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Описание презентации Natalie Crawford Jessica Holloway Victor Popatov Junaid по слайдам
Natalie Crawford Jessica Holloway Victor Popatov Junaid
Silvia Gherardi is a professor of Sociology at the university of Trento, Italy. She was trained in the sociology of organisations at the University of Exeter. She conducted field researches and studies on the subject of decision-making in organizations, and published two books on it (Le decisioni organizzative, Bologna II Mulino, 1985; Le micro-decisioni nelle organizzazioni, Bologna II, Mulino,
• Audience, who are specialised, involved/interested in organisation theory studies. • The article is written by a professor, and it is presumed that the language used in this article is understood by the audience. • We consider this article to be targeting academic elite, based on the report structure and language.
The first thing the author looks at is the concept of the term ‘gender’. Silvia Gherardi argues the category of gender has given visibility to, and thereby enabled the investigation of a social reality that was previously non — existent because it was not part of theoretical awareness. According to Piccone Stella and Saraceno (1996) the term ‘gender’ first made its appearance in scientific discourse in 1975. The term ‘gender’ thus arose in the academic studies of American feminism (Nicholson 1994). It was then imported into Europe with different outcomes but a shared endeavour in social studies.
Gender is a binary concept: men and women constitute gender; or rather, how we represent ourselves is perceived in society to constitute gender. As a consequence by exploring relationships between men and women gender studies modify the concept of gender leaving way for a plurality of interpretations of ‘what constitutes gender? ’ Formulation of the concept of gender imports two simultaneously evoked differences into OT: sexual differences, and power differences. Put simply, one may say the concept has affected organisational analysis by prompting the study of the extent into which sexual difference is socially and organisationally constructed ….
Silvia Gherhardi moves on the examine the question “What is a woman” in a bid to justify her argument on the concept and invention of the tern ‘gender’. She comes up with three answers …
The body: As the biological basis of both sexuality and the capacity of women to bear children. The essentialist position that views the maternal body as defining the qualities of a woman. Society, Culture or Politics This being the position that European debate has labelled ‘culturalist’ in order to emphasise the social structure of gender. French and Italian feminism that view the body as symbolic rather than physical origin of the subject ‘woman’ Language According to deconstructionist and post structuralist analysis, western logo centric thought has produced individuals shaped by discursive practices. Densonstructionalism is therefore a feminist practice that encourages women to show that the practices which define them are a fiction and are historically situated in power relations. The sources of differentiation…
These approaches are understood differently according to the approaches in the conversation between FT and OT, however, a overview of the various feminist approaches is necessary to fully understand the different perspectives. Starting with looking at the analysis concluded by Marta Calas and Linda Smircich (1996)
Marta B Calas and Linda smircich are both professors at the Isenberg School of Management. They are the authors of many articles and of ‘Feminist Perspectives on Gender in Organizational Research’ The next slide is an extreme simplification of their analysis with its sole purpose to highlight how the various sex-gender system translate into different conceptions of the relation between gender and organisational studies Its other purpose being how mingling in the social sciences has benefited from the feminist critique.
School of thought Liberal Radical Psychoana lytic Marxist Socialist Poststruct uralist/po st modern Third world/ Post colonial Intellectual roots Evolved from 18 th /19 th century political economy Generate d in the woman’s liberation movemen ts of the late 60’s Evolved from Freudian and other psychoanal ytic theories Object -relation theories Based on a ‘correctio n’ of the Marxist critique of capitalist society since the mid- 19 th century Emerged in the 1970’s as part of attempts by women’s liberation movement s to synthesize Marxist, psychoanal ytic and radical feminisms Located in contempor ary French critiques of knowledge and ‘identity’ Emerging from gendered critiques of western feminisms Conception of sex/gender Sex is part of the essential biological endowme nt ‘ Sex class’ is the condition of women as the oppressed class Individuals become sexually identified as part of their psychosexu al developmen t Gender is part of a historical class relations that constitute systems of oppressio n Gender is processual and socially constructe d through several intersectio ns Sex/ gender discursive practices that constitute specific subjectiviti es Considers constitutio n of complex subjectiviti es beyond western conception s of sex/gender Representation of gender/Org theory as gender neutral Alternativ e feminist organising practices Female skills as an organisatio nal advantage Orgs as sites of reproduct ion Organizing as gendered processes Organizing as the discursive mobilizatio n of power Globalised economy and worldwide org
Following Calas and Smircichs descriptions of how various feminist approaches intersect, different ‘voices’ can be heard in a metaphorical conversation … So to explain the table you have just seen in a little more detail Silvia Gherardi goes on to explain the approaches in much more detail.
Liberal political theories of the 18 th and 19 th century Issue of equal access with men in all spheres of life Liberal feminists shifted from themes of equality, to themes of difference in 80 s and 90 s. In Anglo-Saxon organisational literature the strand of research which investigates gender equity has been labelled ‘women in management’ which seeks to demonstrate that women are as good as men in fulfilling organisational needs. A good concept of this theory is the ‘glass ceiling’ which addresses the persistence of sex segregation.
Takes the subordination of women as its fundamental problematic and had political roots in the left. Conceives gender as a system of male domination A separatist politics has been theorised in relation to male dominated organisations. In pursuit of alternative organisations, that reflect feminist values and are leaderless and structure less. Feminists organisations should always ask the woman question Some scholars have revised basic organisation concepts such as work, career and management.
