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NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR LASER, PLASMA AND RADIATION PHYSICS Institute for Space Sciences P. O. NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR LASER, PLASMA AND RADIATION PHYSICS Institute for Space Sciences P. O. Box: MG-23, RO 76911 Bucharest ROMANIA Tel. /Fax (4021) 457. 44. 71 E-Mail: [email protected] nipne. ro http: //venus. nipne. ro

Main directions for R & D activity ü Cosmic physics Ø cosmic rays, nuclear Main directions for R & D activity ü Cosmic physics Ø cosmic rays, nuclear astrophysics and particles Ø cosmic plasma and magnetometry Ø astrophysics ü Cosmology ü General theoretical and mathematical physics ü Gravitation and Microgravitation ü Space technology Ø engineering for space research and remote sensing

Personnel structure - 2003 Total 86 R & D personnel 68 – Ph. D. Personnel structure - 2003 Total 86 R & D personnel 68 – Ph. D. 21 – Ph. D. students 21 – Master students 12 1 - senior researchers I, II and III 2 - scientific researchers 3 - assistant researchers 4 - assistants 5 - services and workers Average = 36 years 3

STRUCTURE Laboratories 1. Space Research Laboratory 2. Space Engineering Laboratory 3. Gravitation Laboratory Administration STRUCTURE Laboratories 1. Space Research Laboratory 2. Space Engineering Laboratory 3. Gravitation Laboratory Administration

International R & D partners (1) Belgium 1. Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. Czech International R & D partners (1) Belgium 1. Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. Czech Republic 1. 2. Institute of Atmospheric Physics of Czech Academy, Prague; Karlovo University, Prague. France 1. 2. 3. 4. Laboratoire de Physique des Atomes, Lasers, Molecules et Surfaces, CNRS; Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, Universite Paris Sud, Orsay; Laboratoire Aime Cotton, Universite Paris Sud, Orsay. University of Cergy-Pontoise, Department of Mathematics, Cergy-Pontoise. Germany 1. Max Plank Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching.

International R & D partners (2) Italy 1. 2. 3. 4. C. N. R International R & D partners (2) Italy 1. 2. 3. 4. C. N. R – I. A. S. F. Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Bologna; Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Universita di Bologna; Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Universita, Gran Sasso; Laboratorio per lo Studio degli Effetti delle Radiazioni sui Materiali Speciali (SERMS), Terni. Russia 1. Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna. Turkey 1. Cankaya University, Ankara. USA 1. EMBRY - RIDDLE Aeronautical University, Florida. 2. Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh.

Mobility 1999 - 2002 Mobility 1999 - 2002

Satellites and space stations with our participation (own experiments or in cooperation) 1. Magnetometry Satellites and space stations with our participation (own experiments or in cooperation) 1. Magnetometry and cosmic plasmas – – – – – 1978 1980 1981 1989 1991 1995 1996 1997 2000 INTERKOSMOS 18 INTERKOSMOS 20 INTERKOSMOS 21 INTERKOSMOS 24 AKTIVNII - MAGION 2 INTERKOSMOS 25 APEX - MAGION 3 INTERBALL 1 - MAGION 4 - TAIL INTERBALL 2 - MAGION 5 - AURORAL FAST EQUATOR - S CLUSTER II

Satellites and space stations with our participation (cont. ) (own experiments or in cooperation) Satellites and space stations with our participation (cont. ) (own experiments or in cooperation) 2. Cosmic rays – – – 1972 1974 1975 1977 1979 1981 – – – 1982 1985 1986 1989 1993 3. Remote sensing INTERKOSMOS 6 1996 MIR - PRIRODA COSMOS 690 COSMOS 782 INTERKOSMOS 17 & COSMOS 936 COSMOS 1129 & SALIUT 6 Scientific Program of Romanian cosmonaut SALIUT 6 COSMOS 1514 & SALIUT 7 COSMOS 1781 COSMOS 2044 COSMOS 2229

