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NP 3 -CSI, Leuven, November 14 -17, 2013 Determiners and possessives in Old English NP 3 -CSI, Leuven, November 14 -17, 2013 Determiners and possessives in Old English and Polish Artur Bartnik, Catholic University of Lublin, Poland [email protected] pl

1. Introduction (1) a. þæs his cwides that. sg. m. gen his saying. sg. 1. Introduction (1) a. þæs his cwides that. sg. m. gen his saying. sg. m. gen ‘his saying’ (coblick, LS_17. 1_[Martin. Mor[Bl. Hom_17]]: 215. 79. 2742) b. ten mój projekt this. sg. nom my. sg. nom project. sg. nom ‘my project’ (IJPPAN_k 123574, Jacek Bocheński 2009: 1, ‘Tyberiusz Cezar’) (2) a. b. his þone readan gim his the. sg. acc red. sg. acc gem. sg. acc 'his red gem' (coblick, Hom. U_18_[Bl. Hom_1]: 9. 125. 121) mój ten projekt my. sg. nom this. sg. nom project. sg. nom ‘my project’ (PELCRA_7123000000081, commission of inquiry on Orlen 2005, 17 th May: 11, the Chancellery of the Sejm) Claim: The two patterns in both languages are not variants of the same construction

case Masc N se A þone G Neut Fem Þæs Pl case Masc N case Masc N se A þone G Neut Fem Þæs Pl case Masc N þes þā A þisne þāra, þǣra ra, G þisses þām D þissum I þȳs sēo þæt þā þǣre D Þām I þȳ, þon Neut Fem Pl þēos þis þās þisse, þisre þās þissa þissum

Sg Pl Case Mas c Fem Neut Masc Nonpers N ten ta to ci Sg Pl Case Mas c Fem Neut Masc Nonpers N ten ta to ci te G tego tej tego tych D temu tej temu tym A tego tą to I tym tą tymi L tym tej tym tych Case Tych te Sg Pl Masc Fem Neut Masc Nonpers N tamten tamta tamto tamci tamte G tamtego tamtej tamtego tamtych D tamtemu tamtej tamtemu tym A tamtego tamtą tamto I tamtym tamtą tamtymi L tamtym tamtej tamtym tamtych • Typological points • The status of elements in possessive-determiner patterns tamtych tamte

3. Variant I: determiner-possessive (3) la sua the her ‘her house’ casa house (4) 3. Variant I: determiner-possessive (3) la sua the her ‘her house’ casa house (4) il mio Gianni/ *mio the my Gianni/ my ‘my Gianni’ (Longobardi 1994: 623) Gianni

(5) a. dieses Land von this. country of 'this country of ours' b. dieses (5) a. dieses Land von this. country of 'this country of ours' b. dieses unser this our 'our country‘ (6) uns us Land country Both of them used to talk pleasantly of this their first journey to London. (James Boswell, Life of Johnson, 1791, Plank 1992: 454)

(7) ða mine þeowas sindon wisdomas the my servants are wisdom & cræftas and (7) ða mine þeowas sindon wisdomas the my servants are wisdom & cræftas and virtues 'my servants are wisdom and virtues' (coboeth, Bo: 7. 18. 5. 287) (8) ðas ðine gesætlan synd mine gebroðra these your sitting are my brothers 'these that sit with you are my brothers' (coaelive, ÆLS_[Eugenia]: 233. 330)

(9 ) he teah forð þa his ealdan wrenceas he brought forth the his (9 ) he teah forð þa his ealdan wrenceas he brought forth the his old tricks ‘he brought forth his old tricks’ (cochron. E, Chron. E_[Plummer]: 1003. 6. 1640) Unrestricted patterns • • Numerous examples (207 examples in YCOE) Latin and native texts Both paradigms used Adjectives are not obligatory

(10) Zaskakuje mnie ta jego nieuczciwość. surprise me that his lack of integrity ‘That (10) Zaskakuje mnie ta jego nieuczciwość. surprise me that his lack of integrity ‘That lack of integrity of his surprises me’ (Swan 2002: 172) (11) Ten twoj brat to zdolny facet. that your brother is talented guy ‘that brother of yours is a talented guy’ (Swan 2002: 172) (12) Tamten twój list był dla mnie szokiem. that your letter was for me shock ‘that letter of yours was a shock to me’ (IJPPAN_k 70 A 0084, Paweł Pollak 2006: 6, ‘Kanalia’)

Unrestricted patterns • Numerous examples • Different texts (spoken and written) • Both paradigms Unrestricted patterns • Numerous examples • Different texts (spoken and written) • Both paradigms used (ten, ta, to as well as tamten, tamto, tamta) • Adjectives are not obligatory • Can be used with common and proper nouns

