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Needs for Laboratory Capacity Building in Africa to Support Zoonotic and Trans-boundary Disease Diagnostics Needs for Laboratory Capacity Building in Africa to Support Zoonotic and Trans-boundary Disease Diagnostics Linda L. Logan, DVM, Ph. D Department of Pathobiology College of Veterinary Medicine Texas A&M University [email protected] tamu. edu 61 st James Steel Conference on Diseases in Nature Transmissible to Man

Moved from Dakar, Senegal to College Station, Texas August, 2010 Moved from Dakar, Senegal to College Station, Texas August, 2010

Subjects to be Discussed } Africa - the Reality } Animal Health Infrastructure } Subjects to be Discussed } Africa - the Reality } Animal Health Infrastructure } Laboratory Capacity Building } Epi-Surveillance } Players in Animal Health

Global Hunger } Each year more than 3. 5 million children die from malnutrition. Global Hunger } Each year more than 3. 5 million children die from malnutrition. } > One billion people - one sixth of the world's population - suffer from chronic hunger. } Reducing chronic hunger is essential to build a foundation for investments in health, education and economic growth.

Africa } Second Largest Continent } 55 countries } Over 1 Billion People } Africa } Second Largest Continent } 55 countries } Over 1 Billion People } High death from infectious disease both humans and animals } Malnutrition

Africa } 34 of the 49 Low Income Countries } are in Africa } Africa } 34 of the 49 Low Income Countries } are in Africa } Less than $975 dollars } a year } Less than $3 per day } Economically vulnerable } Zoonotic, Trans-boundry and emerging diseases abound……

Animal Health - a Key Element to Ensure Food Security } Many African societies Animal Health - a Key Element to Ensure Food Security } Many African societies based on livestock and pastoralist practices } Rinderpest Eradication - a huge success story!!! } Behind the scenes…. } Roll of USDA Plum Island, USAID and university partners provided tools for making this a success } Heat stable Rinderpest vaccine

African Animal Health Programs } } JP 15 PARC PACE End of epidemiologic surveillance African Animal Health Programs } } JP 15 PARC PACE End of epidemiologic surveillance with the end of these two USAID and EU funded programs

Foreign Animal Disease Funding } Congressional funded USDA APHIS in 2003 to open 3 Foreign Animal Disease Funding } Congressional funded USDA APHIS in 2003 to open 3 offices in Africa } Placed one Foreign Service officer and small support staff and money to keep the lights on and to travel!! } Limited money to do any projects or collaborations with countries of coverage? } Partnerships and HPAI

Inauguration of Two New APHIS International Services Area Offices in Africa in 2004 } Inauguration of Two New APHIS International Services Area Offices in Africa in 2004 } Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, } 1999 } Dakar, Senegal } May 2004 } Cairo, Egypt, } August 15, 2004

USDA APHIS Dakar Countries of Coverage } Sub-Saharan countries in West and Central Africa USDA APHIS Dakar Countries of Coverage } Sub-Saharan countries in West and Central Africa i. e. , 25 countries…. .

APHIS Dakar Staff } Dr. Cheryl French and Dr. Linda Logan } Mr. Moustapha APHIS Dakar Staff } Dr. Cheryl French and Dr. Linda Logan } Mr. Moustapha Seye } Drs Raphael Coly and Sadibou Fall } USDA VS, } USDA IS, } USDA FAS, } State and University collaborators

HPAI Funding Saved the Day HPAI Funding Saved the Day

Avian Influenza Funding } Powerful Asset for Promotion of Capacity Building } Partnerships } Avian Influenza Funding } Powerful Asset for Promotion of Capacity Building } Partnerships } Platform to uncovering other TBD’s and zoonotic diseases

H 5 N 1 HPAI Threat to Africa } H 5 N 1 HPAI H 5 N 1 HPAI Threat to Africa } H 5 N 1 HPAI was first reported in Africa by Nigeria (Feb 2006) followed by Egypt (Feb 2006) } Human cases occurred in 3 countries: Djibouti, Egypt and Nigeria - Deaths occurred only in Egypt and Nigeria. } In 2010 only Egypt has reported outbreaks in poultry and human deaths. } 116 human positives with 36 deaths. } 22 cases with 9 deaths in 2010. } Highest number of deaths of any country.

