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NPOESS Program Overview HDF Workshop IX, December 2005 Alan M. Goldberg agoldber@mitre. org NPOESS Program Overview HDF Workshop IX, December 2005 Alan M. Goldberg [email protected] org

Outline o o Program overview Mission data processing and external interfaces Recent changes Status Outline o o Program overview Mission data processing and external interfaces Recent changes Status This presentation is drawn from published materials by the program and others.

We’re going a long way … The Historical Context EOS-Aqua MODIS Image-250 m First We’re going a long way … The Historical Context EOS-Aqua MODIS Image-250 m First Image from TIROS-1 Saharan Dust off the Canary Islands 18 February 2004 Source: Polar. Max NPOESS System Overview, NGST & Raytheon, 27 Oct 2005 3

NPOESS Mission METOP • Provide a national, operational, polar-orbiting remote-sensing capability NPOESS • Achieve NPOESS Mission METOP • Provide a national, operational, polar-orbiting remote-sensing capability NPOESS • Achieve National Performance Review (NPR) savings by converging Do. D and NOAA satellite programs 1730 1330 • Incorporate new technologies 2130 from NASA • Encourage international Specialized Satellites cooperation Local Equatorial Crossing Time NPOESS Tri-agency Effort to Leverage and Combine Environmental Satellite Activities Source: Polar. Max NPOESS System Overview, NGST & Raytheon, 27 Oct 2005 4

The Evolution to NPOESS 1960 - 2010 2000 - 2010 NPP DMSP (NPOESS Preparatory The Evolution to NPOESS 1960 - 2010 2000 - 2010 NPP DMSP (NPOESS Preparatory Project) (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) POES (Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites) 2010 – 2020+ NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System) EOS (Earth Observing System) Sensor data rate: 1. 5 Mbps Data latency: 100 -150 min. 15 Mbps sensor data rate Data latency: 100 -180 min. Data availability: 98% Ground revisit time: 12 hrs. 1. 7 Gigabytes per day (DMSP) 6. 3 Gigabytes per day (POES) 2. 6 Terabytes per day (EOS) 2. 4 Terabytes per day (NPP) 20 Mbps sensor data rate Data latency: 28 min. Data availability: 99. 95% Autonomy capability: 60 days Ground revisit time: 4 -6 hrs 8. 1 Terabytes per day NPOESS satisfies evolutionary program needs with enhanced capabilities Source: Polar. Max NPOESS System Overview, NGST & Raytheon, 27 Oct 2005 5

NPOESS Management and Requirements Structures Under Secretary of the Air Force Under Secretary for NPOESS Management and Requirements Structures Under Secretary of the Air Force Under Secretary for Oceans & Atmosphere Deputy Administrator Executive Committee Senior Users Advisory Group (SUAG) • Chair Rotated Every 2 Years • Reps: Do. D, NOAA, & NASA System Program Director Associate Director for Acquisition for Technology Transition for Operations Integrated Program Office Under Secretary of the Air Force replaced Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology & Logistics Joint Agency Requirements Council (JARC) • Vice Chairman JCS • NOAA DUS Commerce For Oceans and Atmosphere • NASA Associate Administrator for Earth Science Joint Agency Requirements Group (JARG) User Community and Stakeholders • Define Requirements

NPOESS Architecture TDRSS GPS TDRSS Space Segment A-DCS 2130 C 3 Segment 1330 1730 NPOESS Architecture TDRSS GPS TDRSS Space Segment A-DCS 2130 C 3 Segment 1330 1730 Svalbard Primary T&C NPP SMD Residuals SARSAT NPOESS Satellites White Sands Complex LEO&A Backup T&C HRD Field Terminal Segment Infra Data Mgt Ingest Launch Support Segment Schriever MMC Contingency Operations Team MMC at Suitland Flight Operations Team • Enterprise Management • Mission Management • Satellite Operations • Data Monitoring & Recovery NPOESS Stored Mission Data Command Telemetry Source: Polar. Max NPOESSNPP Stored Mission. NGST & Raytheon, 27 Oct 2005 System Overview, Data Del Process TM FNMOC Infra Data Mgt Ingest AFWA Data Del Process NAVO 15 Globally Distributed Receptor Sites Interconnected by Commercial Fiber SD S LTA Offline Support Data Del LRD Field Terminal Infra Data Mgt NESDIS Data Del Process NPP 2230 Ingest Interface Data Processing One full Segment set resides in each of the Centrals DQM Infra Data Mgt Ingest 4 Data Handling Nodes reside at each Central 7