Space experiments Space experiments

MAGION 2 - AKTIVNYI satellite MAGION 4 - INTERBALL TAIL satellite 500 km x MAGION 2 - AKTIVNYI satellite MAGION 4 - INTERBALL TAIL satellite 500 km x 2 500 km 820 315 km X 200 000 km 650 1989 1995

INTERBALL Project Austria Bulgaria Canada Czechia Finland France Germany Greece Italy Poland Romania Russia INTERBALL Project Austria Bulgaria Canada Czechia Finland France Germany Greece Italy Poland Romania Russia Slovakia Sweden Ukraine Hungary, ESA/ESTEC AURORAL TAIL INTERBALL - AURORAL 770 x 20. 000 km INTERBALL - TAIL 315 x 200. 000 km 12

MAGION 4 - INTERBALL TAIL satellite Magnetic field, medium energy particles, low-energy particles, and MAGION 4 - INTERBALL TAIL satellite Magnetic field, medium energy particles, low-energy particles, and current in plasma April 12, 1997 ISS Slovakia Germany Poland

CLUSTER II mission European Space Agency - ESA 4 identical satellites in tetrahedral arrangement CLUSTER II mission European Space Agency - ESA 4 identical satellites in tetrahedral arrangement 1. 2. 3. 4. RUMBA SALSA SAMBA TANGO Institute for Space Sciences – Bucharest Ø Momentum and energy transphere at the magnetosphere boundary: - kinetical models and mathematical simulations Ø Auroral acceleration mechanisms: - theoretical models and comparison with experimental data

ISTOK - 1 Project Module PRIRODA Remote Sensing Complex PRIRODA Space Station MIR ISTOK - 1 Project Module PRIRODA Remote Sensing Complex PRIRODA Space Station MIR

Automated Pointing System for space and airborne experiments Project NOTTE in cooperation with: 1. Automated Pointing System for space and airborne experiments Project NOTTE in cooperation with: 1. 2. 3. Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Universita di Bologna, Italy National Institute for Aero. Space Research -INCAS, Bucharest, Romania Ministry of National Defence, Romania Tested during the Total Solar Eclipse in August 1999 (several supersonic flights on MIG 29) 16

Future Space Missions Future Space Missions

International Space Station Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer - AMS Aim: Cosmic Ray studies • Cherenkov International Space Station Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer - AMS Aim: Cosmic Ray studies • Cherenkov counters • scintillators • Silicium trackers USA, Russia, Japan, ESA, Canada, Italy and Brazil Institute for Space Sciences is involved in: - electronic design for the tracker - assembling of the silicon ladders for the Tracker. - works to qualify the components for operating in a cosmic radiation environment by activities at: INFN Perugia, Italy and GSI installation, Darmstadt, Germany

ISS is involved in the investigations of the implications of the CMB measurements on ISS is involved in the investigations of the implications of the CMB measurements on the structure formation models, addressing the following scientific problems: Ø Constraints on the total density of Dark Matter components. PLANCK Mission European Space Agency Ø The imprint of the Hot Dark Matter component on the CMB power spectra. Ø Determination of cosmological lepton and baryon asymmetries. Ø Implications of neutrino oscillations on the CMB angular power spectra. Ø The implications of unstable neutrino on the CMB anisotropy. Ø Constraints on the fundamental cosmological parameters from Planck 19 data.