Avian Influenza in Africa and Middle East: 22 countries affected over past 3 years Avian Influenza in Africa and Middle East: 22 countries affected over past 3 years } } } Egypt Nigeria Niger Cameroun Niger Togo Benin Cote Ivoire Ghana Burkino Faso Djibouti Sudan } } } } } Jordan Palestinian Authority Israel Iraq Iran Afghanistan UAE Imports Pakistan Kuwait Saudi Arabia

Lack of Adequate Surveillance and Inadequate Laboratory Capacity in the Region Delays in days Lack of Adequate Surveillance and Inadequate Laboratory Capacity in the Region Delays in days of A/H 5 N 1 outbreaks notification to OIE in both 2006 and 2007

Regional Animal Health Centers AU IBAR, OIE, FAO - ECTAD Regional Animal Health Centers AU IBAR, OIE, FAO - ECTAD

Regional Animal Health Centre in Bamako, Mali. Network geographic area AU IBAR, OIE, FAO Regional Animal Health Centre in Bamako, Mali. Network geographic area AU IBAR, OIE, FAO - ECTAD 15 countries in West Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo 7 countries in Central Africa: Cameroon, Chad, Congo Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic and São Tomé & Principe.

Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Services } Few trained epidemiologists Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Services } Few trained epidemiologists or emergency management specialists } End of Rinderpest and HPAI programs = end of any surveillance in livestock or poultry } Lack of clinical training leads to poor delivery of clinical services to farmers

Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Services } Limited animal vaccines Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Services } Limited animal vaccines available } Counterfeit veterinary drugs hard to control } Poor genetic stock and poor nutrition } Little contact with vet extension

Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Services } Most funding agencies Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Services } Most funding agencies prefer to concentrate on crops and nutrition and not livestock. } International agencies can provide some of the support but there is a need for USDA and University and interested State partners to work with USAID to support animal health.

Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Services } Need to build Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Services } Need to build capacity for surveillance for zoonotic and trans-boundry diseases and targeted zoonotic disease agents } Build Epidemiology Surveillance Units } Build Laboratory Capacity

Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories } Very few Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories } Very few countries with adequate laboratory infrastructure } Even the best needs support in terms of young personnel, training and equipment } Countries with some laboratory capacity } } } } Egypt South Africa Botswana Kenya Senegal Mali Nigeria

Support for Animal Health Infrastructure } Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories } Lack of trained staff Support for Animal Health Infrastructure } Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories } Lack of trained staff } Poor infrastructure } No biosecurity } Poor biosafety practices } Lack of laboratory quality assurance

Support for Animal Health Infrastructure } Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories } Lack of modern equipment Support for Animal Health Infrastructure } Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories } Lack of modern equipment } Few samples come to the laboratory } Lack of confidence of producers } Few diagnostic tests in place to offer } Limited to no capacity to diagnose TBD’s } Vicious cycle

Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Education } Either too many Support for Animal Health Infrastructure in Africa } Veterinary Education } Either too many vet schools or none } Case of Egypt and Ethiopia } Francophone West and Central Africa one school serving 15 countries } Curriculums trapped in the last century } Some still using notes from colonial professors } Limited to no exposure to clinical practice

Transport of livestock Animal transport, care and welfare Much to be done in terms Transport of livestock Animal transport, care and welfare Much to be done in terms of animal care training Eid Mubarik!!!

Some Things Never Change Some Things Never Change

Laboratory Capacity Building } 2006 -2010 joint FAO-USDA/APHIS workshops, within the framework of the Laboratory Capacity Building } 2006 -2010 joint FAO-USDA/APHIS workshops, within the framework of the Regional animal health centre of Bamako (RAHC), that launched the “West and Central Africa Veterinary Laboratory Network for the control of avian influenza and other transboundary animal diseases” (RESOLAB). Workshops have been attended by heads of virology units and laboratory managers from thirteen (13) West African and seven (07) Central African countries. }

RESOLAB Objectives: } The network immediate objectives were set to enhance the effectiveness and RESOLAB Objectives: } The network immediate objectives were set to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of national veterinary diagnostic laboratories, improve communication between laboratories and with national epidemiological networks and stimulate improvement of AI expertise within the region, and thereby the quality of disease diagnosis.

RESOLAB } The most advanced laboratories (those with better equipment and well experienced staff) RESOLAB } The most advanced laboratories (those with better equipment and well experienced staff) were called upon to act as models - and leaders - for the others and to technically assist/help them. The RESOLAB was formalized at its inception meeting in December 2007, during which two laboratories were designated as regional laboratories: } National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) of Vom, Nigeria } Laboratoire National de l’Elevage et de Recherches Vétérinaires (LNERV) of Dakar, Senegal.