NPOESS Concept of Operations 1. Sense Phenomena 2. Downlink Raw Data 3. Transport Data NPOESS Concept of Operations 1. Sense Phenomena 2. Downlink Raw Data 3. Transport Data to Centrals for Processing TSKY T X and L bands O B S TAT Ka-band M L L C L A T M L R N FO G ei Field Terminals j Monitor and Control Satellites and Ground Elements Safety. Net. TM Receptors Global fiber network connects 15 receptors to Centrals 4. Process Raw data into EDRs and Deliver to Centrals MMC (Suitland) Schriever MMC Source: Polar. Max NPOESS System Overview, NGST & Raytheon, 27 Oct 2005 Full IDP Capability at each Central NESDIS, AFWA, FNMOC, NAVO 8

NPOESS Performance System Requirement Categories Performance vs. Specification Data Quality (EDR Attributes) 206 attributes NPOESS Performance System Requirement Categories Performance vs. Specification Data Quality (EDR Attributes) 206 attributes above, 799 at, 49 below spec SMD/HRD 36 attributes above, 557 at, 20 below spec LRD Spec Data Latency TRD Threshold TRD Objective 28 min SMD, 95%@90 min 100%@15 77% 21. 2 min SMD, 15 min 87. 9% 15 min 10 min HRD/LRD Data Availability 99. 95% 99% 94. 3% Operational Availability 93% 95 % Data Access (and Autonomy) Interoperability 99. 99% 100% 95. 6 % Comply SARSAT and A-DCS Endurance/Survivability Comply Exceed 10 years life Non-EDR System Requirements 760 requirements at or above, 10 below spec Source: Polar. Max NPOESS System Overview, NGST & Raytheon, 27 Oct 2005 10

NPOESS Spacecraft Overall • Greater than 7 -year life • Robust propulsion system accommodates NPOESS Spacecraft Overall • Greater than 7 -year life • Robust propulsion system accommodates end of life controlled de-orbit • Leverages EOS heritage and experience 1330 satellite shown Spacecraft designed for earth observation missions • • • Large nadir platform for maximum payload accommodation in EELV Supports AM and PM missions (all LTAN capability) Optical bench stability Thermally optimized for science payloads Highly modular design facilitates rapid launch call-up objective Source: Polar. Max NPOESS System Overview, NGST & Raytheon, 27 Oct 2005 Multi-orbit configurable solar array • Adjustable cant angle for multiple nodal crossings • Array capability: 7. 3 k. W Plug and play avionics architecture • Advanced 32 -bit architecture • Accommodates 1553, 1394, and unique sensor interfaces • Accommodates CCSDS • On-board payload data encryption • Autonomous capability satisfies NPOESS mission requirements 11

NPOESS Payload Manifest 1330 vehicle 1730 vehicle 2130 vehicle VIIRS Cr. IS ATMS CMIS NPOESS Payload Manifest 1330 vehicle 1730 vehicle 2130 vehicle VIIRS Cr. IS ATMS CMIS SESS/ AURORA OMPS SESS/ AURORA ALT A-DCS SARR/SARP TSIS NPOESS 1330 Configuration SARR/SARP APS (not on contract) CERES/ ERBS Surv Sensor OLI (not on contract) Surv Sensor Single satellite design with common sensor locations Source: Polar. Max NPOESS System Overview, NGST & Raytheon, 27 Oct 2005 12

Coincident Advanced Sensors Provide Synergy NPOESS Multispectral Imagery From VIRRS… …combined with ATMS/CMIS Microwave Coincident Advanced Sensors Provide Synergy NPOESS Multispectral Imagery From VIRRS… …combined with ATMS/CMIS Microwave EDRs… …and Altimeter-Derived Ocean Heat Content… … Supports Improved Tropical Cyclone Forecast Accuracy & Reduced Impact on Maritime Resources

Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) & Field Terminal Segment (FTS) HRD, LRD Ancillary Data Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) & Field Terminal Segment (FTS) HRD, LRD Ancillary Data Interface Data Processing Segment • Ingest pre-processed SMD • Process RDRs, SDRs, EDRs • Perform data quality monitoring • Provide data to Centrals • Provide data records to LTA SS LSS Mission Data, Ancillary Data, Products C 3 S IDPS FTS Data Processing Software Field Terminal Segment • Ingest LRD/HRD data streams • Process RDRs, SDRs, EDRs • NPOESS-provided software Key Architecture Features: • Distributed IDP deployment at centrals • Symmetric processor architecture • Granule size optimization • Load balancing fault management • Complete ancillary data via HRD link • Do. D 8500 compliant central interface • Meets interoperability standards (JTA, DII-COE) Source: Polar. Max NPOESS System Overview, NGST & Raytheon, 27 Oct 2005 15

