Скачать презентацию Nu Fact 09 Beta Beams Elena Wildner CERN Скачать презентацию Nu Fact 09 Beta Beams Elena Wildner CERN

fe4a6188e17d5fdc42b754c358030242.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 43

Nu. Fact 09 Beta Beams Elena Wildner, CERN Nu. Fact 09, July 20 -25, Nu. Fact 09 Beta Beams Elena Wildner, CERN Nu. Fact 09, July 20 -25, 2009 — Illinois Institute of Technology — Chicago 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 1

Outline n n n 22/07/09 Beta Beam Concepts A Beta Beam Scenario Ion Production Outline n n n 22/07/09 Beta Beam Concepts A Beta Beam Scenario Ion Production Other challenges Conclusion Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 2

Beta-beams, recall Aim: production of (anti-)neutrino beams from the beta decay of radioactive ions Beta-beams, recall Aim: production of (anti-)neutrino beams from the beta decay of radioactive ions circulating in a storage ring n Similar concept to the neutrino factory, but parent particle is a beta-active isotope instead of a muon. Beta-decay at rest n n n Accelerate parent ion to relativistic gmax n n n Boosted neutrino energy spectrum: En 2 g. Q Forward focusing of neutrinos: 1/g Pure electron (anti-)neutrino beam! n n n n-spectrum well known from the electron spectrum Reaction energy Q typically of a few Me. V E 0 Depending on b+- or b- - decay we get a neutrino or anti-neutrino Two different parent ions for neutrino and anti-neutrino beams Physics applications of a beta-beam n n Primarily neutrino oscillation physics and CP-violation Cross-sections of neutrino-nucleus interaction 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 3

Choice of radioactive ion species n Beta-active isotopes n n n Production rates Life Choice of radioactive ion species n Beta-active isotopes n n n Production rates Life time Dangerous rest products Reactivity (Noble gases are good) n n n 6 He and 18 Ne 1 ms – 1 s 1 – 60 s Reasonable lifetime at rest n n t 1/2 at rest (ground state) If too short: decay during acceleration If too long: low neutrino production Optimum life time given by acceleration scenario In the order of a second 8 Li and 8 B Nu. Base Low Z preferred n n n Minimize ratio of accelerated mass/charges per neutrino produced One ion produces one neutrino. Reduce space charge problems 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 4

The EURISOL scenario(*) boundaries n n n Based on CERN boundaries Ion choice: 6 The EURISOL scenario(*) boundaries n n n Based on CERN boundaries Ion choice: 6 He and 18 Ne Based on existing technology and machines n n n EURISOL scenario Ion production through ISOL technique Bunching and first acceleration: ECR, linac Rapid cycling synchrotron Use of existing machines: PS and SPS Relativistic gamma=100 for both ions n n SPS allows maximum of 150 (6 He) or 250 (18 Ne) Gamma choice optimized for physics reach Opportunity to share a Mton Water Cherenkov detector with a CERN super-beam, proton decay studies and a neutrino observatory n n Achieve an annual neutrino rate of n n n (*) top-down approach 2. 9*1018 anti-neutrinos from 6 He 1. 1 1018 neutrinos from 18 Ne The EURISOL scenario will serve as reference for further studies and developments: Within Euron we will study 8 Li and 8 B 22/07/09 FP 6 "Structuring the European Research Area" programme Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner (CARE, contract number RII 3 -CT-2003 -506395) 5

Some scaling n Accelerators can accelerate ions up to Z/A × the proton energy. Some scaling n Accelerators can accelerate ions up to Z/A × the proton energy. n L ~ En / Dm 2 ~ g. Q , Flux ~ L− 2 => Flux ~ Q − 2 n Cross section ~ En ~ g Q n n 22/07/09 Merit factor for an experiment at the atmospheric oscillation maximum: M= g /Q Decay ring length scales ~ g (ion lifetime) Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 6

The EURISOL scenario Decay ring Br = 1500 Tm Aimed: He 2. 9 1018 The EURISOL scenario Decay ring Br = 1500 Tm Aimed: He 2. 9 1018 ( 2. 0 1013/s after target) Ne 1. 1 1018 ( 2. 0 1013/s after target) B = ~6 T C = ~6900 m Lss= ~2500 m 6 He: 18 Ne: g = 100 93 Ge. V 0. 4 Ge. V 8. 7 Ge. V 1. 7 Ge. V Design report July 2009 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 7

