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National Forum on TK Protection Intellectual Property Office/National Museum Elpidio V. Peria Biodiversity, Innovation, National Forum on TK Protection Intellectual Property Office/National Museum Elpidio V. Peria Biodiversity, Innovation, Trade and Society (BITS) Policy Center, Inc. 21 -22 March 2012 Traditional Knowledge & Indigenous Peoples: The Philippines' Legal Landscape

 Constitutional Basis International Commitments Scope of Legislative Efforts & Community Initiatives Issues for Constitutional Basis International Commitments Scope of Legislative Efforts & Community Initiatives Issues for Further Resolution and Action Way Forward OVERVIEW

 The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development (sec. 22, Article II, Declaration of Principles and State Policies) The State shall recognize, respect and protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions and institutions. It shall consider these rights in the formulation of national plans and policies (sec. 17, Article XIV, ELSTACS) Constitutional Basis

INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENT/ARENA Intl Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENT/ARENA Intl Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) SUBJECT MATTER Non-discrimination esp on equal participation in all cultural activities Describe the main attributes of the product WTO-TRIPS Agreement (art. 27. 3[b]) Protection of traditional knowledge & folklore Link the product attributes to customer Convention on Biological Diversity Sustainable use needs on ABS - Nagoya Protocol Customary law, community protocols FAO-ITPGRFA - Standard Matls Transfer Agrmt Farmers' Rights- Art. 9 Benefit-Sharing UNESCO Conventions - Intangilble Cultural Heritage - Diversity of Cultural Expressions Preservation of cultural heritage UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) Right to self-determination; Cultural heritage protection International Commitments WIPO-IGC Protection of Intellectual property aspects of genetic resources, traditional knowledge, TCEs

 Legislation SUBJECT MATTER Describe the main attributes of the product -rights to self-determination; Legislation SUBJECT MATTER Describe the main attributes of the product -rights to self-determination; cultural integrity; free Link the product attributes to customer and prior informed consent (FPIC); ancestral domains needs Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA. Republic Act 8371) Cultural Heritage Act (Republic Act 10066) Protection of elements of cultural heritage Wildlife Act (Republic Act 9147) Traditional use; right to FPIC in bioprospecting activities Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act Right to a share from the commercialization of (Republic Act 8423) traditional medicine knowledge Plant Variety Protection Act (Republic Act 9168) Farmers' rights to save, exchange, use, share and sell seeds Intellectual Property Code (Republic Act 9283) Sui generis protection of plant varieties and animal breeds and a system of protection for community intellectual rights The Legal Landscape (1): At a Glance

 Describe the main attributes of the product Legislation/ Administrative product Link the Issuance Describe the main attributes of the product Legislation/ Administrative product Link the Issuance needs SUBJECT MATTER attributes to customer Animal Welfare Act ( Republic Act 8485) -grant of exception to the killing of animals when made part of a ritual required by tribal or ethnic custom of indigenous cultural communities Magna Carta of Women (Republic Act 9710) Protection of the rights of Moro and indigenous women to their indigenous knowledge systems and practices, traditional livelihood, and other manifestations of their cultures and ways of life Technology Transfer Act (Republic Act 10055) Research and devt institute or institution (RDI) to disclose any biodiversity and genetic resource, TK, IKSP in all applications for intellectual property protection The Legal Landscape (2): At a Glance

 Chapter VI – Cultural Integrity sec. 29 - Protection of Indigenous Culture, Traditions Chapter VI – Cultural Integrity sec. 29 - Protection of Indigenous Culture, Traditions and Institutions sec. 30 – Educational Systems sec. 31 - Recognition of Cultural Diversity sec. 32 - Community Intellectual Rights sec. 33 - Rights to Religious, Cultural Sites and Ceremonies sec. 34 - Right to IKSP and to Develop Own Sciences and Technologies sec. 35 - FPIC requirement for Access to BGR sec. 36 - Sustainable Agro-techical development Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA, Republic Act 8371)

Sec. 32. Community Intellectual Rights – ICCs/IPs have the right to practice and revitalize Sec. 32. Community Intellectual Rights – ICCs/IPs have the right to practice and revitalize their own cultural traditions and customs. The State shall preserve, protect and develop the past, present and future manifestations of their cultures as well as the right to the restitution of cultural, intellectual, religious, and spiritual property taken without their free and prior informed consent or in violation of their laws, traditions and customs. Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA, Republic Act 8371)

