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Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN/WIMAX and 3 G networks September 2005 Prof. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN/WIMAX and 3 G networks September 2005 Prof. Ephi Zehavi School of Engineering Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel 1 and proprietary information

Outline of Talk § The Convergence’s Problem § Network’s Architecture § Wi-FI Network § Outline of Talk § The Convergence’s Problem § Network’s Architecture § Wi-FI Network § Cellular Network § Convergence’s Approaches § Loosely Coupled Approach § Tightly Coupled Approach (UMA) § New Novel Approach-Dual Coupled Approach § Operating Principles §Architecture §Advantage § Comparison § Summary and Conclusions Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 2

Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Cellular Network q. Convergence’s Approaches q Loosely Coupled Approach q Tightly Coupled Approach (UMA) q. New Approach-Dual Coupled Approach q. Operating Principles q. Architecture q. Advantage q. Comparison q. Summary Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 3

Observation and Assumptions q The market: WLAN and Cellular convergence. The voice over IP Observation and Assumptions q The market: WLAN and Cellular convergence. The voice over IP will set the wired and wireless worlds on a collision course, while at the same time providing opportunities for operators and vendors q Wireless Connection: More than 50% of the wireless connections are initiated or terminated at home or office q. Dual Phone: Most of phones will use Wi-Fi based handset, either Single mode (Wi-Fi), Dual mode (3 G, Wi-Fi) or Tri-mode (3 G, CDMA, Wi. Fi) handsets q. Objectives: q. How to allow a smooth interoperability between Wi-Fi/Wimax and cellular networks. q. How to reduce infrastructure’s cost Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 4

The Mobile Operators Problems q Mobile operators may lose in-door revenue to Fixed- Line/Cable The Mobile Operators Problems q Mobile operators may lose in-door revenue to Fixed- Line/Cable Operators when either significant low cost Vo. IP calls are offered, or when no in-door cellular signal is available, or when high mobile data rate is required q The 3 G network is expensive solution for out-door cellular coverage, while in-door 3 G coverage cost times four q The 3 G network cannot supply the capacity demand for in- door data traffic q The 3 G suffers from restricted zoning rules, which induces constraints deployment of new sites q The 3 G’s High Speed Packet Data Access (HSPDA) is limited to aggregate 10 Mb/s per cell for all users Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 5

Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Cellular Network q. Convergence’s Approaches q Loosely Coupled Approach q Tightly Coupled Approach (UMA) q. New Approach-Dual Coupled Approach q. Operating Principles q. Architecture q. Advantage q. Comparison q. Summary Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 6

RNC PSTN MSC RNC PDSN Mobile Operator PDN The challenge is to provide seamless RNC PSTN MSC RNC PDSN Mobile Operator PDN The challenge is to provide seamless Mobility Management between Cellular and WLAN Networks for Vo. IP and Video services ? ? ? How to allow interoperability? INTERNET IP Broadband Service Provider MANAGED IP NETWORK Public (Hotspots) SOHO / Home Enterprise Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 7

Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Cellular Network q. Convergence’s Approaches q Loosely Coupled Approach q Tightly Coupled Approach (UMA) q. New Approach-Dual Coupled Approach q. Operating Principles q. Architecture q. Advantage q. Comparison q. Summary Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 8

Loosely Coupled Approach WLAN gateway supports Mobile IP Mobile-IP functionality to handle mobility across Loosely Coupled Approach WLAN gateway supports Mobile IP Mobile-IP functionality to handle mobility across networks: AAA services to internetworking with the 3 G’s home network Separation of Data Paths in WLAN/3 G Networks- Usage of WLAN gateway connects to the Internet and does not have direct links to 3 G network elements such as PDSNs or 3 G core network switches. The high speed WLAN data traffic is never injected into the 3 G core network but the end user still experience seamless access. Authentication and billing -Various mechanisms and protocols can handle authentication, billing and mobility management in the 3 G and WLAN portions of the network – Billing and accounting - done by the 3 G provide. A unified billing statement Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 9

RNC PSTN MSC Mobile Operator PDN IP Broadband Service Provider The challenge is to RNC PSTN MSC Mobile Operator PDN IP Broadband Service Provider The challenge is to provide seamless Mobility Management between Cellular and WLAN Networks for Vo. IP and Video services RNC PDSN WLAN Gateway INTERNET MANAGED IP NETWORK Public (Hotspots) SOHO / Home Ephi Z. Enterprise Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 10

