OASIS BTP Copyright Choreology Ltd 2001

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OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Choreology® The Science of Dance The OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Choreology® The Science of Dance The Notation of Movement The Interplays of Commerce 1 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 OASIS Business Transaction Protocol Coordinating Inter-organizational OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 OASIS Business Transaction Protocol Coordinating Inter-organizational Commerce alastair. [email protected] com HPTS 2001, Monterey, October 2001 Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 First HPTS — personal background Applications OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 First HPTS — personal background Applications p p Manufacturing Finance Databases Distribution Frameworks System software products 3 www. choreology. com 1978 ICL mainframes/TOTAL 1980 s CODASYL & rdbms Digital TP (ACMS) 1990 s ONC RPC/DCE/CORBA Transarc Encina/OTS 2000 Arjuna JTS, in (and out of) HP 2001 Choreology OASIS BTP Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 OASIS Business Transactions TC Initiated mid-January OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 OASIS Business Transactions TC Initiated mid-January 2001 p BEA, Bowstreet, Sun, Interwoven Inaugural meeting mid-March p p p Three initial submissions: BEA, HP, Choreology Five face-to-face meetings HP, Entrust, IONA, Choreology, Oracle, Talking Blocks, See. Beyond www. oasis-open. org/committees/business-transactions Three implementations underway: HP, TB, Choreology OASIS Committee Specification November 2001 p p TC continues work to maintain specification OASIS Standard mid-2002? 4 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Inter-organizational collaboration/coordination Internal business process Trading OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Inter-organizational collaboration/coordination Internal business process Trading (collaboration) protocol Interlock: coordinated outcome protocol 5 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 (Long-running) Transactions for Web Services XML/SOAP OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 (Long-running) Transactions for Web Services XML/SOAP Compensations, drop less ACID Loosely-coupled Long-running activities 6 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Key BTP Features Two-phase outcome: CANCEL/CONFIRM OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Key BTP Features Two-phase outcome: CANCEL/CONFIRM p p 2 PC 2 PL: object-level transaction model CANCEL can trigger business-contract defined compensation Can also interact or bridge to ACID domain Presumed-failure recovery Autonomous parties p p p Prevent squatting Time-outs and time-ins (anticipated heuristics) Active and preparing phase recovery Carrier-protocol independent p SOAP + SOAP-with-attachments bindings 7 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Autonomous contract-defined interactions BT Protocol defines OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Autonomous contract-defined interactions BT Protocol defines p p Abstract messages (PREPARE/D, CONFIRM/ED, CANCEL/LED etc) State transitions associated with them Response to CONFIRM / CANCEL app-defined p p “Counter-effect contract” Service’s work is finalized or counter-effected according to contract Terminator application p p Knows precise state of counterparties at finish Allows “client-side” workflow to be triggered 8 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions and Atoms Cohesions p p OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions and Atoms Cohesions p p Business logic involved in selection of offerings Not all candidates end up in confirmation set £ p Cohesion composers deliver disparate outcomes £ £ £ p Resolves to a single, atomic outcome No safe data-sharing (but cross-organizational) Identifiable inferiors (atoms) Vectorized REQUEST_CONFIRM, PREPARE etc Atom coordinators deliver single outcome £ £ 9 www. choreology. com Safe data-sharing Conventionally anonymous inferiors (participants) Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Speed, security, extensibility “One-shot” and “one-wire” OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Speed, security, extensibility “One-shot” and “one-wire” optimizations p p p Compounding of protocol messages Association of protocol messages with application messages Relaying of messages to allow one-port or single-authorized link Extensions (scoped by URI) to protocol messages p p p Application information (buy/sell on confirm) Protocol enhancement (closed nesting) Security data, trading community data 10 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Interoperability and Portability Interoperability protocol p OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Interoperability and Portability Interoperability protocol p p p No defined API Messages for interaction with Coodination Hub Map naturally to API in a