in the path of sinners, nor sits in the seat of the scornful; but his delight is in the law of the LORD, and in His law he meditates day and night. ” {Psalm 1: 1, 2}

Background • The book draws its name from the title in the Septuagint (LXX) Background • The book draws its name from the title in the Septuagint (LXX) translation. • The word means “praises. ” Or “songs of praise. ” • 73 Psalms are attributed to David. • 50 Psalms are anonymous. • Total of 150 Psalms • A few have been set to music, and we sing them today.

Background • National songs of Israel. • Largely the songs of the church in Background • National songs of Israel. • Largely the songs of the church in past centuries. • Largely written for individual devotion. • Book of prayer and praise. • All emotions touched in the Psalms. • Mainly written in Hebrew poetry style.

Divisions of Psalms • Book I – Psalm 1— 41 • Corresponds with Genesis Divisions of Psalms • Book I – Psalm 1— 41 • Corresponds with Genesis • All but four written by David • Subject: – Man – His state of blessedness – Fall and recovery

Divisions of Psalms • Book II – Psalm 42— 72 • Corresponds with Exodus Divisions of Psalms • Book II – Psalm 42— 72 • Corresponds with Exodus • 18 written by David • Subject—nation of Israel – Her ruin (42 -49) – Redeemer (50 -60) – Redemption (6172)

Divisions of Psalms • Book III – Psalm 73— 89 • Corresponds with Leviticus Divisions of Psalms • Book III – Psalm 73— 89 • Corresponds with Leviticus • Centers on time of Hezekiah • Subject—the sanctuary referred to in nearly every Psalm in Book III

Divisions of Psalms • Book IV – Psalm 90— 106 • Corresponds with Numbers Divisions of Psalms • Book IV – Psalm 90— 106 • Corresponds with Numbers • Two Psalms of David (101 and 103) • Other Psalms in time of exile • Subject: The earth • Psalm 90 written by Moses during wilderness wanderings

Divisions of Psalms • Book V – Psalms 107— 150 • Corresponds with Deuteronomy Divisions of Psalms • Book V – Psalms 107— 150 • Corresponds with Deuteronomy • 15 Psalms of David • Compiled in time of Nehemiah and Ezra • Subject: God’s word • Psalm 119 greatest and longest Psalm

Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry • “LORD, how long will the wicked, how long will Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry • “LORD, how long will the wicked, how long will the – Verses in which wicked triumph? ” the thought of (94: 3) line A is repeated in line B. • “Hear this, all peoples; give ear, all inhabitants of the world. ” (49: 1) • Synonymous Parallelism

Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry • Antithetical Parallelism – Verses in which the opposite thought Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry • Antithetical Parallelism – Verses in which the opposite thought of line A is expressed in line B. • “For the LORD knows the way of the righteous, but the way of the ungodly shall perish. ” (1: 6) • “For His anger is but for a moment, His favor is for life; weeping may endure for a night, but joy comes in the

Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry • “Yet I have set My King on My holy Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry • “Yet I have set My King on My holy hill of Zion. ” (2: 6) – Verses in which line B • “I will sing to the supplements or LORD, because completes the He has dealt thought in line bountifully with A. me. ” (13: 6) • Synthetic parallelism

Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry • Climatic Parallelism – Verses in which the first line Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry • Climatic Parallelism – Verses in which the first line is incomplete, so the second line takes up the words in it and completes the thought • “Give unto the LORD, O you mighty ones, give unto the LORD glory and strength. ” (29: 1) • “The earth is the LORD'S, and all its fullness, the world and those who dwell therein. ”

Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry • Acrostic Poem • Psalm 119 – The opening words Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry • Acrostic Poem • Psalm 119 – The opening words begin with the same letter of the alphabet, or each line begins with the succeeding letters of the alphabet. – Opening letter of verses 1 -8 is aleph – Opening letter of verses 9 -16 is beth – Continues on through 22 letters

Topical Classification • God’s Attributes – No book more fully sets forth the qualities Topical Classification • God’s Attributes – No book more fully sets forth the qualities of God’s nature. Nine names are used to show His Divine attitudes and attributes. • The Lord is our judge and defense (7: 8 -10) • Refuge of the poor (14: 6) • Rock and fortress (18: 2) • Light and salvation (27: 1) • Shield (28: 7)