Observations-Loosely Coupled Approach Easy and simply deployment Handover of voice call- not supported Subscribers Observations-Loosely Coupled Approach Easy and simply deployment Handover of voice call- not supported Subscribers prefer to connect voice and data services directly to the internet if it is free and not through a cellular operator Open Problem: How to utilize the WLAN network to increase the capacity without loosing revenue? Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 11

Tightly Coupled Approach Concepts of UMA Network Controller (UNC). - UNC appears to the Tightly Coupled Approach Concepts of UMA Network Controller (UNC). - UNC appears to the core network as a GERAN base station subsystem – Security Gateway (SGW) that terminates secure remote access tunnels from the Mobile Station – Mutual authentication, encryption and data integrity for signaling, voice and data traffic. A broadband IP network provides connectivity between the Access Points and the UNC. The IP transport connection extends A single interface, the Up interface, is defined between the UNC and the Mobile Station A UNC connects to a unique MSC and SGSN via the A-interface and Gb interface respectively. It maintains end-to-end communication with the MS and relays GERAN signaling to the A/Gb interface towards the Core Network. Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 12

3 G (UMTS) Approach Tightly Coupled. Network (UMA) GSM Mobile Operator UMTS A Wi-Fi 3 G (UMTS) Approach Tightly Coupled. Network (UMA) GSM Mobile Operator UMTS A Wi-Fi Proprietary Clients Wi. Fi MS One phone with two interfaces in the same case Ephi Z. Gb AP AP AP IP UMA BSC/RNC Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 13

Observations-UMA The UMA can not support soft handoff, unless an interface between UNA and Observations-UMA The UMA can not support soft handoff, unless an interface between UNA and the RNC is added The UMA solution has to be tailored for every new core network standard Interfaces must be integrated in the dual handset MAC layer- Major change in Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 14

Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Cellular Network q. Convergence’s Approaches q Loosely Coupled Approach q Tightly Coupled Approach (UMA) q New Approach-Dual Coupled Approach q. Operating Principles q. Architecture q. Advantage q. Comparison q. Summary Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 15

The Dual Coupled Approach’s Concepts q Handoff in the Dual Mode handset can be The Dual Coupled Approach’s Concepts q Handoff in the Dual Mode handset can be viewed as conference call between the network and a phone with two identities. q The Access Point Communication Controller (APCC ) keeps the two handset communication channels (Cellular and WLAN) open simultaneously, while the data is transferred through one channel at a time. q Offering universal interface to CDMA, GSM and UMTS networks through tightly coupled approach (Intelligent switch connected to the core network, integrated with the IN q Capacity Gain- The non used channel is kept open for signaling only, thus reduced the cellular spectrum usage by 87. 5% q The hand over is done at the application layer of the phone Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 16

Add on Features q Seamless mobility - allows subscribers to roam seamlessly between mobile Add on Features q Seamless mobility - allows subscribers to roam seamlessly between mobile networks and WLANs with a single handset for voice and data services. APCC enables Parallel Access and Soft Handoff between multiple networks such as Cellular, WLAN (802. 11 a/b/g), Wi-Max networks q Low delay for handoff q Qo. S for Vo. IP and for video services is achieved in Dual mode handsets by leveraging the co-existence of mobile networks and WLAN. q High Speed Internet Access (HSIA) enables Mobile Operators to leverage broadband access and in-door WLANs to deliver highperformance mobile voice and data services at significantly lower cost to Wi-Fi based Mobile devices. q Single number Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 17

RNC PSTN MSC PDN Mobile Operator The challenge is to provide seamless Mobility Management RNC PSTN MSC PDN Mobile Operator The challenge is to provide seamless Mobility Management between Cellular and WLAN Networks for Vo. IP and Video services RNC PDSN APCC The solution: Dual Mode Cellular / Wi. Fi Handset INTERNET IP Broadband Service Provider MANAGED IP NETWORK Public (Hotspots) SOHO / Home Enterprise Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 18

Dual Coupled Approach 3 G (UMTS) Network for GSM/ UMTS Mobile Operator GSM UMTS Dual Coupled Approach 3 G (UMTS) Network for GSM/ UMTS Mobile Operator GSM UMTS APCC Media Gateway VLR Wi-Fi Standard Wi. Fi SIP/Vo. IP Client. MS Two phones In the same case Ephi Z. AP AP AP IP SIP The Dual Coupled Approach - Soft handoff between Cellular / WLAN is done in the APCC via ISUP interface - Qo. S Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 19