ECR, Linac, RCS, Decay Ring (Nufact 08) T. Thuillier, L. Latrasse, T. Lamy, C. ECR, Linac, RCS, Decay Ring (Nufact 08) T. Thuillier, L. Latrasse, T. Lamy, C. Fourel, J. Giraud, LPSC, CNRS/IN 2 P 3 -UJF-INP Grenoble, Trophime, P. Sala, J. Dumas, F. Debray LCMI, CNRS, Grenoble RCS design: A. Lachaize, A. Tkatchenko, IPNO, CNRS 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner LINAC Design: A. Bechtholt, Franfurt am Main Antoine CHANCÉ, Jacques Payet CEA Saclay IRFU/SACM 8

Intensity evolution during acceleration Bunch 20 th total 15 th 10 th 5 th Intensity evolution during acceleration Bunch 20 th total 15 th 10 th 5 th 1 st Cycle optimized for neutrino rate towards the detector 30% of first 6 He bunch injected are reaching decay ring Overall only 50% (6 He) and 80% (18 Ne) reach decay ring Normalization Single bunch intensity to maximum/bunch Total intensity to total number accumulated in RCS Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 9

Radioprotection Residual Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate at 1 m distance from the beam line Radioprotection Residual Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate at 1 m distance from the beam line (m. Sv h -1) RCS (quad - 18 Ne) PS (dip - 6 He) SPS DR (arc - 18 Ne) 1 hour 15 10 - 5. 4 1 day 3 6 - 3. 6 1 week 2 2 - 1. 4 Not a show stopper Annual Effective Dose to the Reference Population (m. Sv) RCS PS SPS DR 0. 67 0. 64 - 5. 6 (only decay losses) Stefania Trovati, Matteo Magistris, CERN 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 10

Activation and coil damage in the PS M. Kirk et. al GSI The coils Activation and coil damage in the PS M. Kirk et. al GSI The coils could support 60 years operation with a EURISOL type beta-beam 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 11

Particle turnover in decay ring p-collimation Arc ion ect ht s ses aig y Particle turnover in decay ring p-collimation Arc ion ect ht s ses aig y los Str deca injection merging Momentum collimation Arc Straight section n Momentum collimation (study ongoing): ~5*1012 6 He ions to be collimated per cycle Decay: ~5*1012 6 Li ions to be removed per cycle per meter 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 12

Duty factor and Cavities for He/Ne 1014 ions, 2% !!! . . 20 bunches, Duty factor and Cavities for He/Ne 1014 ions, 2% !!! . . 20 bunches, 10 ns long, distance 23*4 nanosseconds filling 1/11 of the Decay Ring, repeated every 23 microseconds Erk Jensen, CERN Elena Wildner, June -09 Beta Beams, SPC Panel Neutrinos 13

Open Midplane Dipole for Decay Ring Cos 2 design open midplane magnet Manageable (7 Open Midplane Dipole for Decay Ring Cos 2 design open midplane magnet Manageable (7 T operational) with Nb -Ti at 1. 9 K Aluminum spacers possible on midplane to retain forces: gives transparency to the decay products Special cooling and radiation dumps may be needed inside yoke. J. Bruer, E. Todesco, CERN 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 14

Open mid-plane Quadrupole Mid-plane Energy deposited Acknowledgments (magnet design): F Borgnolutti, E. Todesco (CERN) Open mid-plane Quadrupole Mid-plane Energy deposited Acknowledgments (magnet design): F Borgnolutti, E. Todesco (CERN) 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner Open mid-plane 15

Open mid-plane Quadrupole Opening angle Acknowledgments (magnet design): F Borgnolutti, E. Todesco (CERN) 22/07/09 Open mid-plane Quadrupole Opening angle Acknowledgments (magnet design): F Borgnolutti, E. Todesco (CERN) 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 16

Options for production n ISOL method at 1 -2 Ge. V (200 k. W) Options for production n ISOL method at 1 -2 Ge. V (200 k. W) n n Aimed: He 2. 9 1018 (2. 0 1013/s) Ne 1. 1 1018 (2. 0 1013/s) Direct production n n >1 1013 6 He per second <8 1011 18 Ne per second Studied within EURISOL >1 1013 (? ) 6 He per second 1 1013 18 Ne per second Studied at LLN, Soreq, WI and GANIL Production ring n n n 1014 (? ) 8 Li >1013 (? ) 8 B Will be studied Within EUROn Courtesy M. Lindroos N. B. Nuclear Physics has limited interest in those elements => Production rates not pushed! Try to get ressources to persue ideas how to produce Ne! 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 17

