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NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Briefing to the APAN Earth Observation Working Group January 30, 2004
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM A Tri-agency Effort to Leverage and Combine Environmental Satellite Activities METOP Mission NPOESS Provide a national, operational, polarorbiting remote-sensing capability Achieve National Performance Review (NPR) savings by converging Do. D and NOAA satellite programs 0530 0930 Incorporate new technologies from NASA Specialized Satellites Encourage International Cooperation 1330 Local Equatorial Crossing Time NPOESS Saves $1. 6 B through System Life Cycle compared to NPR target of $1. 3 B NPOESS is Good Government!
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM NPOESS is required to provide an OPERATIONAL remote sensing capability to acquire and receive in real-time at field terminals, and to acquire, store and disseminate to processing centers, GLOBAL and regional environmental imagery and specialized METEOROLOGICAL, CLIMATIC, TERRESTRIAL, OCEANOGRAPHIC and SOLAR-GEOPHYSICAL and other data in support of public safety, commerce, environmental monitoring and research.
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM National Importance - Timely, accurate, and cost-effective public warnings and forecasts of severe weather events, reduce the potential loss of human life and property and advance the national economy - Support of general aviation, agriculture, and maritime communities aimed at increasing U. S. productivity - Commitment to support long-term data continuity for environmental monitoring and Global Change assessment NPOESS Goal: Improve the Nation’s Space-Based, Remote Sensing Capabilities for Environmental Monitoring
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Establishing NPOESS • National Space Council Study - 1992 • National Performance Review (NPR) - September 1993 -Identified Need for Coordinated Effort • OSTP Convergence Implementation Plan submitted to Congress - May 1994 • Presidential Decision Directive/NSTC-2 - May 1994 -Directed Convergence of National Assets • Tri-agency Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) - May 1995 - Established Roles and Responsibilities of Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, and NASA • EUMETSAT/NOAA Initial Joint Polar Agreement - November 1998 - Brought in International Community
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Two Polar-orbiting Systems DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) • Currently - F-14 Launched December 1994 - F-15 Launched December 1999 - F-16 Launched December 2003 POES (Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite) • First Launched April 1, 1960 • Currently - NOAA-15 Launched May 1998 - NOAA-16 Launched Sep 2000 - NOAA-17 Launched Jun 2002
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM DMSP/POES to NPOESS Convergence & Evolution of Mission Areas Do. D/AF Military Do. D/AF DMSP Block 6 -Imaging - μwave Sounding -Space Environment -Under DMSP SPO CONVERGENCE DOC/NOAA Civil Tri-Agency DOC/NOAA POES OPQR -Imaging -Sounding Discontinued -Climate -Ozone -Space Environment -Under POES Prog Office NPOESS –Imaging –Sounding –Climate –Ozone –Space Environment –Under Integrated Program Office
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Satellite Transition Schedule (DMSP 2 yr launch centers, NPOESS GAP 6 c NLF input) Slopes indicate 10 -90% need CY Local Equatorial Crossing Time 0530 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 F 17 DMSP F 19 F 20 NPOESS C 3 C 6 Wind. Sat/Coriolis 0730 1030 F 15 DMSP POES F 16 F 18 C 1 17 NPOESS C 4 NPOESS METOP EOS-Terra NPP 1330 POES 16 N’ N EOS-Aqua C 2 NPOESS C 5 Earliest Need to back-up launch --------10 Year Mission Life---------- Mission Satisfaction S/C Earliest Availability Deliveries FY 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 As of: 20 Oct 02 Launch date based on backup need Most probable launch date S/C delivery interval driven by 15 month IAT schedule
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM NPOESS Requirements Conv er Alter gence of nativ es • Integrated Operational Requirements Document (IORD-II) - 55 Data Products - 21 Enhancement Products - 2 System Characteristic KPPs nce of verge ts Con emen ir Requ Converged requirements provide foundation for combined program First success after eight previous attempts
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM IORD Content Example Sea Surface Temperature (SST) • Sea Surface Temperature is defined as a highly precise measurement of the temperature of the surface layer (upper 1 meter) of ocean water. It has two major applications: 1) sea surface phenomenology, and 2) use in infrared cloud/no cloud decision for processed cloud data. The accompanying requirements apply only under clear conditions (unless specified otherwise).