given language Partial conformance profiles p p Implement only Superior, or Inferior Or only Initiator/Terminator, or Coordination Current initiative to form JSR p p Extended transaction demarcation API in Java, including BTP Domain interaction (XML context flow) 11 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Paper available … End of 10 OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Paper available … End of 10 minutes … More detail follows 12 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 BTP Feature Stack Trading Community Extensions OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 BTP Feature Stack Trading Community Extensions Cohesion Composition Atom Coordination Service-defined Operation Groups 13 www. choreology. com Participants Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Atoms and Cohesions “BTP uses a OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Atoms and Cohesions “BTP uses a two-phase outcome coordination protocol to create atomic effects (results of computations). BTP also permits the composition of such atomic units of work (atoms) into cohesive business transactions (cohesions) which allow application intervention into the selection of the atoms which will be confirmed, and of those which will be cancelled. ” 14 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Atom Coordination: The key BTP roles OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Atom Coordination: The key BTP roles Client side Service side Client Service Initiator/Terminator Application Enroller Protocol Factory Atom Coordinator 15 www. choreology. com Choreology® Participant The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Ask Factory to Create Atom Client OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Ask Factory to Create Atom Client side Service side Client Service Initiator/Terminator Application Enroller BEGIN / BEGUN [contains CONTEXT] Protocol Factory creates Atom Coordinator 16 www. choreology. com Choreology® Participant The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Send Application Message with CONTEXT Client OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Send Application Message with CONTEXT Client side Client Service side CONTEXT Initiator/Terminator Application Service Enroller Protocol Factory Atom Coordinator 17 www. choreology. com Choreology® Participant The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Service creates and ENROLs Participant Client OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Service creates and ENROLs Participant Client side Service side Client Service Enroller Initiator/Terminator Application ENROL / ENROLLED Protocol creates Factory Atom Coordinator 18 www. choreology. com Choreology® Participant The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Service-defined Operation Groups Services provide forward OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Service-defined Operation Groups Services provide forward operations p p Application computations Must log information needed for confirm/cancel Services use Participants to supervise outcome p p Result of group of forward operations is either confirmed … Or counter-effected by cancellation Cancellation behaviour is service-defined 19 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Send Application Reply with CONTEXT_REPLY Client OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Send Application Reply with CONTEXT_REPLY Client side Client Service side CONTEXT_REPLY Initiator/Terminator Application Service Enroller Protocol Factory Atom Coordinator 20 www. choreology. com Choreology® Participant The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 REQUEST_CONFIRM Client side Service side Client OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 REQUEST_CONFIRM Client side Service side Client Initiator/Terminator Application Protocol Service Enroller REQUEST_CONFIRM Factory Atom Coordinator 21 www. choreology. com Choreology® Participant The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Two-phase Confirmation: PREPARE phase Client side OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Two-phase Confirmation: PREPARE phase Client side Service side Client Service Enroller Initiator/Terminator Application Protocol Factory PREPARE / PREPARED Atom Coordinator 22 www. choreology. com Choreology® Participant The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Two-phase Confirmation: Outcome phase Client side OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Two-phase Confirmation: Outcome phase Client side Service side Client Service Enroller Initiator/Terminator Application Protocol Factory CONFIRM / CONFIRMED Atom Coordinator 23 www. choreology. com Choreology® Participant The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 REQUEST_CONFIRM Reply Client side Service side OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 REQUEST_CONFIRM Reply Client side Service side Client Service Initiator/Terminator Application Enroller CONFIRMED Protocol Factory Atom Coordinator 24 www. choreology. com