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Objectives for Section 1: Objectives for Section 1:

There are (at least) 4 reasons for testing all of our clients There are (at least) 4 reasons for testing all of our clients

Reason 1 Women who get services in family planning clinics are at risk for Reason 1 Women who get services in family planning clinics are at risk for getting HIV

Why are women in family planning clinics at risk? Because women are at risk Why are women in family planning clinics at risk? Because women are at risk

Why are women in family planning clinics at risk? Because young women are at Why are women in family planning clinics at risk? Because young women are at risk and they represent a large proportion of family planning clinic clients

Why are women in family planning clinics at risk? Because of their sexual partner Why are women in family planning clinics at risk? Because of their sexual partner

So, what does put women at risk? So, what does put women at risk?

U. S. Women and Risk U. S. Women and Risk

U. S. Women and Risk (continued) U. S. Women and Risk (continued)

Why are women in family planning clinics at risk? They may be at an Why are women in family planning clinics at risk? They may be at an increased risk, due to hormone use, sexual activity, or sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

Progesterone and Increased Vulnerability to HIV-1 (Marx et al. , 1996) Progesterone and Increased Vulnerability to HIV-1 (Marx et al. , 1996)

Hormones and HIV Hormones and HIV

Hormones and HIV (continued) Hormones and HIV (continued)

Integrity of the Mucosal Barriers Integrity of the Mucosal Barriers

Type of Sexual Activity Type of Sexual Activity

Risk of STI Transmission per Episode of Unprotected Vaginal Intercourse (Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1996) Risk of STI Transmission per Episode of Unprotected Vaginal Intercourse (Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1996)

Reason 2 There are too many missed opportunities for clients to understand their HIV Reason 2 There are too many missed opportunities for clients to understand their HIV status.

Healthcare Providers Diagnosing HIV Infection (Mac. Donald et al. , 1998) Healthcare Providers Diagnosing HIV Infection (Mac. Donald et al. , 1998)

Role of Reproductive Healthcare Practitioners in Diagnosing HIV Role of Reproductive Healthcare Practitioners in Diagnosing HIV

Who Initiates Testing? Who Initiates Testing?

Definition of “Missed Opportunity” Definition of “Missed Opportunity”

Key Findings in the Mac. Donald Study Key Findings in the Mac. Donald Study

Avoiding Missed Opportunities Avoiding Missed Opportunities

Reason 3 Knowing your status is good for your health Reason 3 Knowing your status is good for your health

Health Benefits of Knowing Your HIV Status Health Benefits of Knowing Your HIV Status

Reason 4 Testing and clinical identification can be integrated into current family planning services, Reason 4 Testing and clinical identification can be integrated into current family planning services, and who else could do this better and with more sensitivity?

Why reproductive health clinics? Why reproductive health clinics?

Recommendations For Routine Screening Recommendations For Routine Screening

Resources Resources

References References

References (continued) References (continued)

References (continued) References (continued)