4. Variant II: possessive-determiner (13) his þone readan gim his the red gem ‘his 4. Variant II: possessive-determiner (13) his þone readan gim his the red gem ‘his red gem’ (coblick, Hom. U_18_[Bl. Hom_1]: 9. 125. 121) (14) he eac lufige his þone nextan he also love his the neighbour ‘he will also love his neighbour’ (coalcuin, Alc_[Warn_35]: 47. 38) (15) mid his þam anwealde with his the power ‘with his power’ (coboeth, Bo: 30. 69. 22. 1291)

Restricted patterns • Numerous examples (326 examples in YCOE) • Only one paradigm accepted Restricted patterns • Numerous examples (326 examples in YCOE) • Only one paradigm accepted (se, seo þæt), no examples with the other paradigm • Adjectives are obligatory (complements)

(16) A na imię jak twojej tej narzeczonej jest? And on name how your (16) A na imię jak twojej tej narzeczonej jest? And on name how your this fiancée is ‘and what is your fiancée’s name? (PELCRA_7203010000189, family meeting, conversations) (17) Jeżeli mój ten projekt, który niby if my this project which apparently miałem podpisać, był zły… was-supposed to-sign was bad… ‘if my project, which I was supposed to sign, was bad…’ (PELCRA_7123000000081, commission of inquiry on Orlen 2005, 17 th May: 11, the Chancellery of the Sejm)

case Possessive-demonstrative (1 st person) Occurrences Possessive-demonstrative (2 nd person) Occurrences N/A mój ten case Possessive-demonstrative (1 st person) Occurrences Possessive-demonstrative (2 nd person) Occurrences N/A mój ten 6 twój ten 1 G mojego tego 2 twojego tego 0 D mojemu temu 0 twojemu temu 0 I/L (o) moim tym 2 (o) twoim tym 2 N moja ta 4 twoja ta 1 G/D/L (o) mojej tej 2 (o) twojej tej 1 A moją tę 2 twoją tę 0 A/I moją tą 0 twoją tą 0 N/A moje to 2 twoje to 0 Table 1. Possessives mój, moja, moje and twój, twoja, twoje in the singular with demonstratives case Possessive-demonstrative (1 st person) Occurrences Possessive-demonstrative (2 nd person) Occurrences N moi ci/moje te ci/moj 2 twoi ci/twoje te woi ci/ 0 G/A/L moich tych 0 twoich tych 0 D moim tym 0 twoim tym 0 I moimi tymi 0 twoimi tymi 0 Table 2. Possessives mój, moja, moje and twój, twoja, twoje in the plural with demonstratives

case Possessive-demonstrative (1 st person) Occurrences Possessive-demonstrative (2 nd person) Occurrences N/A nasz ten case Possessive-demonstrative (1 st person) Occurrences Possessive-demonstrative (2 nd person) Occurrences N/A nasz ten 3 wasz ten 1 G naszego tego 2 waszego tego 0 D naszemu temu 0 waszemu temu 0 I/L (o) naszym tym 0 (o) waszym tym 0 N nasza ta 3 wasza ta 1 G/D/L (o) naszej tej 3 (o) waszej tej 0 A naszą tę 1 waszą tę 0 A/I naszą tą 1 waszą tą 0 N/A nasze to 0 wasze to 0 Table 3. Possessives nasz, nasza, nasze and wasz, wasza, wasze in the singular with demonstratives case Possessive-demonstrative (1 st person) Occurrences Possessive-demonstrative (2 nd person) Occurrences N nasi ci/nasze te 2 wasi ci/wasze te 1 G/A/L naszych tych 1 waszych tych 0 D naszym tym 0 waszym tym 0 I naszymi tymi 1 waszymi tymi 0 Table 4. Possessives nasz, nasza, nasze and wasz, wasza, wasze in the plural with demonstratives

Restricted patterns • Marginal patterns • Used only in spoken/informal register • Only one Restricted patterns • Marginal patterns • Used only in spoken/informal register • Only one paradigm accepted (ten, ta, to), no examples with the other paradigm • Adjectives are not obligatory

se, seo þæt and ten, ta, to definite articles? • • Se and ten- se, seo þæt and ten, ta, to definite articles? • • Se and ten- proximal and distal distinction is neutralized (only markers of definiteness) Se and ten in possessive-determiner patterns have more article-like properties Heusler 1962 - Old Norse Scatton 1984 - Bulgarian: moja-ta kniga ‘my the book’ • Bridging contexts: (18) We have an old car. This is why the engine is constantly broken (whole-part bridging) (19) We went to the cinema yesterday. The film was very funny (relational anaphora)

(20) Poszłam na pocztę zapakować i wysłać I-go to post office to-pack and to-send (20) Poszłam na pocztę zapakować i wysłać I-go to post office to-pack and to-send książkę. (Ta) paczka wypadła dość niezdarnie book (This) package turn out rather awkward ‘I went to the post office to pack and send a book. (This) package turned out to be rather awkward’ (Mendoza 2004: 283) Conclusions: • The two patterns in both languages are not variants of the same construction- possessive-determiner pattern is restricted in both languages but in different ways. • The possessive-determiner pattern features article-like elements in both languages.

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