Choreology® Participant The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cancellation Example showed CONFIRM/CONFIRMED Terminating application OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cancellation Example showed CONFIRM/CONFIRMED Terminating application can also send CANCEL p Or the REQUEST_CONFIRM can fail, leading to CANCEL Operation Group = Forward Ops + Participant p p p Participant responsible for cancel or confirm Cancel can be compensation of committed DB transaction Or rollback of uncommitted DB updates 25 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Operation Groups: Effect and Counter-effect p OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Operation Groups: Effect and Counter-effect p p p Forward Operations create an effect … … and durably record information needed by Participant uses log to finalize or to counter-effect Client side Operation Group Service side Service A B Log of A, B CONFIRM CANCEL AB ~AB Participant 26 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 The Counter-effect Contract Effect and Counter-effect OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 The Counter-effect Contract Effect and Counter-effect p Finalize means “complete effect, and throw away log” £ p Finalize is response to CONFIRM Counter-effect means “reverse effect, and throw away log” £ Counter-effect is response to CANCEL Counter-effect Contract p p p Each Operation Group can define counter-effect differently Anything from pure inversion to “we’ll take 75% cancellation fee” Default “counter-effect contract” in specification £ £ 27 www. choreology. com As close to inverse operation as possible Expected to be overridden in many cases Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 2 PC ACID Example #1: Compensation OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 2 PC ACID Example #1: Compensation strategy p Effect includes committed database updates or message enqueues £ p p E. g. debit credit card account Finalization is no-op Counter-effect involves compensatory action £ £ E. g. contra-credit card In whole or in part depending on business contract Example #2: XA RM p p Effect posits but does not commit database updates or MQPUTs Finalization invoke xa_commit £ p Throw away RM undo logs Counter-effect is to invoke xa_rollback £ 28 www. choreology. com Process RM undo logs Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Coordination Hub: An alternate topology Client OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Coordination Hub: An alternate topology Client Service Initiator/Terminator Application Enroller Protocol Factory Atom Coordinator Participant Coordination Hub 29 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Superior-Inferior Relationship Superior [e. g. Coordinator] OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Superior-Inferior Relationship Superior [e. g. Coordinator] PREPARE CONFIRM CANCEL PREPARED CONFIRMED CANCELLED 30 www. choreology. com Choreology® Inferior [e. g. Participant] The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Superiors and Inferiors Superiors transmit outcomes OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Superiors and Inferiors Superiors transmit outcomes p Composer of a Cohesion (spans multiple Atoms) £ p Coordinator of an Atom £ p Can send CONFIRM to some Atoms, and CANCEL to others Sends same outcome to all of its Inferiors (Sub-coordinators, Participants) Sub-composer and Sub-coordinator £ £ Act as Inferior to parent node in transaction tree Act as Superior to children Inferiors “vote” on the outcome p Sub-coordinators and Sub-composers £ p Act as intermediaries connecting decision maker to participants Participants £ 31 www. choreology. com Leaves of the tree: cancel or confirm application (forward) operations Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Transaction Tree Superior [e. g. Coordinator] OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Transaction Tree Superior [e. g. Coordinator] Inferior/Superior [e. g. Sub-coordinator] Inferior [e. g. Participant] 32 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Terminators Volatile Terminators p p Request OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Terminators Volatile Terminators p p Request a Superior to seek to confirm its Inferiors If Superior cannot log required decision it cancel £ £ Superior can contradict Volatile Terminator Ultimate decision maker holds outcome decision durably Superiors are “Persistent Terminators” p p p Log destinations of CONFIRM messages Can be contacted by Inferiors after a crash Able to replay the decision (resend the CONFIRMs) 33 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Failure Recovery Protocol incorporates recovery after OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Failure Recovery Protocol incorporates recovery after failure p p p Superior system, Inferior system or network may fail Must try to re-establish Superior-Inferior relationship Allows outcomes to be replayed Standard “presumed abort” protocol p No durable record (log) equals