Topical Classification • Psalms That Praise God • Extolling His goodness (85, 95, 100, Topical Classification • Psalms That Praise God • Extolling His goodness (85, 95, 100, 136) – Psalms that give • Praising His glory Him glory, honor, and wisdom and praise… (18, 19, 29, 62…) • Creator and preserver (33, 89, 104) • Infinite knowledge

Topical Classification • Christ in the Psalms – Psalms that elevate and prophesy about Topical Classification • Christ in the Psalms – Psalms that elevate and prophesy about the coming Messiah and Christ… • His crucifixion (22) • His resurrection (16) • Reign of a righteous King (45, 72, 110) • The rejected Stone (118)

Topical Classification • Historical Psalms – Psalms that remind of past events • Exodus Topical Classification • Historical Psalms – Psalms that remind of past events • Exodus and crossing the Red Sea (136: 10 -15) • Period of wandering (114) • Period of judges (106: 34 -46) • David fleeing from Saul (7, 11, 34) • David’s sin with

Topical Classification • Psalms Concerning Man – Psalms that elevate and tell about mankind Topical Classification • Psalms Concerning Man – Psalms that elevate and tell about mankind • Man’s exaltation (8) • Man’s sinfulness (10, 14, 36) • Wicked contrasted with godly (1, 4, 5) • Folly of wicked who trust in riches (37, 49, 53) • Fate of ungodly (9, 11, 73)

Topical Classification • Psalms of Trust • Trust (3, 16, 20, 27, 31…) and Topical Classification • Psalms of Trust • Trust (3, 16, 20, 27, 31…) and • Shepherd Psalm Thanksgiving – Psalms that express man’s gratitude and trust in His God (23) • God is our Refuge (46) • Gates of thanksgiving (100)

Topical Classification • Prayer Psalms – Psalms that express prayers offered up to God Topical Classification • Prayer Psalms – Psalms that express prayers offered up to God • Mercy in time of trouble (6) • Prayers of assurance (27 and 116) • Penitence (51) • Destruction of the deceitful (55) • Deliverance (70) • Mercy (86)

Topical Classification • Safety (46) • The Lord’s Church (typical) • Zion’s beauty and Topical Classification • Safety (46) • The Lord’s Church (typical) • Zion’s beauty and glory (48, 87) – Psalms about the coming of the • Love for God’s Lord’s church house (84, 122) • Unity among brethren (133)

Topical Classification • Psalms Concerning Experiences and Religion in Life – Psalms about religious Topical Classification • Psalms Concerning Experiences and Religion in Life – Psalms about religious experiences • Magnifying God’s word (19, 119) • Worship (43, 84, 100, 122, 13 2) • Vanity of life (39, 49, 90) • The home (127)

Great Lessons From the Psalms • Adoration of God – Rich in expressing admiration Great Lessons From the Psalms • Adoration of God – Rich in expressing admiration for God and the soul’s longing to be near Him (8: 1) • The Sanctuary – The Psalmist had in mind the tabernacle and temple (77: 13 and 122: 1) – The heart yearns for His Divine presence (42: 1) – Understanding and seeing things more fully (73: 3, 17)

Great Lessons From the Psalms • Blessings in the Psalms – The splendor of Great Lessons From the Psalms • Blessings in the Psalms – The splendor of happiness and contentment shines with the luster of diamonds (1: 1, 2; 2: 12; 128: 1, 2; 32: 1; 84: 4; 119: 1; 94: 12; 144: 15) • The Lord is our help – – – He looks down from heaven (14: 2) He provides and helps in trouble (46: 1) He hears our voices (116: 1) Knows every word and thought (139: 1 -7) If we call in time of trouble, He will deliver (50: 15)

Great Lessons From the Psalms • Forgiveness of sins – All have sinned, and Great Lessons From the Psalms • Forgiveness of sins – All have sinned, and God forgives the penitent (53: 1 -3; 51: 3, 4; 119: 11) • Seven great subjects in the Psalms – Recognizing the all-powerful God (90: 1, 2) – Praise for His infinite love and providence (103, 136) – Rebukes all forms of idolatry (96: 4, 5; 97: 7) – Prophetic glimpses of Christ (110: 1 -4) – The terrible nature of sin (143) – God’s Divine mercy and forgiveness (32, 130) – Emphasizing duties to repent and obey