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Objectives ♥ Explain the structure of the heart. ♥ Analyze the function of the Objectives ♥ Explain the structure of the heart. ♥ Analyze the function of the heart. ♥ Analyze the circulation and the blood vessels. ♥ Discuss characteristics and treatment of common cardiac and circulatory disorders.

Heart Anatomy Circulatory system involves: ♥ Heart ♥ Blood ♥ Plasma (fluid) ♥ Blood Heart Anatomy Circulatory system involves: ♥ Heart ♥ Blood ♥ Plasma (fluid) ♥ Blood Vessels ♥ ♥ ♥ Arteries arterioles Capillaries Veins venules

Blood Vessels CAPILLARIES • Smallest blood vessels, can only be seen with a microscope Blood Vessels CAPILLARIES • Smallest blood vessels, can only be seen with a microscope • Connect arterioles with venules • Walls are one-cell thick and extremely thin – allow for selective permeability of nutrients, oxygen, CO 2 and metabolic wastes

Blood Vessels ♥ ♥ ♥ VEINS Carry deoxygenated blood away from capillaries to the Blood Vessels ♥ ♥ ♥ VEINS Carry deoxygenated blood away from capillaries to the heart Veins contain a muscular layer, but less elastic and muscular than arteries Thin walled veins collapse easily when not filled with blood VALVES – permit flow of blood only in direction of the heart JUGULAR vein – located in the neck

Blood Vessels ARTERIES ♥ Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries Blood Vessels ARTERIES ♥ Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries ♥ Elastic, muscular and thickwalled ♥ Transport blood under very high pressure

Heart Physiology ♥ Pump ♥ Right side collects blood, sends to lungs to exchange Heart Physiology ♥ Pump ♥ Right side collects blood, sends to lungs to exchange CO 2 for O 2 ♥ Left side collects blood from lungs and sends to body ♥ Veins travel to the heart ♥ Arteries carry blood away from heart

The Heart ♥ ♥ Muscular organ Size of a closed fist Weighs 12 -13 The Heart ♥ ♥ Muscular organ Size of a closed fist Weighs 12 -13 oz APEX – conical tip, lies on diaphragm, points left

The Heart Label the following structures of the heart: 1. right atrium 2. left The Heart Label the following structures of the heart: 1. right atrium 2. left atrium 3. right ventricle 4. left ventricle 5. Septum 6. mitral valve 7. tricuspid valve 8. superior vena cava 9. inferior vena cava 10. Aorta 11. Myocardium 12. Endocardium 13. pericardium

Structure ♥ Hollow, muscular, double pump that circulates blood ♥ At rest = 2 Structure ♥ Hollow, muscular, double pump that circulates blood ♥ At rest = 2 oz blood with each beat, 5 qts. /min. , 75 gallons per hour ♥ Ave = 72 beats per minute ♥ 100, 000 beats per day ♥ PERICARDIUM – double layer of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heart ♥ MYOCARDIUM – cardiac muscle tissue ♥ ENDOCARDIUM – smooth inner lining of heart ♥ SEPTUM – partition (wall) that separates right half from left half

Structure ♥ Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava – bring deoxygenated blood to Structure ♥ Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava – bring deoxygenated blood to right atrium ♥ Pulmonary artery – takes blood away from right ventricle to the lungs for O 2 ♥ Pulmonary veins – bring oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium ♥ Aorta – takes blood away from left ventricle to rest of the body

Chambers and Valves • SEPTUM divides into R and L halves • Upper chambers Chambers and Valves • SEPTUM divides into R and L halves • Upper chambers – RIGHT ATRIUM and LEFT ATRIUM • Lower chambers – RIGHT VENTRICLE and LEFT VENTRICLE • Four heart valves permit flow of blood in one direction

Four Chambers Four Chambers

Chambers and Valves • TRICUSPID VALVE – between right atrium and right ventricle • Chambers and Valves • TRICUSPID VALVE – between right atrium and right ventricle • BICUSPID (MITRAL) VALVE – between left atrium and left ventricle • Semilunar valves are located where blood leaves the heart PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE and AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART The heart is a double pump. When the heart beats… PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART The heart is a double pump. When the heart beats… Right Heart Deoxygenated blood flows into heart from vena cava right atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle pulmonary semilunar valve pulmonary artery lungs (for oxygen) Left Heart Oxygenated blood flows from lungs via pulmonary veins left atrium mitral valve left ventricle aortic semilunar valve aorta general circulation (to deliver oxygen)

Divided into 2 parts Systole and Diastole Systole- when the right ventricle is full Divided into 2 parts Systole and Diastole Systole- when the right ventricle is full of blood, the heart contracts Diastole-

Cardiopulmonary circulation • Process of circulating blood through the lungs – Picking up oxygen Cardiopulmonary circulation • Process of circulating blood through the lungs – Picking up oxygen and depositing carbon dioxide, which is released during expiration