Options for production n ISOL method at 1 -2 Ge. V (200 k. W) Options for production n ISOL method at 1 -2 Ge. V (200 k. W) n n Aimed: He 2. 9 1018 (2. 0 1013/s) Ne 1. 1 1018 (2. 0 1013/s) Direct production n n >1 1013 6 He per second <8 1011 18 Ne per second Studied within EURISOL >1 1013 (? ) 6 He per second 1 1013 18 Ne per second Studied at LLN, Soreq, WI and GANIL Production ring n n n 1014 (? ) 8 Li >1013 (? ) 8 B Will be studied Within EUROn Courtesy M. Lindroos N. B. Nuclear Physics has limited interest in those elements => Production rates not pushed! Try to get ressources to persue ideas to produce Ne! 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 18

6 He (ISOL) Converter technology: (J. Nolen, NPA 701 (2002) 312 c) T. Stora, 6 He (ISOL) Converter technology: (J. Nolen, NPA 701 (2002) 312 c) T. Stora, N. Thollieres, CERN n n Converter technology preferred to direct irradiation (heat transfer and efficient cooling allows higher power compared to insulating Be. O). 6 He production rate is ~2 x 1013 ions/s (dc) for ~200 k. W on target. Recent measurements at ISOLDE 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 19

Options for production Courtesy M. Lindroos n ISOL method at 1 -2 Ge. V Options for production Courtesy M. Lindroos n ISOL method at 1 -2 Ge. V (200 k. W) n n Aimed: He 2. 9 1018 (2. 0 1013/s) Ne 1. 1 1018 (2. 0 1013/s) Direct production n n >1 1013 6 He per second <8 1011 18 Ne per second Studied within EURISOL >1 1013 (? ) 6 He per second 1 1013 18 Ne per second Studied at LLN, Soreq, WI and GANIL Production ring n n n 1014 (? ) 8 Li >1013 (? ) 8 B Will be studied Within EUROn N. B. Nuclear Physics has limited interest in those elements => Production rates not pushed! Try to get ressources to persue ideas to produce Ne! 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 20

18 Ne (Direct Production) Geometric scaling n n n Producing 1013 18 Ne could 18 Ne (Direct Production) Geometric scaling n n n Producing 1013 18 Ne could be possible with a beam power (at low energy) of 2 MW (or some 130 m. A 3 He beam on Mg. O). To keep the power density similar to LLN (today) the target has to be 60 cm in diameter. To be studied: n n n Thin Mg. O target Extraction efficiency Ion Optimum energy beam Cooling of target unit High intensity and low energy ion linac High intensity ion source Water cooled target holder and beam dump S. Mitrofanov and M. Loislet at CRC, Belgium T. Stora, CERN, 2009 -> ? 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 21

6 He n n n (Two Stage ISOL) Studied 9 Be(n, α)6 He, 11 6 He n n n (Two Stage ISOL) Studied 9 Be(n, α)6 He, 11 B(n, a)8 Li and 9 Be(n, 2 n)8 Be production For a 2 m. A, 40 Me. V deuteron beam, the upper limit for the 6 He production rate via the two stage targets setup is ~6∙ 1013 atoms per second. Interesting also for 8 Li T. Y. Hirsh, D. Berkovits, M. Hass (Soreq, Weizmann I. ) It seems we can produce plenty of antineutrinos… 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 22

Options for production n ISOL method at 1 -2 Ge. V (200 k. W) Options for production n ISOL method at 1 -2 Ge. V (200 k. W) n n Aimed: He 2. 9 1018 (2. 0 1013/s) Ne 1. 1 1018 (2. 0 1013/s) Direct production n n >1 1013 6 He per second <8 1011 18 Ne per second Studied within EURISOL >1 1013 (? ) 6 He per second 1 1013 18 Ne per second Studied at LLN, Soreq, WI and GANIL Production ring n n n 1014 (? ) 8 Li Difficult Chemistry >1013 (? ) 8 B Will be studied Within EUROn Courtesy M. Lindroos N. B. Nuclear Physics has limited interest in those elements => Production rates not pushed! Try to get ressources to persue ideas to produce Ne! 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 23

New approaches for ion production “Beam cooling with ionisation losses” – C. Rubbia, A New approaches for ion production “Beam cooling with ionisation losses” – C. Rubbia, A Ferrari, Y. Kadi and V. Vlachoudis in NIM A 568 (2006) 475– 487 “Development of FFAG accelerators and their applications for intense secondary particle production”, Y. Mori, NIM A 562(2006)591 Supersonic gas jet target, stripper and absorber 7 Li 6 Li 7 Li(d, p)8 Li 6 Li(3 He, n)8 B From C. Rubbia, et al. in NIM A 568 (2006) 475– 487 Studied within Euron FP 7 (*) FP 7 “Design Studies” (Research Infrastructures) EUROnu Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner (Grant agreement no. : 212372) 24