Planck/LFI Data - House Keeping and Science Telemetry Raw classes data from ground and Planck/LFI Data - House Keeping and Science Telemetry Raw classes data from ground and Space based instrument: Ø House keeping telemetry - a set of data where all information about instruments and its devices are stored; - is aimed at: - understanding if the instruments and devices are working correctly; - giving the possibility to modify the instrument set-up in real time to quickly avoid error or device breakdown - Real Time Analysis (RTA). Ø Science Telemetry - the real science data - is aimed at understanding the goodness of science data obtained; - its output should be a set of parameters necessary to tune the instrumentation as best as possible. ü INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, ü C. N. R – I. A. S. F. Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Bologna, ü I. S. D. C. – Integral Science data Center, Geneva 20

On-Ground Astrophysics Experiments On-Ground Astrophysics Experiments

MACRO NOTTE Gran Sasso, Italy Experiments carried out in: 1999 - Romania 2001 – MACRO NOTTE Gran Sasso, Italy Experiments carried out in: 1999 - Romania 2001 – Zambia 2002 – South Africa MACRO underground infrastructure - 3 500 m Parang, Romania + 2 200 m 22

Large Hadrons Collider - CERN, Geneva ALICE CMS A Large Ion Collider Compact Muon Large Hadrons Collider - CERN, Geneva ALICE CMS A Large Ion Collider Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment Contributions of ISS in ALICE collaboration (Mo. U between ISS-Bucharest and JINR-Dubna) Common activities within ALICE Off-Line group on the development of the simulation framework and analysis tools ISS is involved through collaboration - with CMS group from Perugia, Italy - since 1997 (one of the Quality Test Centres where the quality tests will be carried out) An ISS computer cluster is certified by CERN in GRID net.

On-Ground Astrophysics Experiments BRAHMS - Broad RAnge Hadron Magnetic Spectrometers RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion On-Ground Astrophysics Experiments BRAHMS - Broad RAnge Hadron Magnetic Spectrometers RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) Brookhaven National Laboratory SLIM (Search for LIght Monopoles) Chacaltaya, Bolivia ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch) Mediterranean Sea OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion t. RAcking) National Laboratory Gran Sasso, Italy – CERN, Geneva

BRAHMS - Broad RAnge Hadron Magnetic Spectrometers RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) Brookhaven National BRAHMS - Broad RAnge Hadron Magnetic Spectrometers RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) Brookhaven National Laboratory Institute for Space Sciences involved in: Ø development of software for the off-line module; Ø preliminary analysis of global physical quantities for interactions at 130 AGe. V and 200 AGe. V; Ø studies on the characteristic signals of the QGP (Quark Gluon Plasma); Ø preliminary analysis on the gluonic condensate state (Color Glass Condensate) of nuclear matter; Ø studies of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of energy densities.

The Fundeni Telemedicine Pilot Links Medical units abroad Medical units in Romania Internet barebone The Fundeni Telemedicine Pilot Links Medical units abroad Medical units in Romania Internet barebone Fundeni

National Research and Development Programmes Ø Technologies in Aeronautics and Space AEROSPATIAL Ø Fundamental National Research and Development Programmes Ø Technologies in Aeronautics and Space AEROSPATIAL Ø Fundamental Researches - CERES Ø Core Programme European 6 th Framework Programme ü “Integrating Space Radiation Sensing Infrastructure”

Romania ESA 1. “Agreement between the Government of ROMANIA and the EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY Romania ESA 1. “Agreement between the Government of ROMANIA and the EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY concerning cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes” 1. 1. December 11, 1992 1. 2. October 6, 1999 2. Plan for European Co-operating States - PECS

Regional Network for Research and Education in Space Science and Technology for Central, Eastern Regional Network for Research and Education in Space Science and Technology for Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

Cooperation with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ОИЯИ - Дубна Cooperation with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research ОИЯИ - Дубна

Laboratory of High Energy – ЛВЕ 1. Started in 1956 Ø the first stack Laboratory of High Energy – ЛВЕ 1. Started in 1956 Ø the first stack of emulsion was exposed in the proton beam of 9 Ge. V Ø mesons of 60 Ge. V from Serpuhov. 2. Along 45 years of a strong collaboration Ø many other stacks were exposed with different high energy nuclei (He, C, N, O, Ne, Si, S) at the syncrofazotron E = 4. 5 AGe. V Ø secondary radioactive beams at the nuclotron (He 3, Be 7, B 10, B 11). As a result over 100 articles were published in different prestigious journals of great impact, only this year we came with 3 papers. At present we continue to work in emulsion, and are mostly interested in the Becquerell project, because it is aimed to solve crucial problems for nuclear astrophysics.

