- Количество слайдов: 122
Objective: • Describe four causes of American entry into World War I (1914 -1919). • • Do Now (pgs. 306 -307) Define Alliances Lusitania Zimmerman Telegram
The First World War: • What? • War involving nearly all the nations of the world • When? • 1914 -1918
Causes of World War I (MANIA) • Militarism: policy of building a large arsenal of weapons. • Alliances: agreements between nations to aid and protect each other. • Nationalism: sense of pride in one’s country. • Imperialism: when one country colonizes another for their wealth, natural resources and markets. • Assassination: murder of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The First World War: • Why? Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his Wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg one hour before their deaths, June 28, 1914
The First World War: • Who? Central Powers: Allies: Germany Austria-Hungary Russia France Great Britain Italy Japan United States (1917)
THE WAR BEGAN WITH THE ALLIES VERSUS THE CENTRAL POWERS AND SIX NEUTRAL NATIONS ALLIES FRANCE UNITED KINGDOM (AND ALL OF HER COLONIES) ITALY RUSSIA JAPAN ROMANIA SERBIA GREECE PORTUGAL NEUTRAL NATIONS SPAIN SWITZERLAND NORWAY SWEDEN BELGIUM DENMARK CENTRAL POWERS AUSTRIA-HUNGARY GERMANY BULGARIA TURKEY
The First World War: • Where?
World War I (1914 -1919) • When WWI first broke out, President Wilson tried to keep the United States neutral. • The United States entered the war in 1917 after Germany denied the U. S. freedom of the seas by sinking America’s commercial ships (Germany’s policy of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare. )
What is the main idea of this political cartoon?
Why did it take so long for America to get involved in the war? America was isolationist
Which side should the US pick? Central Powers: Allies: • 11 million German. Americans • Irish-Americans hated Great Britain • Close cultural ties • Shared transatlantic cables (so censored stories) • Big business loaned much $ to allies US Exports to both sides:
American Neutrality · Officially, the U. S. was a neutral country. · However, we traded food, weapons, oil, steel, and other goods far more with the Allied Powers than with the Central Powers.
Long-term causes of American involvement in WWI • Sympathy for Great Britain and France who were suffering staggering losses between 1914 -1916. • A German victory in WWI threatened the stability of Europe and control of the Atlantic Ocean, • The sinking of the Lusitania, a British passenger ship that had 128 American citizens on board (1915).
Causes of American involvement in WWI (1917) • Germany’s policy of unrestricted submarine warfare resulted in the sinking of American ships and jeopardized America’s interests. • “The world must be made safe for democracy: ” A famous quotation by President Wilson that was used to justify American entry into WWI. • The Zimmerman Telegram: a letter from Germany to Mexico (intercepted by the British), that urged Mexico to declare war on the United States. If victorious, Mexico would regain all of the land that it had lost in the Mexican/American War.
SUBMARINES, CALLED “U-BOATS” BY THE GERMANS, WERE USED TO SINK SUPPLY SHIPS
· German submarines, called U-boats, torpedoed enemy ships and neutral ships trading with the enemy.
· Americans were infuriated with the destruction of the Lusitania.
· In 1915, a German submarine torpedoed the Lusitania, a British passenger ship, killing approximately 1, 200 people, including 128 Americans.
ALTHOUGH THIS EVENT ANGERED MANY AMERICANS, THE U. S. DID NOT JOIN THE WAR FOR 2 MORE YEARS
ZIMMERMANN NOTE (1917) On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement. . You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916
POLITICAL CARTOON ON THE ZIMMERMAN NOTE
WILSON ASKED CONGRESS TO DECLARE WAR APRIL 2, 1917 “THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY. ITS PEACE MUST BE PLANTED UPON THE TESTED FOUNDATIONS OF POLITICAL LIBERTY. WE HAVE NO SELFISH ENDS TO SERVE. WE DESIRE NO CONQUEST, NO DOMINION. WE SEEK NO INDEMNITIES FOR OURSELVES, NO MATERIAL COMPENSATION FOR THE SACRIFICES WE SHALL FREELY MAKE. ”
Do Later: • Pg. 292 #1 and #2.