IDPS Architecture Processing Subsystem Command, Control, and Communications Segment SDR/TDR Generation Raw Data Records IDPS Architecture Processing Subsystem Command, Control, and Communications Segment SDR/TDR Generation Raw Data Records Stored Mission Data EDR Generation Sensor/Temp Data Records Environmental Data Records Raw Data Records Data Delivery Subsystem On-Line Data Storage Data Formatting Infrastructure Subsystem IDP Operator Formatted Data Products Data Management Subsystem Ingest Subsystem Sensor Data Ancillary Data Auxiliary Data Central Systems Production Scheduling and Control Source: Polar. Max NPOESS System Overview, NGST & Raytheon, 27 Oct 2005 Data Records Long Term Archive Science Data Segment Formatted Data Products Data Quality Monitoring Subsystem GIS Based Visualization and Analysis Toolkit Data Quality Engineer 16

FTS Architecture Legend NPOESS / NPP Satellites Satellite Down Link Field Terminal Data Flow FTS Architecture Legend NPOESS / NPP Satellites Satellite Down Link Field Terminal Data Flow Optional FT Data Flow Mission and Ancillary Data (HRD/LRD Downlink) NPOESS Developed NPOESS Defined External Mission Support Data Server * Satellite-SPE Interface Optional FT Interfaces • Ancillary Data • TLE • Other support data FT Interfaces * Note: User-defined data source Satellite - SPE Interface FT-MSDS Interface (Optional) Signal Processing Element • Antenna / RF Processing • GPS and Timing • Satellite Scheduler • CCSDS Processing - Mission Data - Mission Support Data - Satellite Pass Storage - TLE Extraction • Decryption FT Operator Field Terminal Segment Mission Application Element Data Processor Element SPE-DPE Interface Streaming APs • DPE Software (provided by NPOESS) - ING, PRO, INF, DMS, DDS • DPE Hardware (provided by vendor) - Processing - Storage > Mission Data > Mission Support Data > Static Data Source: Polar. Max NPOESS System Overview, NGST & Raytheon, 27 Oct 2005 FT Operator DPE-MAE Interface Product requests & HDF files • User-defined HDF Product Display • Provides user requests for desired products FT Operator or User 17

SENSORS CCSDS (mux, code, frame) & Encrypt Delivered Raw Packetization Compression Aux. Sensor Data SENSORS CCSDS (mux, code, frame) & Encrypt Delivered Raw Packetization Compression Aux. Sensor Data Cal. Source ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCE COMPONENTS Source: Goldberg, AGU Fall Meeting 2005 Filtration Comm Processing C 3 S Comm Receiver RDR Production IDPS Comm Xmitter Data Store OTHER SUBSYSTEMS SPACE SEGMENT NPOESS Products Delivered at Multiple Levels RDR Level A/D Conversion Detection Flux Manipulation TDR Level SDR Production SDR Level EDR Production © 2005 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved

Resulting design n. Advantages n Disadvantages – Flexible; Extensible; Allows compression – Inconsistent with Resulting design n. Advantages n Disadvantages – Flexible; Extensible; Allows compression – Inconsistent with heritage operational formats (GRIB, BUFR) – Accessed by API, not format – Limited tools – Arrays can be addressed either by granule or by file – Potentially selfdocumenting – Handles abstract data types and large files – BLOBs (e. g. , raw data, external files) can be wrapped Source: Goldberg, AGU Fall Meeting 2005 File Metadata Granule Metadata Arrays Granule © 2005 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved

Metadata Object Allocation to Product Documentation XML Component NPOESS HANDBOOK File Metadata File unique Metadata Object Allocation to Product Documentation XML Component NPOESS HANDBOOK File Metadata File unique metadata File common metadata pointers (electronic edition) HDF Component copy File Metadata reference Granule Metadata copy Granule Metadata Granule Details Data Any x. DR Product Source: Goldberg, HDF Workshop 2003

NPOESS e-Handbook Referenced Components Other Descriptions Ancillary Data Descriptions Auxiliary Data Descriptions Environmental Model NPOESS e-Handbook Referenced Components Other Descriptions Ancillary Data Descriptions Auxiliary Data Descriptions Environmental Model Descriptions Algorithm Description EDR Processing Parameters NPOESS HANDBOOK (electronic edition) Sensor Descriptions Algorithm Description T/SDR Processing Parameters Platform Descriptions Comm Description RDR Processing Parameters Source: Goldberg, HDF Workshop 2003

