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OGT SOCIAL STUDIES If a short answer questions Is worth 2 points, you Should OGT SOCIAL STUDIES If a short answer questions Is worth 2 points, you Should make two valid Points to answer that question If it is worth 4 points, then You will need to make 4 valid points

DON’T LEAVE ANYTHING BLANK Leave the hard questions and come back to them Make DON’T LEAVE ANYTHING BLANK Leave the hard questions and come back to them Make a note on your test booklet that you did not answer them by circling the question Wrong answers do not count against you so you can write as much as you want, But don’t write what you don’t know

Various Economies America has a market economy (capitalism) The Amish have a traditional economy Various Economies America has a market economy (capitalism) The Amish have a traditional economy (socialism) Cuba has a Command economy (communism) Sweden has a mixed economy

ECONOMY Tariffs are taxes on imports coming in from other countries like JAPANESE CARS ECONOMY Tariffs are taxes on imports coming in from other countries like JAPANESE CARS Reducing tariffs brings down the cost for the American consumer. Raising tariffs protects American Manufacturers and helps support American businesses.

QUIZ 1 2 3 4 COMMAND MIXED TRADITIONAL MARKET A A COUNTRY THAT USES QUIZ 1 2 3 4 COMMAND MIXED TRADITIONAL MARKET A A COUNTRY THAT USES BARTER AND TRADE B A COUNTRY THAT HAS ITS FACTORIES OWNED BY INDIVIDUALS C A COUNTRY THAT HAS ITS FACTORIES OWNED BY THE GOVERNMENT D A COUNTRY THAT HAS SOME INDUSTRY AND FACTORIES OWNED BY INDIVIDUALS AND SOME BY GOVERNMENT

ANSWERS 1 2 3 4 COMMAND MIXED A COUNTRY THAT HAS ITS FACTORIES OWNED ANSWERS 1 2 3 4 COMMAND MIXED A COUNTRY THAT HAS ITS FACTORIES OWNED BY THE GOVERNEMNT A COUNTRY THAT HAS SOME INDUSTRY AND FACTOREIS OWNED BY INDIVIDAUALS ANS SOME BY GOVERNMENT A COUNTRY THAT USES BARTER AND TRADE TRADITIONAL MARKET A COUNTRY THAT HAS ITS FACTORIES OWNED BY INDIVIDUALS

Marbury V. Madison • Established Judicial Review of the Supreme Court • Supreme Court Marbury V. Madison • Established Judicial Review of the Supreme Court • Supreme Court would be able to determine the constitutionality of laws or documents

ECONOMY Economy The European Union is an economic union of countries that reduce tariffs ECONOMY Economy The European Union is an economic union of countries that reduce tariffs between them. They now use a common currency called the Euro, whereas before they all had their own currency.

ECONOMY Raising taxes on businesses would not allow businesses to hire more people, but ECONOMY Raising taxes on businesses would not allow businesses to hire more people, but if they cut the taxes, then businesses would have more money to hire individuals

FEDERAL RESERVE The Federal Reserve is the nation’s bank. It is the banker’s bank. FEDERAL RESERVE The Federal Reserve is the nation’s bank. It is the banker’s bank. These banks are regional.

Federal Reserve and Spending If the Federal Reserve wants to increase spending it lowers Federal Reserve and Spending If the Federal Reserve wants to increase spending it lowers the interest rate so money is “cheap”. All people that borrow money do not get it for free; they pay for it in what is called interest.

Federal Reserve and interest rates If the interest rate goes up, less people will Federal Reserve and interest rates If the interest rate goes up, less people will borrow money and therefore there will be less spending. This sometimes happens to stop inflation.

The law of supply and demand is…. If a product’s supply is high and The law of supply and demand is…. If a product’s supply is high and the demand is low then the price stays low If a products supply is low and the demand is high then the price goes up

HISTORY: ENLIGHTENMENT Enlightenment was a time named for writers that claimed that reason was HISTORY: ENLIGHTENMENT Enlightenment was a time named for writers that claimed that reason was a better solution than traditional ideas.

Enlightenment Ideas People are free to make a living with the right of life, Enlightenment Ideas People are free to make a living with the right of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness Democracy or rule by the people is better than monarchy because it aids all the people. Freedoms of speech and religion are Enlightenment ideas The freedom of a market economy allows the law of supply and demand.

Enlightenment People have a social contract with their government and if the government fails Enlightenment People have a social contract with their government and if the government fails to protect and help people they have the right to get a new government.

Great of the Enlightenment John Locke Belief in life, liberty and Property Montesquieu separation Great of the Enlightenment John Locke Belief in life, liberty and Property Montesquieu separation of powers within government Voltaire human rights, freedom of speech, religion Adam Smith father of economics

Enlightenment Branches of Government A government with 3 branches of government like the US Enlightenment Branches of Government A government with 3 branches of government like the US will not be as corrupt because each branch of government will check the other branches to keep them in line

GOVERNMENT Democratic governments gain their power from the people. GOVERNMENT Democratic governments gain their power from the people.