Dual Coupled Approach 3 G (UMTS) Network for CDMA 2000 Mobile Operator VLR HLR Dual Coupled Approach 3 G (UMTS) Network for CDMA 2000 Mobile Operator VLR HLR MSC A 1 cdma 2000 RN MS A 10, A 11 ISUP Soft handoff Media Gateway Wi-Fi Standard SIP/Vo. IP Client. MS Two phones In the same case SIP AP AP Wi. Fi AP IP P-P APCC PDSN Radius RADIUS - Soft handoff between Cellular / WLAN is done in the APCC via ISUP interface The Dual Coupled Appro Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 20

Basic Architecture PSTN NMS Mobile MSC Cellular Core Network Transport IP Network APCC SGSN Basic Architecture PSTN NMS Mobile MSC Cellular Core Network Transport IP Network APCC SGSN PDN GGSN Three major system components: q. Dual mode handset Internet q Uses standard Vo. IP/SIP channel q. APCC-Access Point Communication Controller q Maintains secure tunnel with the mobile over IP transport IP q Handles mobility within IP network q Bridges between transport and cellular IP network q. NMS q Provisioning and control of network of APCCs and the APCCs connectivity to other network elements Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 21

The APCC main features q Tightly coupled - Seamless integration of Wi-Fi Dual Mode The APCC main features q Tightly coupled - Seamless integration of Wi-Fi Dual Mode handsets into the cellular network in a tightly coupled approach, using standard interfaces and standard handsets with Vo. IP and SIP protocols q One-Number - Single Cellular & Wi-Fi phone no. at work and at home q Handoff - Seamless and soft handoff between Cellular/WLAN and between APs q Qo. S – High Qo. S for Vo. IP calls and for Video services q Broadcast - Broadcast data streams from the cellular into the WLAN q Data Push - Simultaneous Data Push and voice into the Dual handset q “All IP” calls – Loop back Vo. IP calls in WLAN for local users q Presence function - indicates the status of the called party q Capacity - Increase cellular air-capacity by 400%. Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 22

Operational Concepts “In some scenarios “ Mobile station device open signaling connection to APCC Operational Concepts “In some scenarios “ Mobile station device open signaling connection to APCC through a Wi-Fi Mobile device in idle mode keep signaling connection with APCC Mobile initiates hand off– Subscriber start connection with the most reliable connection. Cellular connection routed to APCC using IN When Wi-FI connection reliable: – Connection through cellular is at the lowest rate (1/4 -1/8 rate) Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 23

State Machine Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G State Machine Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 24

The Capacity Gain Assumptions – X % of cellular connections are from indoor users The Capacity Gain Assumptions – X % of cellular connections are from indoor users – K is the average power margin that is needed for indoor users (3 -9 d. B) – C is the capacity of a cell shared between indoor users any out door users. – In 3 G technology the rate is partitioning between multiple users, each one need a minimum SNR for a given rate Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 25

Capacity Gain Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G Capacity Gain Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 26

Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Cellular Network q. Convergence’s Approaches q Loosely Coupled Approach q Tightly Coupled Approach (UMA) q. New Approach-Dual Coupled Approach q. Operating Principles q. Architecture q. Advantage q. Comparison q. Summary Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 27

Comparison Dual Coupled Approach § Operator Centric Solution Tightly coupled Approach : § Handset Comparison Dual Coupled Approach § Operator Centric Solution Tightly coupled Approach : § Handset Centric Solution §Universal interface to CDMA, GSM and UMTS networks through switch connected to the core network, integrated with the IN § Different H/W Interface for different networks (CDMA, UMTS) §Performs Soft mobility Handoff between Cellular/ WLAN or Wimax at the network §Performs Handover between Cellular / WLAN in the handset, No soft handoff §Dual Mode handsets is viewed as two phones in the same case (Cellular & SIP/Vo. IP) §Dual Mode handsets is viewed as one phone with two interfaces (cellular and WLAN) Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 28

Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Outline of Talk q. The Convergence’s Problem q. Network’s Architecture q Wi-FI Network q Cellular Network q. Convergence’s Approaches q Loosely Coupled Approach q Tightly Coupled Approach (UMA) q. New Approach-Dual Coupled Approach q. Operating Principles q. Architecture q. Advantage q. Comparison q. Summary Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 29

Summary q A third alternative to interoperability between WLAN and cellular networks was introduced Summary q A third alternative to interoperability between WLAN and cellular networks was introduced q The novel approach of dual coupled approach allows seamless soft handover between the networks using the IN features of the cellular/wireline network q The approach allows to be extended to other emerging wireless standards like Wimax Thank you Ephi Z. Novel Architecture for Seamless interoperability between WLAN and 3 G networks Motorola Israel - September 21 -22, 2005 30