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New Roles in Digital Libraries. . . José Borbinha
• “Digital Libraries”? ? ? • Issues and cases in digital libraries: – the main cases • New content genres, metadata, . . . – about interoperability • Projects LEAF and TEL. . . – about actors • The DELOS/NSF Working Group. . . –. . . one global vision, BND. . . • The National Digital Library (Portugal)
An historical perspective Libraries and technology among the times. . .
A Computer Science’s perspective ACM Computing Classification System (January 1998) • . . . • H. Information Systems –. . . – H. 3 Information Storage and Retrieval • . . . • H. 3. 7 Digital Libraries – – – Collection Dissemination Standards System issues User issues
A perspective of a traditional library Digital Library Publication Licensing Acquisition Dissemination Registration Search Actor Creator Distributor Editor Access User Librarian Registered Anonymous Preservation
Use Cases (from the model). . . • Publication – Availability of a manifestation of a work (resource). . . • Licensing – Rules for the usage of an item of a resource. . . • Acquisition – Ownership of a resource. . . • Registration – Create metadata to describe the resource. . . • Dissemination – Making aware the existence of a resource. . . • Search – Searching of information about a work (resource discovery). • Access – Visualization of a resource, duplication, . . . • Preservation – To keep the resource in good shape for access. . .
Another view of the cases. . . Acquisition Delivery by the publisher Capture by the library Harvesting by the library Verification Medium integrity Logical integrity Content integrity Authentication Registration Metadata Bibliographic and content description Installation and de-installation Preservation Access Preservation Intellectual preservation Logical preservation Format conversion Emulation Physical preservation Medium refreshing Medium migration Access Conditions of use Local access Remote access
Emerging issues. . . • Genres (what? ) – Information resource’s media, formats, type, characteristics (on-line/off-line, dynamic resources, interactive resources, . . . ) • Actors (who? ) – Need to review concepts and roles (editor, creator, contributor, translator, illustrator, distributor, owner, user, librarian, host, mediator, . . . ) • Identifiers (where? ) – Names, uniform names and identifiers, contextual names and identifiers, persistency, . . . • Metadata (how? ) – Bibliographic description, administration, structural description, . . . , creation versus reutilization, . . .
Classes of metadata Bibliographic description of the resources Bibliographic description and identification of the resources, such as titles, authors, indexing terms, classification, abstracts, surrogates, etc. Administration of the resources Administrative information about the resource, such as information about acquisition process and costs, rights, etc. Preservation of the resources Technical or management requirements for long term preservation. Technical and structural description of the resources Technical requirements to manipulate the resource (systems and tools), etc. Access, usage and reproduction of the resources Information about terms and conditions for access and reproduction, etc. Administration of the metadata Information about the other metadata classes, such as data of creation, origin, authenticity, terms and conditions for its usage, etc. 9
Multiple perspectives for the "metadata" problem in the Digital Library. . . Conceptual Perspective Reference Models - AACR - FRBR - CIDOC - Mo. Req … … Contextual Perspective Service’s Perspective Tecnology Perspective Metadata Schemas - MARC 21 - UNIMARC - DCMES - ONIX - METS - EAD - EAC … Metadata Implementations The UNIMARC coding in ISO 2709… The MARC 21 coding in ISO 2709… MARCXML: MARC coding in XML A DCMES Schema coding in XML… A DCMES Schema coding in RDF… Metadata Structures - One file: my. UNIMARCrecords. iso - One file: your. MARC 21 records. iso - One file: my. UNIMARCrecords. xml - One file: your. MARC 21 records. xml - One file: my. DCMESrecords. rdf … Services and Interfaces - An HTTP/HTML based OPAC service - An OAI metadata harvesting service - A Z 39. 50 - Bath search service - A ZING Web Service … File and data structures - IS 2709 - HTML - XML - RDF … Protocols HTTP OAI- PMH SOAP Z 39. 50 Web. Services - ZING -. . . … -
Interoperability in a networked world. . .