Sec. 34. Right to Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Practices and to Develop own Sciences Sec. 34. Right to Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Practices and to Develop own Sciences and Technologies – ICCs/IPs are entitled to the recognition of the full ownership and control and protection of their cultural and intellectual rights. They shall have the right to special measures to control, develop and protect their sciences, technologies and cultural manifestations, including human and other genetic resources, seeds, including derivatives of these resources, traditional medicines and health practices, vital medicinal plants, animals and minerals, indigenous knowledge systems and practices, knowledge of the properties of flora and fauna, oral traditions, literature, designs, and visual and performing arts. Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA, Republic Act 8371)

 Art. V – Registration and Conservation of Cultural Property sec. 14 – Philippine Art. V – Registration and Conservation of Cultural Property sec. 14 – Philippine Registry of Cultural Property (PRECUP) sec. 16 – Documentation and Preservation of Traditional and Contemporary Arts sec. 19 – National Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage sec. 21 - Indigenous Properties National Cultural Heritage Act (Republic Act 10066)

 Sec. 7 – Collection of Wildlife Collection of wildlife may be allowed in Sec. 7 – Collection of Wildlife Collection of wildlife may be allowed in accordance with sec. 6 of this Act; xxxx. . Provided, further, That collection of wildlife by indigenous people may be allowed for traditional use and not primarily for trade. xxx Sec. 14 – Bioprospecting The Secretary xxx. . . before granting the necessary permit, shall require that prior informed consent be obtained by the applicant from the concerned indigenous cultural communities. xxx. . . The prior informed consent from indigenous peoples shall be obtained in accordance with existing laws. Wildlife Act (RA 9147)

 Sec. 2 – Declaration of Policy It shall also be the policy of Sec. 2 – Declaration of Policy It shall also be the policy of the State to seek a legally workable basis by which indigenous societies would own their knowledge of traditional medicine. When such knowledge is used by outsiders, the indigenous societies can require the permitted users to acknowledge its source and can demand a share of any financial return that may come from its authorized commercial use. Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (RA 8423)

 Sec. 3 – DOCUMENTATION OF IKS on TRADITIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE HEALTH CARE The Sec. 3 – DOCUMENTATION OF IKS on TRADITIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE HEALTH CARE The Board shall endeavor to develop workable mechanisms, in accordance with the customary practices of the place, for the identification and documentation of indigenous knowledge systems relevant to the utilization of biological and genetic resources that are applied in traditional and alternative health care practices of the community Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (RA 8423 Implementing Rules and Regulations, Rule IX)

 Sec. 4 – INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS The Institute shall endeavor to monitor and Sec. 4 – INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS The Institute shall endeavor to monitor and inventory Philippine natural health products that have been inappropriately applied for IPR protection in the Philippines and abroad without complying with applicable laws and regulations And shall make representations with the appropriate international institutions with the assistance of other institutions and agencies of the Government of the Philippines to cancel these rights or to renegotiate the terms and conditions thereof that are favorable to Philippine interests Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (RA 8423, Implementing Rules and Regulations, Rule IX)

 Sec. 4 – INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS The application of existing forms of intellectual Sec. 4 – INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS The application of existing forms of intellectual property rights on biological and genetic resources as well as indigenous knowledge systems shall be without prejudice to the application of whatever sui generis rights that may be provided by law to the appropriate local and indigenous communities. The Board or other appropriate governmental bodies shall also intervene, whenever it becomes necessary for the protection of the general welfare of the communities involved, to protect and ensure the rights of the communities during the negotiations for benefit sharing. Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (RA 8423, Implementing Rules and Regulations, Rule IX)

Section 43. Exceptions to Plant Variety Protection. - The Certificate of Plant Variety Protection Section 43. Exceptions to Plant Variety Protection. - The Certificate of Plant Variety Protection shall not extend to: d) The traditional right of small farmers to save, use, exchange, share or sell their farm produce of a variety protected under this Act, except when a sale is for the purpose of reproduction under a commercial marketing agreement. The Board shall determine the condition under which this exception shall apply, taking into consideration the nature of the plant cultivated, grown or sown. This provision shall also extend to the exchange and sell of seeds among and between said small farmers: Provided, That the small farmers may exchange or sell seeds for reproduction and replanting in their own land. Plant Variety Protection Act (RA 9168)

 Sec. 22. 4 – Exceptions to Patentability Provisions under this subsection shall not Sec. 22. 4 – Exceptions to Patentability Provisions under this subsection shall not preclude Congress to consider the enactment of a law providing sui generis protection of plant varieties and animal breeds and a system of community intellectual rights protection. ” Intellectual Property Code (RA 8293)