IDPS Development Timeline Time Now 1. 3 Start BAR Prep 2/19/04 1. 3 FIRST IDPS Development Timeline Time Now 1. 3 Start BAR Prep 2/19/04 1. 3 FIRST CDW 8/25/04 Design End of SWIC/ 1. 3 Last End of WFM Seg Int CDW CUT Tests 12/15/04 2/25/05 3/22/05 6/13/05 CUT SWIC/Seg Int WF M Qual RFR Done 9/1/05 Qual BAR 6/22/05 End of CUT 1/11/06 CDW 9/14/05 1. 4 Design 1. 4 CUT NESDIS AFWA Integ. SAT FAT Qual ration Done Done 3/17/06 5/12/06 7/26/06 9/29/06 11/15/06 1. 4 SWIC Qual FAT N- ASAT NESDIS HW Install 06/20/06 – 08/02/06 AFWA HW Install 07/03/06 – 10/03/06 4/15/05 NPOESS PDA 1 Q 2004 2 Q 2004 3 Q 2004 4 Q 2004 1 Q 2005 Source: Raytheon Supplier Conference, 10 May 2005 2 Q 2005 3 Q 2005 4 Q 2005 1 Q 2006 2 Q 2006 3 Q 2006 4 Q 2006 23

NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) • Joint NPOESS/NASA Risk Reduction and Data Continuity Mission • NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) • Joint NPOESS/NASA Risk Reduction and Data Continuity Mission • • VIIRS - Vis/IR Imager Radiometer Suite Cr. IS - Cross-track IR Sounder ATMS - Advanced Technology MW Sounder OMPS - Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite • Provides lessons learned • Ground system risk reduction – uses the NPOESS ground system Source: IPO ADTT NPOESS Program Overview, 13 April 2005

NPP Continues Data Time Series Measurement System Year Conventional Operations EOS Technology Jump Research NPP Continues Data Time Series Measurement System Year Conventional Operations EOS Technology Jump Research Quality Operations Source: IPO ADTT NPOESS Program Overview, 13 April 2005

Transition of Systematic Measurements (EOS NPP NPOESS) EOS Era NPP Era NPOESS Era Measurements: Transition of Systematic Measurements (EOS NPP NPOESS) EOS Era NPP Era NPOESS Era Measurements: 24/24 EOS Measurements 14+ EOS Measurements Instruments: MODIS , AIRS, AMSU , HSB, CERES, TOMS, OMI, ACRIM, TSIM, SOLSTICE , HIRDLS, MLS, AMSR, EOSP, Sea. Wi. FS, ASTER, ETM+ VIIRS, Cr. IS, ATMS, OMPS, CERES VIIRS, Cr. IS, ATMS, OMPS, ERBS, TSIM, CMIS, GPSOS, SESS, Radar Altimeter, DCS, SARSAT, APS Algorithms: NASA funded, PI led teams EDRs IPO funded; Instrument/SSPR contractor teams with OAT oversight Level 1, selected CDRs NASA funded (via AO process) Level 1, selected CDRs TBD EDRs IDPS (IPO) Processing: EOSDIS / PI Processing (NASA) Archive & Distribution: Mid Term: EOSIDS Long Term: NOAA (TBR) Standards: CDRs SDS (NASA) NASA led CDRs TBD Mid Term: NOAA Long Term: NOAA IPO/NASA/NOAA led Source: IPO ADTT NPOESS Program Overview, 13 April 2005 Mid Term: NOAA Long Term: NOAA IPO/NOAA led

White House Direction on Landsat White House Direction on Landsat

OLI/NPOESS Mission Advantages • Transition of Landsat into a truly operational measurement • Extension OLI/NPOESS Mission Advantages • Transition of Landsat into a truly operational measurement • Extension of the Landsat data record past 2020 • Leverage of proposed NPOESS infrastructure • Benefits derived from combining data from OLI with Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Aerosol Polarimeter Sensor (APS): – Large scale processes of change detected by VIIRS can be more closely analyzed by OLI – OLI data can be used to better calibrate VIIRS and validate Environmental Data Records (EDRs) derived from VIIRS data conversely VIIRS spectral bands can be used to atmospherically correct OLI data – Aerosol measurements and corrections can be applied to both sensors – Terra (MODIS sensor) and Landsat 7 results have already demonstrated the potential of combining data