Governments Monarchy Both absolute and constitutional Monarchs get their power from their family (Hereditary). Governments Monarchy Both absolute and constitutional Monarchs get their power from their family (Hereditary). Absolute Monarchs have no limits to their power and do not follow any rules. They rule absolutely. Constitutional Monarchs are limited by laws of a Constitution or by a governing body like a Parliament or Congress.

Enlightenment Branches of Government Executive branch -enforces laws like a President Legislative -makes laws Enlightenment Branches of Government Executive branch -enforces laws like a President Legislative -makes laws like a Congress Judicial -judges laws like the Supreme Court

Industrialization During the Industrial Revolution, in an effort to improve their standard of living, Industrialization During the Industrial Revolution, in an effort to improve their standard of living, entire families set out to work in mines and factories

Industrial Revolution There was no workman’s compensation for those that were hurt, so their Industrial Revolution There was no workman’s compensation for those that were hurt, so their spouses and children had to go to work. There were no pension or retirement plans available. Workplace safety was not important or considered.

Industrial Revolution Workers lives Work was hard and dangerous. Safety and comfort of workers Industrial Revolution Workers lives Work was hard and dangerous. Safety and comfort of workers was not a concern for owners. These workers had to live in overcrowded cities, where pollution was high from the factories output like smoke and scoot. This led to sickness and disease

Children and the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution increased: child labor immigration so there Children and the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution increased: child labor immigration so there could be workers Urbanization so people could live in the cities close to factories where they work

Children and the Industrial Revolution Many children ages 6 -12 were hurt in the Children and the Industrial Revolution Many children ages 6 -12 were hurt in the factories. They did not go to school because they were working 12 hour days. Are you not lucky to be in school today? During the Industrial Revolution—children would not be treated for injuries on the job The people suffered from Industrialization because wages were low, work was unsafe because some machines were dangerous so people regularly were hurt, crippled and even killed

Railroads and the Industrial Revolution The railroads and transportation advancements from the Industrial Revolution Railroads and the Industrial Revolution The railroads and transportation advancements from the Industrial Revolution spread agricultural products quickly.

Working Class These jobs were held by children as young as eight years old. Working Class These jobs were held by children as young as eight years old. Men, women and children were subjected to the horrible working conditions for fourteen to sixteen hours a day, six days a week, for a minimal salary

Tenement Housing People were overcrowded into tenement buildings that also led to sickness. There Tenement Housing People were overcrowded into tenement buildings that also led to sickness. There was not much free time to play as workers worked 12 hour days, 6 days a week

Farming Changes Agriculture Farming changed during the Industrial Revolution because inventions like the seed Farming Changes Agriculture Farming changed during the Industrial Revolution because inventions like the seed drill made it easier to harvest more crops This lowered the cost of food and eliminated starvation. The development of new kinds of seeds and fertilizer was massproduced to expand farming.

Imperialism In the early 1900’s and late 1800’s America was imperialistic (dominated weaker countries) Imperialism In the early 1900’s and late 1800’s America was imperialistic (dominated weaker countries) America needed raw materials from those countries and markets to sell our extra goods that we produced This happened in places like Cuba and Hawaii, where we wanted their sugar and in central and South America where we wanted them to buy our products.

M Militarism Militaries built up arms and were ready to fight I Imperialism Stronger M Militarism Militaries built up arms and were ready to fight I Imperialism Stronger nations dominated weaker ones for economic and political reasons World War I M. A. I. N. A Alliances countries of Europe formed alliances and were dragged into war because o f treaties with other countries N Nationalism Countries went to war because of an excessive pride in their country

World War I Treaty of Versailles is a French fortress Was previously the home World War I Treaty of Versailles is a French fortress Was previously the home of the French monarchy The Treaty of Versailles led to World War II because it was a poor treaty. It punished the Germans too harshly and led to their resentment and economic collapse.

End of World War I Treaty of Versailles Germany’s borderlands were taken away. They End of World War I Treaty of Versailles Germany’s borderlands were taken away. They tried to get them back which is why World War II started. Allies (England, France, Italy) punished Germany by restricting the size of their military and this angered the Germans so they built it up which started WWII. Allies charged Germany $33 billion dollars for starting the war. They did not have this much money and it led to WWII because the Germans were angry and could never pay.