Remember? ? Blood Pressure Surge of blood when heart pumps creates pressure against the Remember? ? Blood Pressure Surge of blood when heart pumps creates pressure against the walls of the arteries SYSTOLIC PRESSURE – measured during the contraction phase DIASTOLIC PRESSURE – measured when the ventricles are relaxed Average systolic = 120 Average diastolic = 80 PULSE – alternating expansion and contraction of an artery as blood flows through it. Pulse sites: • BRACHIAL • CAROTID • RADIAL • POPLITEAL • PEDAL • FEMORAL

Points to remember… ♥ Both atria fill at the same time ♥ Both ventricles Points to remember… ♥ Both atria fill at the same time ♥ Both ventricles eject blood at the same time when the heart contracts

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART Control of Heart Contractions SA (sinoatrial) NODE = PACEMAKER • PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART Control of Heart Contractions SA (sinoatrial) NODE = PACEMAKER • Located in right atrium • SA node sends out electrical impulse • Impulse spreads over atria, making them contract • Travels to AV Node

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART Control of Heart Contractions: • AV (atrioventricular) NODE • Conducting PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART Control of Heart Contractions: • AV (atrioventricular) NODE • Conducting cell group between atria and ventricle • Carries impulse to bundle of His

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART Control of Heart Contractions: BUNDLE OF HIS • Conducting fibers PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART Control of Heart Contractions: BUNDLE OF HIS • Conducting fibers in septum • Divides into R and L branches to network of branches in ventricles (Purkinje fibers) PURKINJE FIBERS • Impulse shoots along Purkinje fibers causing ventricles to contract

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (EKG or ECG) Device used to record the electrical PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (EKG or ECG) Device used to record the electrical activity of the heart. SYSTOLE = contraction phase DIASTOLE = relaxation phase Baseline of EKG is flat line P = atrial contraction QRS = ventricular contract T = ventricular relaxation

Diseases of the Heart Diseases of the Heart

Pump Problems ♥ polycythemia – blood is thicker than normal and hard to pump Pump Problems ♥ polycythemia – blood is thicker than normal and hard to pump ♥ Heart Failure – damaged muscle fibers cause decrease in pumping ability, usually following a heart attack ♥ Murmur – sound that typically indicates a valve problem

MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION ♥ Caused by little or no blood flow to the myocardium due MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION ♥ Caused by little or no blood flow to the myocardium due to blockage of coronary artery or blood clot atherosclerosis ♥ Symptoms – severe chest pain radiating to left shoulder, arm, neck and jaw. Also nausea, diaphoresis, dyspnea. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=H_Vs. Hmo. RQKk ♥ ANGINA PECTORIS – chest pain, caused by lack of oxygen to heart muscle ♥ Treatment – bedrest, oxygen, medication • Anticoagulants to prevent further clots from forming

Electrical Disturbances ♥ Fibrillations – rapid heart contractions, more than 300 per minute ♥ Electrical Disturbances ♥ Fibrillations – rapid heart contractions, more than 300 per minute ♥ AED (Automated External Defibrillator) – sends electric impulse through the heart to restore normal rhythm

Vessel Problems ♥ ANEURYSM – ballooning of an artery, thinning and weakening ♥ ARTERIOSCLEROSIS Vessel Problems ♥ ANEURYSM – ballooning of an artery, thinning and weakening ♥ ARTERIOSCLEROSIS – hardening of the arteries, arterial walls thicken, lose elasticity ♥ ATHEROSCLEROSIS – fatty deposits form on walls of arteries Treatment- angioplasty- balloon tipped catheter p 401 stent inserted http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=S 9 Aq. Bd 4 RExk

Disorders of the Blood Vessels HYPERTENSION ♥ High blood pressure ♥ “silent killer” – Disorders of the Blood Vessels HYPERTENSION ♥ High blood pressure ♥ “silent killer” – usually no symptoms ♥ Condition leads to strokes, heart attacks, and kidney failure ♥ 140/90 or higher ♥ Higher in African-Americans and post-menopausal women ♥ Risk factors = smoking, overweight, stress, high fat diets, family history ♥ Treatment = relaxation, low fat diet, exercise, weight loss, medication HYPOTENSION – low blood pressure, systolic <100

Diagnostic Tests ♥ CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION – catheter fed into heart, dye injected, x-rays taken Diagnostic Tests ♥ CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION – catheter fed into heart, dye injected, x-rays taken as dye moves through coronary arteries ♥ STRESS TESTS – determine how exercise affects the heart, pt. on treadmill or exercise bike while electrocardiogram recorded ♥ ANGIOGRAM – x-ray of a blood vessel using dye

Heart Contraction & Blood Flow http: //www. nhlbi. nih. gov/health/dci/Diseases/hhw_pumping. html Heart Contraction & Blood Flow http: //www. nhlbi. nih. gov/health/dci/Diseases/hhw_pumping. html