2. Another collaboration with ЛВЕ begun 5 years ago, concerning ALICE experiment at LHC-CERN. 2. Another collaboration with ЛВЕ begun 5 years ago, concerning ALICE experiment at LHC-CERN. 3. This year we will start the third direction = the investigation of secondary particle production and neutron yield from heavy targets in nucleus-nucleus interaction and study of transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power installations. In order to strenghten our collaboration with ЛВЕ we send for a long period to work in Dubna 5 very young people from our laboratory, which will arrive here next month.

Heavy ion experiments in nuclear emulsions Year Experiment Accelerator Ion Energy (A Ge. V/c) Heavy ion experiments in nuclear emulsions Year Experiment Accelerator Ion Energy (A Ge. V/c) JINR, Dubna Serpuhov p, mesons 28 Si, 32 S, 4 He, 12 C, 14 C, 16 O 9 60 4. 5 19562003 1986 EMU 01 CERN SPS 16 O 200 1986 EMU 01 CERN SPS 16 O 60 1986 E 815 BNL 16 O 14. 6 1987 EMU 01 CERN SPS 32 S 1988 E 815 BNL 28 Si 1990 EMU 01 CERN SPS 32 S 1992 E 863 BNL 197 Au 1993 E 863 BNL 197 Au 200 1994 EMU 12 CERN SPS 208 Pb 158 1996 LBL Berkeley 40 Ar 200 14. 6 200 11. 6 1. 2

Laboratory for Neutron Physics – ЛНФ Microstructure of ferrofluids studied by SANS on YUMO Laboratory for Neutron Physics – ЛНФ Microstructure of ferrofluids studied by SANS on YUMO at IBR-2, Dubna FERROFLUIDS = ultrastable colloidal suspentions of ferro/ferrimagnetic particles ( 100 Å) in various carrier liquids. Components: Ø Fe 3 O 4, etc. Ø Adsorbed surfactant layer Ø Liquid carrier The use of thermal neutrons makes it possible to study the structure of ferrofluids under a wide variety of experimental conditions VIEW of YUMO spectrometer

Microstructure of ferrofluids studied by SANS on YUMO at IBR-2, Dubna Results of the Microstructure of ferrofluids studied by SANS on YUMO at IBR-2, Dubna Results of the activity at LNPh- JINR in the field of ferrofluids 1996 -present Ø publications: § papers in international journals = 21 § international conferences and symposiums = 17 Ø Ph. D. Thesis: “On the microstructure of ferrofluids” In the frame of user policy, cooperations with: - Research Institute for Solid State Physics, Budapest, Hungary; - Paul Scherer Institute, Swiss Spallation Neutron Source, Switzerland; Scientific contacts: - Shemyakin-Ovchinikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; - Moscow State University, Physical Department, Moscow.

Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions – ЛЯР 1. Studies of the charge spectrum of the Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions – ЛЯР 1. Studies of the charge spectrum of the very heavy cosmic ions (Z > 50) from the galactic radiation in meteoritic crystals 2. Nuclear physics - The heavy ion radioactivity Ø the spontaneous emission of Neon 24 nuclei from the isotopes of: Thorium 230, Protactinium 231, and Uranium 233 Ø the upper limit of the branching ratios for Magnesium 30 and Silicium 32 emission by the spontaneous decay of the isotopes Neptunium 237 and Americium 241 was set with the highest sensitivity achieved at that moment in the world. 1984 : the I-st Prize of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Researches, Dubna From Romania: - Prof. Dr. Aurel Sandulescu, Member of Romanian Academy - Dr. Dumitru Hasegan 36