Operational Land Imaging Plan • Responsibilities – NASA -- Procure two OLI sensors, science Operational Land Imaging Plan • Responsibilities – NASA -- Procure two OLI sensors, science team – NOAA -- Integration, operations, data relay – USGS -- Image planning, data processing, archive and distribution • Operations concept – USGS provides daily target collection plan – NPOESS • Builds collection into daily mission plan • Receives playback data at Safety. Net. TM sites • Data returned to US and forwarded to USGS – USGS • Processes, archives, distributes data

Environmental Satellite Program Over Budget, Behind Schedule The U. S. National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Environmental Satellite Program Over Budget, Behind Schedule The U. S. National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) will exceed its $6. 9 billion cost estimate by at least 15 percent, and its planners are now considering cutting instruments and satellites in addition to long delays. “[NPOESS] is so badly broken … we could lose a lot of the climate [components], we could lose instruments, ” NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) project scientist Jim Gleason told a committee of the National Research Council of the U. S. National Academies at a 25 October meeting. The first NPOESS satellite had been scheduled to launch in 2009, but the launch date has been moved tentatively to 2012 and is likely to slip even further, according to Gleason. However, NPP has suffered its own setbacks, with its launch being moved from October 2006 to April 2008 and now possibly to April 2009. The main problem affecting NPP has been the difficulty in the engineering and construction of [VIIRS]. . . Because of the engineering problems that still have to be solved, [VIIRS] currently has no scheduled date for completion, according to Gleason. NPOESS chief scientist Stephen A. Mango told the NRC committee, “other snags. . . are going to lead to significant delays. ”. . . One cost-cutting option is to … not include every instrument on every satellite, he said…[O]ne of the three orbits … could be filled by the [Met. Op] satellites, although this may cause problems with data continuity, according to Jack Kaye, director of the research and analysis program at NASA. At the NRC committee meeting, Kaye called this option “a giant step backwards. ” Canceling the first NPOESS satellite and using NPP to fill that slot—while it still serves as the transition satellite—has also been discussed, according to Gleason. However, NPP carries only four of the 10 instruments planned for NPOESS satellites. No decisions about any of these options have been made at this point, and Mango hopes to have a better understanding about the future of the project after an NPOESS project planning meeting in December. Kaye noted, though, “I think, in the end, we are all going to be forced to make decisions we don’t want to make because of the budget issues. ” Excerpts from News article by Sarah Zielinski, Staff Writer, Eos, Vol. 86, No. 45, 8 November 2005

Program Schedule Changes Milestones As of Aug 2002 contract award As of Feb 2004 Program Schedule Changes Milestones As of Aug 2002 contract award As of Feb 2004 (rebaseline) NPP launch May 2006 Final POES launch Net change from contract award Minimum change from rebaseline Potential data gap Oct 2006 Apr 2008 23 -month delay 18 -month delay Not applicable Mar 2008 Dec 2007 4 -month advance First NPOESS satellite planned for launch Apr 2009 Nov 2009 Sep 2010 17 -month delay First NPOESS satellite launch if needed to back up the final POES Mar 2008 Feb 2010 Dec 2010 33 -month delay 3 -yr data gap if final POES fails on launch Final DMSP launch Oct 2009 May 2010 Oct 2011 24 -month delay Not applicable Second NPOESS satellite planned for launch Jun 2011 Dec 2011 Source: GAO-06 -249 T 16 Nov 2005 GAO-06 -249 T, Jun 2011 As of Aug 2005 6 -month delay Not applicable 10 -month delay 6 -month delay Not applicable

Program Life Cycle Cost Changes As of Life cycle cost estimate Life cycle range Program Life Cycle Cost Changes As of Life cycle cost estimate Life cycle range July 2002 $6. 5 billion 1995 -2018 July 2003 $7. 0 billion 1995 -2018 September 2004 $8. 1 billion 1995 -2020 November 2005 To be determined “Over the past several years, the NPOESS program has experienced continued schedule delays, cost increases, and technical challenges. The schedule for the launch of the first satellite has been delayed by at least 17 months (until September 2010 at the earliest), and this delay could result in a gap in satellite coverage of at least 3 years if the last satellite in the prior satellite fails to launch. Program life cycle cost estimates have grown from $6. 5 billion in 2002 to $8. 1 billion in 2004 and are still growing. … bringing the life cycle cost estimate to about $9. 7 billion. Technical risks in developing key sensors continue, and could lead to further cost increases and schedule delays. ” Source: GAO-06 -249 T, 16 Nov 2005