Laboratory Network Annual Meeting December 2009, Bamako, Mali } APHIS and FAO Partnership with Laboratory Network Annual Meeting December 2009, Bamako, Mali } APHIS and FAO Partnership with NVSL, and AAVLD for Laboratory capacity building in pathology diagnostics and laboratory quality assurance } Assistance from Jerry Saliki, Barb Martins, Corrie Brown, Jose Lineris,

Collaborators } } } } } Barbara Martin Corrie Brown Raquel Rech Jerry Saliki Collaborators } } } } } Barbara Martin Corrie Brown Raquel Rech Jerry Saliki Cristobal Zapeda Brian Mc. Cluskey Mo Salman Kristy Pabilonia Gary Brickler } } } } } Andrew Clark Max Coats Fidelis Hegnigi Morella De. Rosa Charles Rhone David Suarez David Swayne Peter Fernandez Paula Cowen Alfonso Torres

Co-Host UOFA/UEMOA Meeting 16 -18 June Dakar, Senegal Co-Host UOFA/UEMOA Meeting 16 -18 June Dakar, Senegal

Live Bird Market Management Live Bird Market Management

Field Simulation Segou, Mali Gov and FAO ECTAD Field Simulation Segou, Mali Gov and FAO ECTAD

Home in West Africa! ` Home in West Africa! `

Cross the Gambia River on a Ferry Boat Cross the Gambia River on a Ferry Boat

Diagnostic Laboratories, The Gambia Diagnostic Laboratories, The Gambia

Poultry Pathology, The Gambia Poultry Pathology, The Gambia

Diseases situation in 2010 and 2011 In most countries, weaknesses in diseases surveillance and Diseases situation in 2010 and 2011 In most countries, weaknesses in diseases surveillance and reporting from low operational capacity of national epidemiological surveillance network since end of PACE program HPAI H 5 N 1 last reported outbreak 18 Sept 2008 (in Togo) In 2010 and 2011, main diseases diagnosed by RESOLAB 22 national labs include for: v Trans-boundry diseases: ND, PPR, ASF, CBPP and FMD v Zoonotic diseases: Rabies, Brucellosis, Anthrax, RVF, Bovine TB Resurgence of outbreaks of: Anthrax, Rabies and African swine fever in several countries

OIE Studies } Performance of Veterinary Services PVS } Gap Analysis } Needs in OIE Studies } Performance of Veterinary Services PVS } Gap Analysis } Needs in Veterinary Education } Supported the Regional Centers usually with one or two staff

Africa: The Players in Animal Health } African Union- Inter-Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) Africa: The Players in Animal Health } African Union- Inter-Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) } United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) } World Health Organization (OIE) } US Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, Agricultural Research Service and Foreign Agriculture Service (APHIS, ARS, FAS)

Africa: The Players in Animal Health } Regional Economic Communities like COMESA, ECOWAS, EAC, Africa: The Players in Animal Health } Regional Economic Communities like COMESA, ECOWAS, EAC, etc } International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) } Centers for Diseases Control (CDC) } World Bank } United States Agency for International Development (USAID) } European Union } University Partners } Number of Non-government Organizations (NGOs)

African Union Intra-Bureau of Animal Resources } NEPAD The New Partnership for African Development African Union Intra-Bureau of Animal Resources } NEPAD The New Partnership for African Development } Comprehensive Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) } Ministries of Agriculture and Livestock to put together strategic plans for increasing investment in Agriculture } Most plans are done posted in AU – IBAR webpage } Funding Agencies are to contribute to the plans that individual countries have developed } Livestock a prominent priority for many African countries } AU IBAR to develop an overall plan for needs for Animal Health

Feed the Future USAID Initiative } USDA been working closely with USAID to find Feed the Future USAID Initiative } USDA been working closely with USAID to find productive roles for USDA to plan } ERS and FAS has played the leadership roles for the USDA } Countries Eligible for Program: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia in Africa; Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal, Tajikistan in Asia; and Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, and, Nicaragua.

What next in Animal Health } OIE, FAO aligning their strategic plans to be What next in Animal Health } OIE, FAO aligning their strategic plans to be a mirror of that of USAID “Feed the Future”…. } World Bank reinvesting in livestock initiatives. } AU-IBAR taking a more active leadership role. } The need to sustain the partnership of FAO and USDA on laboratory networks and epidemiology networks throughout Africa. } Continuing need for coordination } Opportunity for many partners.

End of an Era at FAO ECTAD } Lack of funds due to donors End of an Era at FAO ECTAD } Lack of funds due to donors loss of interest in HPAI } Funding for HPAI animal health acitivities drying up in FAO, OIE, USAID, USDA…. } Who will carry the torch of laboratory capacity building? ?

Working Though Partnership and Networks Working Though Partnership and Networks

A Little Light on the Horizon? Or is it a Mirage? There’s lots to A Little Light on the Horizon? Or is it a Mirage? There’s lots to do!!