WHY DID THE U. S. ULTIMATELY JOIN THE WAR ON THE SIDE OF THE ALLIES? • THE U. S. HAD MORE MONEY INVESTED IN ENGLAND THAN GERMANY • PART OF THE MOTIVATION WAS RACIAL: THE PREFERENCE FOR BRITISH ANGLO-SAXONS OVER GERMAN TEUTONICS • THE ELITE IN THE EAST HAD NEVER SEVERED TIES WITH ENGLAND • UNCERTAINTY OF U. S. INTERESTS IN A GERMAN-DOMINATED EUROPE • FRANCE WAS A FRIEND SINCE THE U. S. WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE • THE U. S. WANTED TO HELP BRITAIN BECAUSE THE GOVERNMENT WAS CLOSEST TO A DEMOCRACY • WILSON’S MORAL DIPLOMACY POLICY • BRITISH PROPAGANDA • LUSITANIA • ZIMMERMAN NOTE
Objective: • Describe three changes in American society that occurred during WWI. • • Do Now Define (pgs. 306 -307) Draft Armistice Schenck v. United States
Changes in American society brought on by WWI • Draft: All males between the ages of 21 -30 were required to register. Bt the end of the war, 2. 8 million soldiers were drafted. • New jobs for women and African Americans: When the men went off to fight, women and minorities worked in factories. As a result, African Americans began leaving the south and settling in the major cities (Great Migration and Harlem Renaissance). • Espionage and Sedition Acts: Laws that made it a crime to speak out against the war and hinder the draft.
What is Propaganda? • A way of manipulating people using images and words to achieve a desired outcome. • Propaganda clouds reality and interferes with clear and honest thinking. • During wartime, propaganda is designed to provide a focus for our mistrust and hatred and to dehumanize the enemy.
World War I – The Homefront Selective Service Act (1917) – required all men from the age of 21 to 30 to register for the military draft · By 1918, approximately 4 million Americans joined the armed forces.
1917 – Selective Service Act 24, 000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 4, 800, 000 men served in WW 1 (2, 000 saw active combat). 400, 000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15, 000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.
The Most Famous Recruitment Poster
Women Used In Recruitment Hello, Big Boy!
WAR PROPAGANDA POSTERS
Uncle Sam—He the Man!
Don’t Mess with the U. S.
Committee on Public Information • Formed by President Wilson, headed by George Creel • Established voluntary censorship of the press and created a propaganda campaign for the country’s support of WWI. • Portrayed the Germans as barbaric and urged all citizens to spy on neighbors with foreign names. • Encouraged reporting of suspicious activities to the Justice Department.
Creel Commission Film
The “Mad Brute”
“Huns Kill Women and Children!”
The “Little Soldier”
FOOD ADMINISTRATION • HEADED BY FUTURE PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER, NEVER IMPOSED SPECIFIC RATIONS BUT RELIED UPON VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION • RATION: TO LIMIT THE AMOUNT OF FOOD OR RESOURCES PEOPLE CAN USE • FAMOUS SLOGAN “FOOD WILL WIN THE WAR – DON’T WASTE IT” • THE U. S. HAD TO PROVIDE FOOD FOR ITS OWN CITIZENS AS WELL AS THE ALLIED COUNTRIES
NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD • HEADED BY EX-PRESIDENT TAFT WAS FORMED TO UNIFY LABOR POLICIES AND SERVED AS THE COURT FOR LABOR DISPUTES • PRESIDENT WILSON HOPED TO PREVENT STRIKES AS THEY COULD STOP PRODUCTION OF MUCH NEEDED GOODS FOR THE WAR • DURING THE WAR THERE WERE OVER 6, 000 STRIKES, AND THE NWLB HEARD OVER 1, 000 CASES • THE NWLB ALSO WORKED TO IMPROVE WORKING CONDITIONS: AN EIGHT-HOUR WORKDAY WAS ESTABLISHED IN SOME AREAS, AND STANDARDS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN WERE ESTABLISHED
Paying for the War • The war cost the United States approximately 34 billion dollars. • The war, in part, was financed by the sale of Liberty and Victory Bonds. • The Graduated Income Tax also provided much needed revenue for the government
Even Grandma Buys Liberty Bonds
Beat Back the “Hun”
Council of National Defense War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch Food Administration – Herbert Hoover Railroad Administration – William Mc. Adoo National War Labor Board – W. H. Taft & Frank P. Walsh
War Industry Board • Centralized planning to promulgate the war effort. • Coordinated all facets of industrialized and agricultural planning. • The W. I. B. controlled the distribution of raw materials, production, prices and labor relations. • Herbert Hoover was appointed as head of food administration.
WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD • CREATED BY PRESIDENT WILSON AND HEADED BY BERNARD BARUCH • TO INCREASE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION AND COORDINATE DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES • THE GOVERNMENT TOOK OVER ALL FACTORIES AND RAN THEM LIKE ONE BIG FACTORY • THE BOARD INSTRUCTED THE FACTORIES ON WHAT TO PRODUCE, HOW MUCH TO PRODUCE, AND THE COST OF THE ITEMS • WOMEN'S BLOUSE FACTORIES MADE SIGNAL FLAGS • RADIATOR MANUFACTURERS MADE GUNS • AUTOMOBILE FACTORIES MADE AIRPLANE ENGINES • PIANO COMPANIES MADE AIRPLANE WINGS
Women during WWI • WWI created numerous opportunities for women. • Although the number of women in the workforce did not increase greatly, their means of employment changed: Many women started working in war related industries and factories.
WOMEN TOOK THE JOBS LEFT BEHIND BY THE MEN
NURSES CONTRIBUTED TO THE WAR EFFORT
YWCA – The Blue Triangle
The Girls They Left Behind Do Their Bit!
The Red Cross - Greatest Mother in the World
The Red Cross Nurse
National League for Woman’s Service
How did the War Affect the US? • Women filled factory jobs • May have led 19 th Ammendment after the war (Gave women the right to vote) • African Americans • Black soldiers still served in Segregated Units • “Great Migration” - thousands of African Americans moved North to work in factories
Opportunities for African-Americans in WW 1 “Great Migration. ” 1916 – 1919 70, 000 War industries work. Enlistment in segregated units.
African Americans and WWI • African Americans continued to fight in segregated units • Because of the job opportunities that were created by the draft many African Americans finally left the South. • They settled in major northern cities and made significant cultural contribution in the fields of art, music and literature that would eventually lead to the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920’s
African Americans during WWI • 400, 000 were either drafted or enlisted • Were kept in segregated units and generally used in labor battalions or in support activities. • At home, many African Americans migrated from the South into northern cities seeking manufacturing jobs. • This migration led to the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920’s.
Espionage and Sedition Acts • Espionage Act: made it illegal to try to convince someone to dodge the military draft. • Sedition Act: Made it illegal to obstruct the sale of war bonds or to speak disparagingly about the government, flag, military or constitution, • These laws were used by the government to suppress unpopular ideas and are examples of how the federal government limits our rights during times of war.
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 1. Espionage Act – 1917 - forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military. - ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail. - fines of up to $10, 000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 2. Sedition Act – 1918 - it was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt. , the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.
SCHENCK V. U. S. • CHARLES SCHENCK, A SOCIALIST, OPPOSED THE WAR. • HE MAILED 15, 000 PAMPHLETS TO RECENT DRAFTEES, URGING THEM TO RESIST THE DRAFT • HE WAS ARRESTED AND CONVICTED FOR VIOLATING THE ESPIONAGE ACT. • ON APPEAL, HE ARGUED THAT HE WAS EXERCISING HIS FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHT TO FREE SPEECH. • THE SUPREME COURT UPHELD THE CONVICTION IN 1919 AND JUSTICE HOLMES RULED THAT FREEDOM OF SPEECH COULD BE RESTRICTED WHEN THE WORDS PRESENTED A “CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER”. HE USED THE EXAMPLE OF YELLING “FIRE!” WHEN THERE WAS NONE IN A CROWDED THEATER.