LEAF Linking and Exploring Authority Files Funded by the European Commission under the 5 th framework IST programme Started: March 2001 End: February 2004 http: //www. leaf-eu. org 12
The partners: • Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, Lisbon • Biblioteca de Universidad Complutense, Madrid • British Library, London • Deutsches Literaturarchiv, Marbach • Forschungsstelle und Dokumentationszentrum für Österreichische Philosophie, Graz • Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv, Weimar • Institut Mémoires de l'édition contemporaine, Paris • Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna • University of Bergen, Bergen • Swiss National Library, Bern • National and University Library, Ljubljana, • Riksarkivet, Stockholm 13
Annotation Manager Linking Manager User Interface CNAF Common Name Authority File Update Manager Local Authority Data Local OPACs 14
Feasibility study concerning (Feb. 2001 – July 2003) • Interoperability across Europe’s national libraries • Combining the resources of Europe‘s national libraries • Groundwork to establish pan-European services
Partners • European national libraries of United Kingdom, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Portugal, Finland, Italy, Slovenia, Conference of European National Librarians (CENL), Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico, Italy (ICCU-Italy) • Combining the resources of Europe‘s national libraries • Groundwork to establish pan-European services
Work packages: • • • WP 1: WP 2: WP 3: WP 4: WP 5: WP 6: Publisher relations Business plans and models Metadata development Interoperability testbeds Dissemination and use Management 17
DELOS/NSF Working Group Reference Models for Digital Libraries: Actors and Roles http: //www. delos-nsf. actorswg. cdlib. org/ 18
WG Members DELOS (Europe) • José Borbinha, National Library of Portugal (DELOS coordinator) • Michel Mabe, Elsevier Science, UK (Publishing industry) • Peter Mutschke, Social Science Information Centre, Germany (Software agents, Information Retrieval) • Hans-Jörg Lieder, Berlin State Library, Germany (LEAF project) NSF (USA) • John Kunze, University of California, USA (NSF coordinator) • Barbara Tillett, Library of Congress, USA (Libraries) • Becky Dean, OCLC, USA (Libraries services) • Angela Spinazze, USA (Museums) • Howard Besser, University of California, USA (Multimedia and digital art production) DCMI - Dublin Core Metadata Initiative • Warwick Cathro, National Library of Australia 19
Purpose of Actors Working Group “… to develop a reference model describing the different classes of actors related to the problem of the Digital Library, including their roles and implications. ” - traditional entities (authors, editors, publishers) - non-traditional (users, catalogers, ref. librarians) - emerging (software agents, mediators, special rights holders)
Actors in Digital Libraries? ? ? . . . are persons, organizations, and automata that play roles in the production, dissemination, management and use of digital information.
Results • White paper: – Definition and introduction to the problem. – Description and analysis of the requirements. – Proposal to the community for a reference model. – Proposals for an international agenda for further technical and collaborative developments.
Generic framework (1/2)
Generic framework (2/2)
HTTP: //BND. BN. PT The National Digital Library Internal Creator Deposit External Actor Internal Digitizer Local Edition Digitization Librarian Publication Cataloguing Registration Identifier Management Dissemination and resource discovery User Technician Access Remote Access Preservation Local Access Storage
• Publication (Collection building) – External deposit (digitized and digital born contents) – Local edition (creation of our own resources. . . ) – Digitization (from our own digitization program. . . ) • Registration and storage – Structural metadata (XML, METS. . . ) – Identifier management (URN/PURL) – Cataloguing (UNIMARC, . . . ) • Preservation – Short-medium term management – Long-term physical and logical preservation • Access (who, how, when, why, . . . ) – Local access versus remote access (URN/PURL resolution) – On-line versus off-line • Dissemination and Resource Discovery – Traditional interfaces and services • OPACs (PORBASE and specialized services) • Thematic indexes – New interfaces and services • Z 39. 50 • OAI-PMH (DCMES, UNIMARC, XML. . . ) • ZING (Web Services. . . ) • . . . bring up the “deep web” (RSS, . . . ) 26