Denys the biological determinism of traditional psychoanalytical interpretations of gender and sexuality Different psycho-sexual developments lead to different concepts of justice or morality. Male morality is an ethics of justice, female morality is an ethics of care. By valuing the different the consequences of different psycho sexual developments, organisation theory finds explanations for women’s fear of success, for female behaviours that are passive, ambivalent towards a career which fall short in cooperate (male) culture.
Conceptualises gender and identity as structural, historical and material. As with class, gender subsumes women’s relation to men under the workers relation to capital. Marxist feminism analyses how identities are constructed through social practices such as work HARTSOCK
In explaining the persistence of gender segregation and oppression, socialist feminism addresses complex intersections of gender, race, class and sexuality. In organisational theory awareness grew that gender assumptions are embedded in societal expectations and that they interact with organisational rules and practices lying ‘underneath’ macro social structural arrangements (Acker 1990, 1992) The gendering and racializing or organisations also occurs through symbols, images, ideologies that legitimize gender inequalities and differences. Game and pringle (1984)
French feminism (Cixous and Clement 1986) and Anglo-American feminism (weedon 1987) question the claims of many feminist theories which posit a privileged knowing subject, an essential feminine and universal representation of women. Basis for broader critique of how ‘knowledge’ is constructed
Frantz Fanon (1952) – post colonial studies and an epistemological critique of western thought have acquired a new voice. Fragility of category of gender all the more apparent when one considers the specificities of Third world women constituted as ‘others’ by western knowledge’s and first world women. Notions such as hybridization (Bhaba 1988) express forms of assimilation and resistance to the dominant culture.
Feminist theories, such as the ones just demonstrated have stressed the constitution of gender locating it mainly in the body (liberal, radical and psychoanalytic), In culture (Marxist, socialist and post colonial), and in language (post-structuralist). This brief demonstration shows crucial patterns in feminist thinking that are also reflected in research on gender in OT. However Silvia Gherardi places that gender is still linked to difference, inequality, and micro politics of power. In the conversation between different feminisms a new awareness of the category ‘gender’ emerges in the intersections between bodies, discourses, and practices.
Gender in the intersections between Bodies, Discourses and Practices
The argument of the relationship between Feminist theory (FT) and Organisational theory (OT) reached temporary closure. Research programme turning point
Relabeling the gender/organisation relationship: “ Neglected area” “frenetic endeavour” To emphasize the homogeneity of women
Female as a ‘resource’ Valorisation of the female ‘ Organisational seduction’
Sharing an epistemic culture Agreement on the label of ‘post structuralist feminism’ – a critical reflection of how gender is done, order created and fragmentation suppressed.
Positionality — represents gender studies as they have become institutionalised Women’s standpoint approach – Position in women’s studies which gives priority to a point of view based on women’s experiences. Women’s standpoint Versu s Positionality Sees male & female as mutually exclusive Sees male & female as indivisible positions of reciprocal relation Stresses sameness Stresses difference Presupposes a normative order Presupposes a discursive order Recalls a modern project Envisions a postmodern project Emphasizes subjectivity Deconstructs subjectivity
Gender may be defined as a social accomplishment, learnt and enacted on appropriate occasions and organised around shared practical understanding of it’s performance. So gender studies may be the terrain of convergence & alliance between post modern organisational studies and post feminism.
What has she actually done? Short research reviewing the articles and theories introduced or written by the other authors on Feminist and Organisation theories. Focused on literature, that identifies the relationship between the gender and organization. In addition, Silvia Gherardi identifies the core problems of the research findings.
In this article Silvia is discussing three main research programmes: 1. New analytical/political approach to studying feminism problems. 2. New category of Organisational Analysis. 3. New way in which classical theories are learned and taught.
Firstly, she indicated that the Feminist problems were traditionally described as an established study based on practices. However, different scholarship/learning has developed from these problems and suggest a different analytical and political approach in this study. — (Du Bois et al, 1987)
Another problem of “gendering organizational analysis” introduced the category of gender as one of the categories of organizational analysis, which postulates that gendering occurs through the symbols, images, ideologies that legitimate the opportunity, structure of organizations. — (Mills and Tancred 1983; Mills 1988)
Theoretical move from ‘organisation’, as the unit of analysis to ‘organizing as a boundary-less process’- the gendering programme crossed society boundaries such as: the public and private divide, the economy, organization, families and work, emotion and work. — (Acker 1998)
Third programme basically concentrates on a rereading of the discipline’s ‘classics’ of its founding fathers & mothers such as Weber (Martin and Knopoff 1997), Mayo and Crozier (Acker and Van Houten 1992), Mary Parker Follet and Simone de Beauvoir with the main aim to produce insights that change the ways we think about classic theories and teach them.
It is an analytic strategy that exposes various ways in which a text can be interpreted. Tries to demonstrate that any text is not a discrete whole but contains several irreconcilable and contradictory meanings. Any text has more than one interpretation. Organisations use it to reify rather than alleviate gender inequalities.
Conclusion “ I prefer to regard FT and OT as independent of each other, interpreting any convergence between the two strands of theorizing as a confluence of interests or a temporary alliance” So Silvia is considering the Feminist Theory and Organisation Theory as two separate theories which although might confluent or converge with each other are not integrated.
What are your views on Organisation theory and feminist theories now, do you think they interrelate? Do you think that now there is a place in modern organisations for them to converge?
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