IP Code (RA 8293) Sui generis protection of plant varieties and animal breeds PVP IP Code (RA 8293) Sui generis protection of plant varieties and animal breeds PVP Act (RA 9168) a plant variety protection system with sui generis protection for farmers’ rights to seeds NO policy proposal for right to animal breeds yet System of community intellectual rights protection IPRA (RA 8371) TAMA (RA 8423) Right to practice and revitalize their own cultural traditions and customs Right to the restitution of cultural, intellectual, religious and spiritual property State policy to seek a legally workable basis by which indigenous societies would own their knowledge of traditional medicine Right to require permitted users to acknowledge its source Full ownership and control Right to demand a share of and protection of their cultural any financial return that may and intellectual rights come from its authorized commercial use right to special measures Summary of Sui Generis Protection Legally Available

Sec. 6 The killing of any animal other than cattle pigs, goats, sheep, poultry, Sec. 6 The killing of any animal other than cattle pigs, goats, sheep, poultry, rabbits, carabaos, horses, deer and crocodiles is likewise hereby declared unlawful except in the following instances: (1) When it is done as part of the religious rituals of an established religion or sect or a ritual required by tribal or ethnic custom of indigenous cultural communities; however, leaders shall keep records in cooperation with the Committee on Animal Welfare - implementing regulations issued by DA, DAO 252007 Animal Welfare Act (RA 8485)

Sec. 28 - Recognition and Preservation of Cultural Identity and Integrity - The State Sec. 28 - Recognition and Preservation of Cultural Identity and Integrity - The State shall recognize and respect the rights of Moro and indigenous women to practice, promote, protect, and preserve their own culture, traditions, and institutions and to consider these rights in the formulation and implementation of national policies and programs. To this end, the State shall adopt measures in consultation with the sectors concerned to protect their rights to their indigenous knowledge systems and practices, traditional livelihood, and other manifestations of their cultures and ways of life: Provided, That these cultural systems and practices are not discriminatory to women. Magna Carta of Women (RA 9710)

Sec. 3 (c)(i)– Disclosures - The RDI shall provide the GFA with a written Sec. 3 (c)(i)– Disclosures - The RDI shall provide the GFA with a written disclosure on the following: (1) any biodiversity, genetic resources or materials, associated TK, and IKSP utilized in or which formed as basis in the development of the subject matter contained in the IPR application; (2) the primary source of any biodiversity, genetic resources or materials, associated TK, and IKSP utilized in or which formed as basis in the subject matter contained in the application; or (3) the secondary source, if no information on the primacy source is available IRR of Technology Transfer Act (RA 10055), Rule 12, sec. 3

TRIBAL BOTIKA - an initiative of the Bukidnon. Daraghuyan tribal community to revitalize and TRIBAL BOTIKA - an initiative of the Bukidnon. Daraghuyan tribal community to revitalize and protect their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants found within their ancestral domain in the vicinity of Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park, Malaybalay City, Bukidnon, Philippines Community Initiatives (1)

Talaandig Community’s assertion of ownership of Mt. Kitanglad and Community Protocol based on IPRA’s Talaandig Community’s assertion of ownership of Mt. Kitanglad and Community Protocol based on IPRA’s sec. 70 SEARICE’s community registries anchored on the Local Government Code and PVP Act’s Sec. 72 PPRDI’s draft ordinance on Farmers’ Rights BITS Policy Center's Art, Culture and Copyright Workshop where cultural rights' checklist and Artists' Template will be developed Other Community Initiatives (2)

DRAFT GENERAL GUIDELINES ON FESTIVALS - developed during the workshop co-organized by Tebtebba and DRAFT GENERAL GUIDELINES ON FESTIVALS - developed during the workshop co-organized by Tebtebba and the Third World Network, held 4 -5 October 2010, in La Trinidad, Benguet, - MANDATORY ORIENTATION given to LGU organizers on indigenous cultures and practices to be included in festivals; - MEMBERSHIP OF MEMBERS OF ICC in FESTIVAL COMMITTEES - RULES on PICTURE-TAKING, T-SHIRTS; TRIBAL COSTUMES; STREET DANCING; PRIZES Other Community Initiatives (3)

- do these rules apply independently of each other in a particular situation or - do these rules apply independently of each other in a particular situation or will they apply concurrently and cumulatively? - is there one set of rules that will prevail over all other rules? - how will customary law principles apply to nonindigenous peoples? How about extra-territorially? - how do we expand principles on legal pluralism, whereby customary law of indigenous peoples co-exist with existing rules in civil law, political law, etc. Issues for Further Resolution and Action

- continuing collaboration among government agencies on these issues always a good working procedure - continuing collaboration among government agencies on these issues always a good working procedure 1) specific rules on Chapter VI of IPRA 2) monitoring the patenting of Phil natural products abroad and assert claims for benefit-sharing 3) sui generis rules on animal breeds 4) interplay of customary law with intellectual property rights 5) supplemental measures for the protection of intangible cultural heritage 6) reaching out to indigenous peoples nationwide – can they be assisted with their more pressing problems? Ways Forward