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Environmental Data Records By Discipline Atmos Vert Moist Prof Dn Lwave Rad (Sfc) Ozone-Tot Col/Profile Atmos Vert Temp Prof Electric Field Precipitable Water Imagery Electron Density Prof Precip Type / Rate Sea Surf Temp Aero Refractive Index Pressure (Surf/Profile) Sea Surf Winds Geomagnetic Field Sea Ice Age Char Soil Moisture Ice Surface Temp Sea Surface Hgt/Topo Aero Opt Thickness Snow Cover/Depth Aerosol Particle Size Energetic Ions In-situ Plasma Fluct Albedo (Surface) In-situ Plasma Temp ST- Auroral Particles Auroral Boundary Downward Swave Rad Surface Wind Stress Auroral Imagery Med Energy Particles Suspended Matter Cloud Base Height Ionospheric Scint Auroral Energy Depos Cloud Cover/Layers Land Surface Temp Cloud Eff Particle Size Surface Type Cloud Ice Water Path Net Heat Flux Cloud Liquid Water Net Solar Rad (TOA) Cloud Opt Thickness Neutral Density Profile Out Lwave Rad Atmospheric (TOA) Oceanic Terrestrial Space Environment Climate Cloud Top Height Total Water Content Cloud Top Pressure Vegetation Index Cloud Top Temp Ocean Color / Chlor Cloud Part Size / Dist Ocean Wave Char Solar Irradiance LEGEND - KPPs
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM NPOESS Program Vision The IPO and TRW/Raytheon team: Working in a spirit of shared ownership to develop and deploy the single, national, polar-orbiting environmental remote-sensing capability to meet next-generation civil and military needs Breaking the Mold! Thinking “Out of the Box” Working Together Creating Success The only thing they pay us for!
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM SSPR Responsibilities • Government and Contractor Share Risk - Open Communications Facilitate Insight Into Each Other’s Decisions - Integrated Management Framework (IMF) Improves Visibility • Large, Flexible Fee Pool - Approaches Commercial Returns Meet Our Contractors Specific Motivators Reflects Government Expectations Success Defined As Meeting Requirements Incentives Focus on Highest Program Risk -- Total System Integration and Performance Shared Ownership creates a Win/Win situation
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM SSPR Responsibilities cont. . . Government Industry Controls Performance Requirements Controls All Aspects of Design and Manufacture Manages SSPR Contractor Manages All Subcontractors and Associate Contractors Establishes Flexible, Positive Rewards Flow Rewards to All Teammates and Supplier Relations Established Early Flexible Teammate and Supplier Relationships Are Earn-on, Perform to Stay, Motivated to Innovate Ensures Industrial Base Is Maintained Business Relationships Based on Best Business Practices Open Communications through IMF
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM NPOESS Acquisition and Operation • Acquisition and Operation (A&O) Contract was awarded on August 23, 2002 to TRW for $4. 5 B • A&O Contract consists of: - 6 satellites Taking over all government instrument contracts Buying all “leveraged” instruments Integrating GFE instruments (ADCS and SARSAT) Building and deploying all ground systems • C 3 and data retrieval • Data processing hardware and software - Software for worldwide users • Operating system through IOC (2011) - With option to 2018
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM NPOESS Payloads NPOESS Instruments METOP 0930 0530 0930 1330 NPP TBD 1030 IPO Developed Visible/IR Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)* X Conical MW Imager/Sounder (CMIS)* X X X (AVHRR) X X Cross-track IR Sounder (Cr. IS)* X X X (IASI/HIRS) X X X Ozone Mapper/Profiler Suite (OMPS) X X (GOME) GPS Occultation Sensor (GPSOS) X X (GRAS) Space Environmental Sensor Suite (SESS) X X (SEM) X X (AMSU/MHS) X X Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) X Leveraged Advanced Technology MW Sounder (ATMS)* X X ARGOS-Data Collection System (A-DCS) X Search and Rescue (SARSAT) X Earth Radiation Budget Sensor (ERBS) X X Total Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) X Radar altimeter (ALT) X Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) * Critical instrument - Failure constitutes need to replace satellite X X
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM NPOESS Satellite CMIS ATMS Cr. IS VIIRS OMPS CMIS - μwave imager VIIRS - vis/IR imager Cr. IS - IR sounder ATMS - μwave sounder OMPS - ozone GPSOS - GPS occultation ADCS - data collection SESS - space environment APS - aerosol polarimeter SARSAT - search & rescue TSIS - solar irradiance ERBS - Earth radiation budget ALT - altimeter ERBS NPOESS 1330 Configuration Single satellite design with common sensor locations
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Instruments in Development/Production Phase Cross-track IR Sounder (Cr. IS) ITT Industries Visible/IR Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Raytheon SBRS Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder (CMIS) Boeing Ozone Mapping & Profiler Suite (OMPS) Ball Aerospace Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Northrop Grumman
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM VIIRS Design
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Compact, All Reflective Optical Design Minimizes Stray Light Rotating Telescope Vis. NIR/DNB FPA SWMWIR & LWIR Dewar Half Angle Mirror FMA Imager
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM VIIRS Data Characteristics