League of Nations The League of Nations formed after World War I but was League of Nations The League of Nations formed after World War I but was ineffective in stopping another World War partly because the US did not join. The United Nations is the modern version of the League of Nations

World War II Fascism Nazism Japanese Militarism Began in Italy under Mussolini that supported World War II Fascism Nazism Japanese Militarism Began in Italy under Mussolini that supported a military-dominated government in control of all aspects of Italian Society Began in Germany under Hitler that controlled Germany from 1933 to 1945; also called National Socialist Party. Similar ideas to Fascism Japanese government controlled by Emperor (power from God) and extreme military. Wanted to expand Japanese territory into China and the Pacific

The Cold War 1945 -1986 In response to tensions between the US And USSR The Cold War 1945 -1986 In response to tensions between the US And USSR a new type of War begins Regular weapons are not used Spies and espionage Are the weapons in this war Both sides wanted better And more weapons And scientific advancements

CIVIL RIGHTS JIM CROW LAWS In the South, Jim Crow Laws segregated African Americans CIVIL RIGHTS JIM CROW LAWS In the South, Jim Crow Laws segregated African Americans and laws prevented them from voting. Blacks could not marry whites. Blacks rode at the back of the busses. Blacks ate in separate parts of restaurants Blacks drank from separate drinking fountains.

Civil Rights Poll taxes made blacks pay a tax to vote Grandfather laws only Civil Rights Poll taxes made blacks pay a tax to vote Grandfather laws only allowed them to vote if their grandfathers voted. But many were slaves when the law was enacted

Separate Yet Equal Plessy vs. Ferguson was a Supreme Court case in 18967 that Separate Yet Equal Plessy vs. Ferguson was a Supreme Court case in 18967 that allowed separate but equal facilities This led to segregation, mostly in the South of America until Martin Luther King led boycotts and marches to stop this unfair practice

Brown Vs. Board of Education In the 1960’s, the court case of Brown vs. Brown Vs. Board of Education In the 1960’s, the court case of Brown vs. Topeka board of Education in 1954 actually paved the way as it overturned the Plessey vs. Ferguson case to begin to bring segregation to an end Background: A little girl named Brown had to walk across dangerous RR tracks to go to a black school when there was a close white school nearby. She won!

India/Pakistan Muslims (Islam) and Hindus are different religions that have difficulty living together peacefully. India/Pakistan Muslims (Islam) and Hindus are different religions that have difficulty living together peacefully. This is why India was divided into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan.

Israel became a state in 1948 after World War II because Hitler tried to Israel became a state in 1948 after World War II because Hitler tried to eliminate the Jewish population in Germany. Jews did not have a homeland or their own country. The Palestinians are Muslims and Israel is mostly Jews. The border areas have been fought over since 1948.

Vietnam In the 1960’s many people were upset at the Vietnam War and burned Vietnam In the 1960’s many people were upset at the Vietnam War and burned their draft cards which was a direct violation of Federal Law as even today all males 18 years or older have to sign up for the Selective Service which is the draft.

26 th Amendment This changed the voting age from 21 to 18 in response 26 th Amendment This changed the voting age from 21 to 18 in response to young people going to war in the 1960’s.

Population Expansion Urban means city urbanization means building up a city Suburban means outside Population Expansion Urban means city urbanization means building up a city Suburban means outside the city Suburbanization means building up a suburb Rural means the country, farming lifestyle

1 St Amendment Freedom of speech ends when words people speak threatens public safety 1 St Amendment Freedom of speech ends when words people speak threatens public safety

Bias is a prejudice that one reflects by being unfair in their views. If Bias is a prejudice that one reflects by being unfair in their views. If a newspaper only prints one side of a controversial issue, it is biased.

19 th Amendment Suffrage is the right to vote Women did not get the 19 th Amendment Suffrage is the right to vote Women did not get the right to vote until 1920 under the 19 th Amendment.

White Man’s Burden • Theory that it is the responsibility of imperialism to spread White Man’s Burden • Theory that it is the responsibility of imperialism to spread knowledge, culture and religion to undeveloped countries.

Conscientious Objectors • These are groups or individuals who oppose war and fighting • Conscientious Objectors • These are groups or individuals who oppose war and fighting • Usually based on religious beliefs • Quakers, Amish, Mennonite

Mahatma Gandhi • Used Civil Disobedience to fight for change • Lead revolution for Mahatma Gandhi • Used Civil Disobedience to fight for change • Lead revolution for Indian independence • Idea of peaceful, non-violent revolution spread around the world

Amendments • 1 st ------ • 13 th ---- • Freedom of speech, religion, Amendments • 1 st ------ • 13 th ---- • Freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly • Abolished slavery • 15 th ---- • Right to vote for all adult men • 18 th & 23 rd • Prohibition and repealed Prohibition

Amendments • 19 th • Women’s right to vote • 26 th • Voting Amendments • 19 th • Women’s right to vote • 26 th • Voting age from 18 to 21