Beta Beam scenario EUROnu, FP 7 Ion Linac 20 Me. V Ion production PR Beta Beam scenario EUROnu, FP 7 Ion Linac 20 Me. V Ion production PR n-beam to experiment 8 B/8 Li Decay ring ISOL target, Collection Br ~ 500 Tm Existing!!! 60 GHz pulsed ECR Linac, 0. 4 Ge. V PS 2 31 Ge. V SPS 92 Ge. V Neutrino Source Decay Ring B = ~6 T C = ~6900 m Lss= ~2500 m 8 Li: 18 B: g = 100 . RCS, 5 Ge. V Detector Gran Sasso (~ 5 times higher Q) 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 25

The beta-beam in EURONU DS (I) n The study will focus on production issues The beta-beam in EURONU DS (I) n The study will focus on production issues for 8 Li and 8 B n n 8 B is highly reactive and has never been produced as an ISOL beam Production ring: enhanced direct production n n n Ring lattice design (CERN) Cooling (CERN +) Collection of the produced ions, release efficiencies and cross sections for the reactions (UCL, INFN, ANL) Sources ECR (LPSC, GHMFL) Supersonic Gas injector (PPPL +) CERN Complex n n n 22/07/09 All machines to be simulated with B and Li (CERN, CEA) PS 2 presently under design (apertures!) Multiple Charge State Linacs (P Ostroumov, ANL) Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 26

Associated partners in EURONU DS Possible realization with one detector only (price) nm-beam: SPL: Associated partners in EURONU DS Possible realization with one detector only (price) nm-beam: SPL: = 260 Me. V Lopt = 134 km CERN – Frejus: 130 km ne-beam: g = 150 Lopt = 130 km g = 500 Lopt = 1000 km 3 -Flavor Oscillation needs two significantly different baselines CERN – Frejus: 130 km DESY – Frejus: 960 km to disentangle CP and matter effects 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 27

The production Ring: Ion Source for Beta Beams wedged Gas Jet-Target RF Cavity 12 The production Ring: Ion Source for Beta Beams wedged Gas Jet-Target RF Cavity 12 m circumference mirror symmetrical structure 1. 5 T dipoles 5 quadrupole-families Dx = 0 in cavity-section best choice of Dx in target-section depends on wedge angle of the target Symmetry Point Michaela Schaumann , Aachen/CERN, 2009 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 28

Simulations, Production Ring (ion source) GEANT 4 Jokob Wehner, Aachen/CERN, 2009 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Simulations, Production Ring (ion source) GEANT 4 Jokob Wehner, Aachen/CERN, 2009 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 29

The production ring cooling: review 7 Li(d, p)8 Li 7 Li 6 Li(3 He, The production ring cooling: review 7 Li(d, p)8 Li 7 Li 6 Li(3 He, n)8 B 6 Li Low-energy Ionization cooling of ions for Beta Beam sources – From C. Rubbia, et al. in NIM A 568 (2006) 475– 487 D. Neuffer (FERMILAB-FN-0808 -APC) Mini-workshop Fermilab next week on Beta Beams, ionization cooling (David Neuffer ) 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 30

Challenge: collection device n A large proportion of beam particles (6 Li) will be Challenge: collection device n A large proportion of beam particles (6 Li) will be scattered into the collection device. Production of 8 Li and 8 B: 7 Li(d, p) 8 Li and 6 Li(3 He, n) 8 B reactions using low energy and low intensity ~ 1 n. A beams of 6 Li(4 -15 Me. V) and 7 Li(10 -25 Me. V) hitting the deuteron or 3 He target. n Rutherford scattered particles n n 8 B-ions n Semen Mitrofanov Marc Loiselet Thierry Delbar Collection on axis 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 31

Collection Device, Schedule n n n Semen Mitrofanov Marc Loiselet Thierry Delbar n First Collection Device, Schedule n n n Semen Mitrofanov Marc Loiselet Thierry Delbar n First beam runs – November÷December’ 09 – several two days runs Full-time beam tests - January÷February’ 10 n End of the summer’ 10 - we hope we will finished with 8 Li. n Terra Incognita: “We have 1 years to discover how to produce 8 B beam of necessary intensity and 1. 5 year to develop the production technique » 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 32