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 3. Schenck v. US – 1919 - in ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the 1 st Amendment. - BUT, every act of speech must be judged acc. to the circumstances in which it was spoken. -The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. [Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes] - If an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech.
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 6. “The Red Scare”: M 1919 - 3 rd. International goal --> promote worldwide communism. M Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer (The Case Against the Reds) M Palmer Raids - 1920
Federal Bureau of Investigation • The F. B. I. was founded by J. Edgar Hoover in an effort to prevent the spread of communism following the Russian Revolutions of 1917. • The F. B. I. conducted the Palmer Raids, investigated labor unions (International Workers of the World) and had the authority to investigate anyone suspected of promoting unpopular ideas.
“Red Scare” – Palmer Raids Police Arrest “Suspected Reds’ in Chicago, 1920
“Red Scare” – Palmer Raids A. Mitchell Palmer’s Home Bombed, 1920
“Red Scare” -- Anti. Bolshevism “Put Them Out & Keep Them Out” – Philadelphia Inquirer
The “Red Scare” “What a Year Has Brought Forth” – NY World
Rationing • When the federal government controls the distribution of scarce resources to focus the economy on winning the war. • Gas, food, oil, rubber, iron, etc…
FUEL ADMINISTRATION • HEADED BY HARRY A. GARFIELD, SON OF THE MURDERED PRESIDENT • DESIGNED TO CONTROL AMERICA’S USE OF FUEL SINCE IT WAS NEEDED OVERSEAS • AS WITH THE FOOD ADMINISTRATION, AMERICANS WERE ASKED TO VOLUNTARILY CONSERVE THEIR USE OF FUEL • LIGHTLESS NIGHTS AND GASLESS DAYS WERE OBSERVED • DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME WAS OBSERVED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN U. S. HISTORY IN ORDER TO CUT BACK ON THE USE OF FUEL AND ELECTRICITY.
U. S. Fuel Administration
U. S. Food Administration
U. S. Food Administration
U. S. Food Administration
Organizing the War Effort Food: · Americans learned to conserve food for the soldiers. Examples: • “wheatless Monday’s” • “meatless Tuesday’s”
National War Garden Commission
· In order to support the troops “victory gardens” were grown by people throughout the nation.
U. S. School Garden Army
National War Labor Board • Headed by William Howard Taft • An agency that was designed to mediate disputes between labor unions and big businesses in an effort to avoid strikes. • National strikes jeopardized the war effort.
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 5. Post-war labor unrest: Coal Miners Strike of 1919. Steel Strike of 1919. Boston Police Strike of 1919.
Anti-Labor “If Capital & Labor Don’t Pull Together” – Chicago Tribune
Coal Miners’ Strike - 1919 “Keeping Warm” – Los Angeles Times
Steel Strike - 1919 “Coming Out of the Smoke” – New York World
Boston Police Strike 1919 “He gives aid & comfort to the enemies of society” – Chicago Tribune
Consequences of Labor Unrest “While We Rock the Boat” – Washington Times
Boston Police Strike - 1919 “Striking Back” – New York Evening World
Eugene V. Debs • A radical labor leader who was jailed for making an anti-war speech. • Member of the Socialist party in the United States. • Debs was also jailed in 1894 when the American Railway Union went Railway Company. • President Cleveland claimed that this strike obstructed the delivery of the U. S. mail. As a result, he sent in soldiers to break the strike. • Debs defied a court injunction to was arrested and convicted.