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder All Weather Imaging Precipitation Measurement Ocean surface wind field and cloud imagery
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Cross-track Infrared Sounder Hurricane warm core temperature anomaly
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM NPOESS Segment Architecture GPS Space Segment TDRSS 1330 NPP 1730 2130 Residual Satellites Svalbard ADCS SARSAT Field Terminal Segment Supplied by NOAA CLASS ADS SDS Launch Support Segment Primary T&C NPP SMD WSC LEO&A Backup T&C Supplied by NASA 15 Globally Distributed Receptor Sites FNMOC NAVO AFWA NESDIS Interface Data Processing Segment Data Handling Node MMC at Suitland Front End Flight Operations Team Processor MMC at Schriever Alternate Operations Team C 3 Segment
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Joint IPO/NASA Risk Reduction Demo • NPP Spacecraft contract awarded to Ball Aerospace – May 2002 • Instrument Risk Reduction • Early delivery / instrument-level test / system-level integration and test • VIIRS - Vis/IR Imager Radiometer Suite (IPO) • Cr. IS - Cross-track IR Sounder (IPO) • ATMS - Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (NASA) - Provides lessons learned and allows time for any required modifications before NPOESS first launch • Ground System Risk Reduction - Early delivery and test of a subset of NPOESS-like ground system elements - Early User Evaluation of NPOESS data products - Provides algorithms / instrument verification and opportunities for instrument calibration / validation prior to first NPOESS launch - Allows for algorithm modification prior to first NPOESS launch • Continuity of data for NASA’s EOS Terra/Aqua missions
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM The NPP System • Spacecraft • VIIRS • Cr. IS • ATMS • Ground Support Equipment IPO Antenna Location X Launch Support Segment (LSS) • Launch vehicle • Launch support • Payload Processing support Command, Control & Communication Segment (C 3 S) Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) • Ingest and validate raw SMD • Process RDRs, SDRs, EDRs • Perform operations cal proc • Provide data records to • Manage Mission (joint funding) • Manage Satellite Operations • Space/Ground Comm • Data Routing & Retrieval Centrals, SDS & ADS Archive & Distribution Segment (ADS) -NOAA Funding -IPO Funding -NASA Funding • Ingest & validate data records • Manage archive • Interface with users • Generate user products • Track user orders • Generate accounting reports Science Data Segment (SDS) • Ingest and validate RDRs • Process RDRs to Level 1 B • Generate climate data products • Perform science cal proc • Provide Climate data to ADS
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Calibration/Validation To tie it all together and make it work…. Calibration • Absolute Accuracy • Polarization Purity • Geolocation Accuracy • Instrument Stability • Doppler Correction • Antenna Pattern Correction Validation • Ocean Wind Speed • Water Vapor • Cloud Water • Rain Rate • Sea Ice • Soil Moisture • Snow water • Land Temp • Lower Air Profiles • Upper Air Profiles Mission Success Ensures • Meet Specification • Operational production of synoptic maps and profiles of critical atmospheric, oceanographic and land parameters • Quality Control Users • NWP • Real-time tactical • Non-tactical • JTWC • NHC • JIC • Others
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM IDPS Products Environmental Data Records Cloud Top Heights Cloud Layers VIIRS – Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite Total Precipitable Water Surface Temperature Environmental Properties Displayed at VIIRS Pixel Locations
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Environmental Observing Natural Hazards Detection and Mapping Ozone Monitoring Multi-spectral Hurricane Mapping and Profiling All Weather Imaging Precipitation Measurement Sea Surface Temperature Ocean Circulation Snow and Ice Mapping and Monitoring
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Protect Safety of Life and Property Improve Accuracy of Severe Weather Warnings Improved Microwave Imagery/Sounding products will improve prediction of wind speed and direction Increase in hurricane landfall forecast skill will save an estimated $1 million per mile of coastline that does not have to be evacuated Improved early warnings mitigate the devastating effects of floods through disaster planning and response
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM NPOESS Benefits the Nation • Accurate forecasts are critical to the protection of life, safety, and property • NPOESS data will improve forecasts and warnings • Improved forecasts will - Reduce loss of life and property - benefit US industry through increased productivity • NPOESS will maintain long-term data continuity for climate monitoring and assessment
NATIONAL POLAR-ORBITING OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE SYSTEM Additional COnsiderations • Each satellite will produce approximately 2 TB of data per day - RDRs – Raw Data Records SDRs – Sensor Data Records – calibrated geolocated EDRs – Environmental Data Records – products • NPP will not have direct broadcast • NPOESS will have direct broadcast, but receiving station costs will make electronic data transfers attractive. • Distribution of NPP and NPOESS data to the Asia Pacific region could be a major new EO-WG objective. • If there is interest in this the requirement for NPP and NPOESS data needs to be expressed to the national representatives of the GEO.