absence of decision £ Default decision (in absence of evidence to contrary): CANCEL Bi-directional recovery initiation p p Superior can attempt to contact logged Inferiors Inferior can attempt to contact logged Superiors 34 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions: The Concept Cohesion Terminator Inferior OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions: The Concept Cohesion Terminator Inferior Coordinators Superior Composer Buyer Services #1 Inferiors Participants #2 Goods Atom Inferiors Participants Shipping Atom 35 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions: PREPARE both Atoms Cohesion Terminator OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions: PREPARE both Atoms Cohesion Terminator Superior Composer PREPARE #1, #2 Buyer Inferior Coordinators Superior P P #1 Services PREPARE Inferiors Participants PREPARE #2 PREPARE Goods Atom PREPARE Inferiors Participants Shipping Atom 36 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions: both are PREPARED Cohesion Terminator OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions: both are PREPARED Cohesion Terminator INFERIOR_ STATUSES Superior Composer #1 P’d #2 P’d Buyer Inferior Coordinators Superior P’d #1 Services PREPARED Inferiors Participants PREPARED #2 PREPARED Goods Atom PREPARED Inferiors Participants Shipping Atom 37 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions: CONFIRM #1 ( CANCEL #2) OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions: CONFIRM #1 ( CANCEL #2) Cohesion Terminator Superior Composer REQUEST_ CONFIRM #1 CONFIRM CANCEL Buyer Inferior Coordinators Superior #1 Services CONFIRM Inferiors Participants CONFIRM #2 CANCEL Goods Atom CANCEL Inferiors Participants Shipping Atom 38 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions: #1 CONFIRMED, #2 CANCELLED Cohesion OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions: #1 CONFIRMED, #2 CANCELLED Cohesion Terminator INFERIOR_ STATUSES Superior Composer #1 CO’d #2 CA’d Buyer Inferior Coordinators Superior CO’d CA’d #1 Services CONFIRMED #2 Inferiors Participants CANCELLED Goods Atom CANCELLED Inferiors Participants Shipping Atom 39 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions rely on “Open-top” Coordinator Cohesion OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Cohesions rely on “Open-top” Coordinator Cohesion Terminator Cohesion Composer “Open-top” Atom Coordinators #1 PREPARE / PREPARED REQUEST_ CONFIRM #1 #1 CO’d #2 CA’d INFERIOR_ STATUSES CANCEL / CONFIRMED PREPARE / PREPARED CANCEL / CANCELLED #2 40 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Long-running features Superior and Inferior negotiate OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Long-running features Superior and Inferior negotiate time band p Inferior to cancel or confirm after (at least) n seconds £ £ p p Superior qualifies the PREPARE message Inferior qualifies the PREPARED message Prevents coordinator hogging service provider’s resources Prevents service wasting coordinator’s time Active and prepare phase recovery p Allows Superior/Inferior re-synch after failures £ p Standard 2 PC protocols allow recovery only after prepared BTP treats failure as a potential interruption £ 41 www. choreology. com Standard 2 PC protocols treat any failure as cause to cancel Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Messaging All BTP messages are XML OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Messaging All BTP messages are XML documents p p Can be compounded for optimization “One-shot requests”: only 2 WAN messages instead of 6 £ p p Application request + ENROL/PREPARE Can be routed via Communicators “One wire” application topologies £ All traffic between two business entities over a single, authenticated link Binding of abstract set to SOAP p Defined in the specification Other bindings are possible p To any underlying communications protocol stack 42 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 “Trading Community” Extensions QUALIFIERs can be OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 “Trading Community” Extensions QUALIFIERs can be embedded in messages p p Some are defined within BTP URN Implementers/applications can define their own Allows “trading communities” to define extensions to protocol messages p p E. g. Could be used by trading parties to add security data E. g. Could be used by implementer to add full nested transactions Allows application data to travel with protocol p p Example: confirm a two-way quote Must include “buy” or “sell” in CONFIRM 43 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce

OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Do Business Together with Business Transactions OASIS BTP. Copyright © Choreology Ltd. , 2001 Do Business Together with Business Transactions Insuring Collaboration for XML Services Internal Business Process Collaboration Process BTP Collaboration Process Internal Business Process 44 www. choreology. com Choreology® The Interplays of Commerce




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