Fourteen Points • President Wilson’s peace program after WWI. Among them were: • Self Determination: The right of a people to elect their leaders and choose their own government. • Freedom of the Seas • League of Nations: An international organization that was designed to maintain peace. The U. S. never joined the League of Nations, or ratified the Treaty of Versailles, because Americans desired a return to “Normalcy” (isolationism) after WWI and the League of Nations would have drawn the U. S. into international conflicts.
Convincing the American People • Idealism: Fourteen Points What? President Wilson’s Plan for after the war • Fourteen promises, including freedom of the seas & a League of Nations to work for peace President Woodrow Wilson
WILSON PROMOTED THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
SOME BELIEVED THE LEAGUE WAS NECESSARY
SOME PEOPLE WERE SUSPICIOUS OF WILSON’S IDEAS FOR PEACE
OTHERS BELIEVED THE LEAGUE WOULD NOT WORK
Opposition to the 14 points • Led by Henry Cabot Lodge, a Republican Senator from Massachusetts. • Opposed the 14 Points and the Treaty of Versailles because of the possibility that the League of Nations would draw the United States into future European conflicts. • Because Wilson did Nations.
Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles • The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty that resulted from the Paris Peace Conference • Germany was held responsible for the War (War Guilt Clause), required to pay reparations, and limited to a small defensive military. • New nations were formed: Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary and Poland. Each new country was promised the right of Self Determination. • A League of Nations was formed to promote international peace. • Freedom of the Seas • No secret alliances • Reduction in Armaments and tarriffs
Henry Cabot Lodge • Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and a bitter political enemy of President Wilson. • A Reservationist: Someone who supported the Treaty of Versailles, but only if substantial modifications were made. • Lodge’s chief objection was to the League of Nations charter which stated that the L. O. N. would “respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing independence all members of the League. ” • result, the United States did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the L. . O. N.
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE “BIG FOUR” GEORGE ORLANDO CLEMENCEAU WILSON WANTED TO MAINTAIN TRADE RELATIONS WITH GERMANY BUT WANTED COLONIES WANTED LAND PROMISED DURING WWI WANTED TO PUNISH GERMANY AND PREVENT FUTURE INVASION WANTED 14 POINTS AND FAIR PEACE FOR ALL
LEAGUE OF NATIONS SINCE THE U. S. DID NOT JOIN, THE LEAGUE BECAME INEFFECTIVE IN PREVENTING FUTURE WARS
TREATY OF VERSAILLES SIGNED JUNE 28, 1919
Kellog/Briand Pact • An international agreement signed by the United States an 63 other countries that outlawed war as a tool of diplomacy. X X
Washington Naval Conference • A naval disarmament agreement signed by the United Sates and eight other countries. • The Kellog/Briand Pact and the Washington Naval Conference reflected the isolationist mood of the United States during the 1920’s.
“Return to Normalcy” Warren Harding’s Campaign slogan in 1921 that called for 1) A return to Laissez-Faire Economics after the Progressive Era’s policy of active governmental involvement in the economy. 2)A return to isolationism in international affairs. This desire to remain isolated explains why the United States did not join the League of Nations or ratify the Treaty of Versailles after WWI.
THE SENATE REFUSED TO RATIFY THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES SENATOR HENRY CABOT LODGE LED THE FIGHT AGAINST THE TREATY WILSON NEGOTIATED THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES WITHOUT ANY INPUT FROM THE SENATE WHICH LED TO BITTERNESS. CABOT AND OTHERS ARGUED AGAINST JOINING AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION THAT MIGHT HAVE VETO POWER OVER U. S. ACTIONS. Cabot speech against joining League CARTOON SHOWS WILSON TRYING TO PROTECT THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS FROM THE SENATE.
Poem from the Lost Generation • • • We are the hollow men We are the stuffed men Leaning together Headpiece filled with straw Our dried voices, when We whisper together Are quiet and meaningless As wind in dry grass Or rat’s feet over broken glass In our dry cellar
American Protective League • Volunteer organization that claimed approval of the Justice Department for pressuring support of war. • Persecuted those of German descent • , etc…