Cross section measurements at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro M. Mezzetto (INFN-Pd) on behalf of Cross section measurements at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro M. Mezzetto (INFN-Pd) on behalf of INFN-LNL: M. Cinausero, G. De Angelis, G. Prete First Experiment performed in July 2008 Inverse kinematic reaction: 7 Li + Cd 2 target E=25 Me. V 7 Li Data reduction in progress Future: reduce contamination 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 33

ECR Source 100 k. V insulation Gas Ground V=0 MW window V= 100 k. ECR Source 100 k. V insulation Gas Ground V=0 MW window V= 100 k. V T. Lami polyhelix 60 GHz Microwaves polyhelix Multi electrode extraction Ions extraction ECR polyhelix insulator Water cooled plasma chamber 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 34

How to get a 60 GHz Gyrotron and perform experiments? Use any external resources How to get a 60 GHz Gyrotron and perform experiments? Use any external resources possible (collaborate!!) T. Lami ISTC project: IAP Nizhny Novgorod (Plasma physics theory and experiments, gyrotron manufacturing) LPSC in this programme will be responsible of the design and construction of various ECR ion sources with the help of LNCMI has committed itself to the magnetic characterization (i. e. a permanent room for experiments + electrical Power!!) Geert Rikken Director of the LNCMI Estimated total cost of the project (US $) 1 000 Requested from the ISTC 710 000 Other financial source 1: LPSC 290 000

Associates n Weizmann Institue of Science, Revohot q q q n Work Focus q Associates n Weizmann Institue of Science, Revohot q q q n Work Focus q q q n Michael Hass Partners: GANIL and Soreq Collaboration with Aachen (exchange of students) produce light radioactive isotopes also for beta beams secondary neutrons from an intense, 40 Me. V d beam (6 He and 8 Li) and direct production with 3 He or 4 He beams (18 Ne). Use of superconducting LINACs such as SARAF at Soreq (Israel) and the driver for SPIRAL-II (GANIL). Added Value q To produce strong beta beam ion candidates or production methods not in EUROnu Courtesy Micha Hass 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 36

He/Ne & Li/B o 3. 13 x 1012 1. 04 x 1014 Courtesy Christian He/Ne & Li/B o 3. 13 x 1012 1. 04 x 1014 Courtesy Christian Hansen May 2009 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 37

No dutycycle 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 38 No dutycycle 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 38

Barrier Buckets, relaxed duty factor See Poster Session today : Christian Hansen (CERN) Elena Barrier Buckets, relaxed duty factor See Poster Session today : Christian Hansen (CERN) Elena Wildner, June -09 Beta Beams, SPC Panel Neutrinos 39

Gamma and decay-ring size, 6 He Gamma Rigidity [Tm] Ring length T=5 T f=0. Gamma and decay-ring size, 6 He Gamma Rigidity [Tm] Ring length T=5 T f=0. 36 Dipole Field rho=300 m Length=6885 m 100 150 200 350 500 938 1404 1867 3277 4678 4916 6421 7917 12474 17000 3. 1 4. 7 6. 2 10. 9 15. 6 Magnet R&D Elena Wildner, June -09 Beta Beams, SPC Panel Neutrinos 40

Conclusions (i) n The EURISOL beta-beam conceptual design report will be presented in second Conclusions (i) n The EURISOL beta-beam conceptual design report will be presented in second half of 2009 First coherent study of a beta-beam facility n Top down approach n 18 Ne shortfall n Duty Factors are challenging: Collimation and RF in Decay Ring n 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 41

Conclusions (ii) n A beta-beam facility using 8 Li and 8 B (EUROnu) n Conclusions (ii) n A beta-beam facility using 8 Li and 8 B (EUROnu) n n n n 22/07/09 Experience from EURISOL Production issues (not to forget 18 Ne) Optimize chain Revisit Duty Factors Apertures of PS 2 (Complete) simulation of beta beam complex Costing (add what is not in EUROnu) First results will come from Euronu DS (2008 -2012) Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 42

Acknowledgements FP 6 Acknowledgements FP 6 "Structuring the European Research Area" programme (CARE, contract number RII 3 -CT-2003 -506395) and FP 7 “Design Studies” (Research Infrastructures) EUROnu (Grant agreement no. : 212372) Particular thanks to M. Benedikt, FP 6 Leader M. Lindroos, and all contributing institutes and collaborators 22/07/09 Beta Beams, Nufact 09, Elena Wildner 43