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NARCOTERRORISM Moscow, Russia December 9 -10, 2009 International Institute For Security and Cooperation Rodolfo NARCOTERRORISM Moscow, Russia December 9 -10, 2009 International Institute For Security and Cooperation Rodolfo Peikov Member of the Advisory Board IISC

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT P E N T A G O N DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT P E N T A G O N 189 dead P E N N N S Y L V A N I A 44 dead World Trade Center, New York, USA, September 11, 2001 over 3000 dead, over 5000 wounded World Trade Center, February 26, 1993 6 dead, over 1000 wounded

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, October 12, 2002 202 dead, DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, October 12, 2002 202 dead, 209 wounded Bali, Indonesia, October 1, 2005 23 dead, 129 wounded

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT British Consulate and Synagogues, Istanbul, Turkey, November 15 DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT British Consulate and Synagogues, Istanbul, Turkey, November 15 -20, 2003 57 dead, over 700 wounded

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Atocha Train Station, Madrid, Spain, March 11, 2004 DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Atocha Train Station, Madrid, Spain, March 11, 2004 191 dead, over 2000 wounded

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Beslan, Респу блика Се верная Осе тия-Ала ния, DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Beslan, Респу блика Се верная Осе тия-Ала ния, Respublika Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya, September 1 -3, 2004 over 300 dead, over 700 wounded

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Metro and Bus, London, United Kingdom, July 7, DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Metro and Bus, London, United Kingdom, July 7, 2005 56 dead over 700 wounded

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Train station attacks, Mumbai (Bombay), India, July 11, DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Train station attacks, Mumbai (Bombay), India, July 11, 2006 209 dead over 700 wounded

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Benazir Bhutto is assassinated by an attacker who DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Benazir Bhutto is assassinated by an attacker who blows himself up resulting in over 20 dead and several wounded. Rawalpindi, Pakistan, December 27, 2007

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Mumbai (Bombay), India, November 26 -29, 2008 over DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Mumbai (Bombay), India, November 26 -29, 2008 over 173 dead over 300 wounded

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Peshawar, Pakistan, October 28, 2009 over 95 dead DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Peshawar, Pakistan, October 28, 2009 over 95 dead over 220 wounded

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Невский экспресс , Nevsky Espress (St. Petersburg-Moscow), November DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Невский экспресс , Nevsky Espress (St. Petersburg-Moscow), November 27, 2009 27 dead over 90 wounded

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT “Kill one, frighten thousands. ” Sun Tzu n DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT “Kill one, frighten thousands. ” Sun Tzu n The Art of War n (China 544 B. C. – 496 B. C. ) n

NARCOTERRORISM n. This presentation is intended only to furnish you with a basic knowledge NARCOTERRORISM n. This presentation is intended only to furnish you with a basic knowledge of terrorism and drug related terrorism, and could be a starting point for further and more detailed study. n. It is not to be taken as a complete or detailed work but, rather, as an introduction to a very complex and dynamic subject. n. It gives a minimum essential background knowledge required to properly analyze the terrorist threat at the worldwide level.

FLAGS OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS FLAGS OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS

LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n Abu Nidal organization, (ANO) , Fatah—the Revolutionary LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n Abu Nidal organization, (ANO) , Fatah—the Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims (now inactive since the closing of offices in Egypt and Lybia in 1999. Abu Nidal found dead in Iraq August 2002. (Palestine, Lebanon) Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) or al-Harakat al-Islamiyya (Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand) Aden-Abyan Islamic Army (Yemen) Al-Aqsa Foundation (Palestine) Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade (al-Aqsa) (Palestine) Al- Badr (India, Pakistan) Alex Boncayao Brigade, ABB (in 1997 it was joined by the Revolutionary Proletarian Army, RPA) (Philippines) Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya, Gamaat Islamiya, al Jamaat al Islamiya, Gama'a El Islamiyya (Islamic Group, IG) (Egypt) Al Ghurabaa (re-established along with the Saviour Sect in Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah as an Internet forum in 2005) (Al Ghurabaa and Saviour Sect were banned in 2006) (U. K. ) Al-Haramain Foundation (Saudi Arabia) (banned GLOBAL by the U. N. 1267 in 1999) Al Ittihad Al Islamia (Somalia) page 1 of 9 Al-Shabaab (Somalia)

LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n n Alliance of Eritrean National Force, AEFN LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n n Alliance of Eritrean National Force, AEFN (in 1999 the Eritrean opposition groups formed the AEFN) (Eritrea) Al-Qaeda, Qa‘idat al-Jihad (Afghanistan, Pakistan, now Global) Al-Umar Mujahidin (India) All Tripura Tiger Force (India) Absa-al-Islam (Pakistan) Ansar-us-Sunna (Iraq) Armata Corsa, AC, Corsica Army (founded in 1999 is rival to the other Corsican group FLNC) (France) Armed Islamic Group (GIA al-Jama'ah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha) (Algeria) Asbat al-Ansar (Lebanon) Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth), now called Aleph (Japan) Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia, United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia, AUC (Colombia Babbar Khalsa International (India, Pakistan) Balochistan Liberation Army (Iran, Pakistan) Brigate Rosse, Red Brigades (BR) (Italy) Communist Party of India (India) Communist Party of Philippines/New People’s Army (CPP/NPA) (Philippines) page 2 of 9

LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n Continuity Irish Republican Army, Óglaigh na hÉireann LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n Continuity Irish Republican Army, Óglaigh na hÉireann (Ireland, U. K. ) Deendar Anjuman, Islamic Organization (India) Dukhtaran-E-Millat, Daughters of the Nation, Wahabbi Fundamentalist Group (India, Pakistan) Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Jihad Group, Islamic Jihad, Al-Jihad (Egypt) Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN), National Liberation Army (Colombia) Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA), Basque Homeland Freedom (Spain) Fatah al-Islam, Conquest of Islam (Lebanon, Palestine) Fianna na h. Eireann (Ireland, U. K. ) Frontu di Liberazione Nazionalista Corsu, FLNC, Corsican National Liberation Front (France) Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) (Colombia Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre (GRAPO), Partido comunista de Espana. (possibly disbanded during June 2007 after the arrest of six components in Barcelona) (Spain) Hamas, Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamat al-Islāmiyyah, Islamic Resistance Movement (now a political party in Palestine). (Lebanon, Palestine) page 3 of 9

LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n n n Harkat al-Jihād al-Islāmi fi Filastīn, LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n n n Harkat al-Jihād al-Islāmi fi Filastīn, Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine (Palestine) Harkat ul-Mujahidin (HUM), Movement of Holy Warriors, (formerly Harkat ul-Ansar, HUA, or Jamiat ul-Ansar) (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan) Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin (HIG) (Afghanistan) Hezbollah (Party of God), Islamic Jihad, Revolutionary Justice Organization, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, and Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine. Information reveals that from 1992 Hezbollah (Hizbollah) operated in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and other South American countries against Israelian targets (1). (Palestine, Lebanon) Hizb ut-Tahrir, Party of Liberation. (Lebanon, Palestine, Syria) Hizbul Mujahideen, Party of Freedom Fighters (Pakistan) Holy Land Foundation (allegedly an Islamic Charity Foundation. In 2009 the founders were sentenced to life in prison for funding HAMAS with $12 million) (USA, Palestine) Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council (might be associated to All Tripura) (India) International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF) (banned from India, UK, Canada) (India) Irish Republican Army (IRA) (now used by the Provisional Irish Republican Army or PIRA) (Ireland, U. K. ) (1) (Source: Italian Intelligence Magazine Gnosis, n. 1/2006) page 4 of 9

LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n n İslami Büyükdoğu Akıncılar Cephesi, Great Eastern LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n n İslami Büyükdoğu Akıncılar Cephesi, Great Eastern Islamic Raider’s Front (Turkey) Islamic Jihad Union (IJU) (cell from Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan IMU (Uzbekistan, Afghanistan) Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)) (after the killing of Juma Namangami former Soviet paratrooper in 2001 in Afghanistan, might re-emerge as Islamic Movement of Turkestan) (Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgystan, Tajikistan) Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Army of Mohammed) (Pakistan) Jamaat-ul-Mujahidin, Jama'atul Mujahidin (Bangladesh) Jemaah Islamiya (JI), associated with Tandzim al-Qaedat Indonesia. Leader Noordin Mohammed Top’s assistant Amir Ibrohim (Amir Abdullah) was killed in a gunfight with police in Temanggung, Java, Indonesia on August 8, 2009. Noordin Mohammed Top was killed in a police raid in Indonesia on September 16, 2009. (Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand) Jund Ansar Allah, Soldiers of the Companions of God, associated to Al Qaeda. On August 14, 2009 the leader Abdel-Latif Moussa, known also as Abu al. Nour al-Maqdessi committed suicide during a gunfight with the police in Gaza in which 17 of his militants were killed along with six Hamas police officers and a baby girl. (Palestine) page 5 of 9

LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n n Jund Ash Sham, Jund al-Sham, Soldiers LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n n Jund Ash Sham, Jund al-Sham, Soldiers of Damascus (Palestine) Kahane Chai, Kach (Israel) Khalistan Commando Force, KCF (India) Kongra-Gel, former Kurdistan Workers’ Party, PKK, Partîya Karkerén Kurdîstan, Kurdistan Freedom and Democracy Congress, KADEK, Freedom and Democracy Congress of Kurdistan. (Turkey) Khuddam ul-Islam, Islamist Militant Group possibly associated with Jaish-e-Mohammed, JEM (Pakistan) Kurdistan Freedom Falcons, Teyrêbazên Azadiya Kurdistan, TAK, Kurdistan Freedom Hawks (Turkey) Lashkar-e-Taiba(LT), Laškar-ĕ Tayyiba, Army of the Good, Army of the Righteous, Army of the Pure (Pakistan) page 6 of 9 Lashkar I Jhangvi (LJ), Army of Jhangvi (Pakistan)

LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, (LIFG), Al-Jama’a al-Islamiyyah LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, (LIFG), Al-Jama’a al-Islamiyyah al-Muqatilah bi. Libya (Libya) Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) (Ireland, U. K. ) Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group, Moroccan Islamic Fighting Group, Groupe Islamique Combattant Marocain (GICM) (Morocco) Movimiento Revolucionario Tùpac Amaru, Tupamaros (MRTA), Revolutionary Movement Tupac Amaru (Peru, Uruguay) Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO), National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA, the militant wing of the MEK), the People’s Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI), National Council of Resistance (NCR), the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), Muslim Iranian Student’s Society (front organization used to garner financial support). (Iran) Muslim Brothers, Al-Ikhwān Al-Muslimūn, Society of the Muslim Brothers, Al-Ikhwān, the Brotherhood, (MB) (Egypt) National Democratic Front of Bodoland, (NDFB), Bodo Security Force (agreed to ceasefire on June 1, 2005) (India) National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) (India) Ndrangheta, Organized crime group in Calabria (Italy), associated with the AUC, Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia Orange Volunteers (Ireland, U. K. ) Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ) (Palestine) page 7 of 9

LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) (Palestine) People's Revolutionary LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS n n n Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) (Palestine) People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) (India) Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Palestine) Real IRA (RIRA), True IRA (Ireland, U. K. ) Red Hand Commando (associated with Ulster Volunteer Force (decommissioned in June 2009) (Ireland, U. K. ) Red Hand Defenders (RHD) (Ireland, U. K. ) Revolutionary Nuclei, Επαναστατικοί Πυρήνες or Epanastatiki Pyrines), (RN) (former Revolutionary Popular Struggle) (inactive since 2000) (Greece) Revolutionary Organization 17 November, Epanastatiki Organosi 17 noemvri , 17 November (Greece) Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front, Devrimci Halk Kurtuluş Partisi/Cephesi, (DHKP/C) (Turkey) Revolutionary Struggle, Επαναστατικός Αγώνας or Epanastatikos Agonas (EA) Greece The Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC) (Algeria) (possibly connected now with Al-Qaeda) Sendero Luminoso, Shining Path (SL) (Peru) page 8 of 9

n n n LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS Society of the Revival of Islamic Heritage, n n n LIST OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS Society of the Revival of Islamic Heritage, Jamiat Ihya at-Turaz al-Islami (RIHS) (a Non Governmental Organization in Kuwait was, possibly, infiltrated by Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Embargoed by the U. S. and the ONU. Banned in Russia) (Kuwait, Afghanistan, Pakistan) Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) (possibly infiltrated by Al-Qaeda, might operate now under the name Indian Mujahidin) (India) Takfir wal-Hijra, Excommunication and Exodus (might operate in Spain under the name Martyrs of Morocco) (Egypt, Morocco, Spain) Taliban. (Students of Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam) Leader of Taliban group Tehrik-i. Talibani Pakistan, Baitullah Mehsud, killed August 5, 2009 in drone plane attack in the Zangar area of South Waziristan. (*) (Afghanistan, Pakistan and other countries) Tandzim al-Qaedat Indonesia (Indonesia) Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi, Movement for the Enforcement of Islamic Law (TNSM) (banned in Pakistan in 2002) (Pakistan, Afghanistan) Ulster Defence Association (UDA), Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF) (terminated operations on November 11, 2007) (Ireland, U. K. ) United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) (India) United Mujahidin Forces of the Caucasus, Congress of the Peoples of Ichkeria and Dagestan (leader Shamil Basayev died July 10, 2006) (Chechnya) United Wa State Army, (Myanmar-Burma, Thailand) Vanguard of Conquest, VC, al Jihad, Egyptian Islamic Jihad (joined Al’Qaeda in 2001) (Egypt) (*)source: The Guardian, UK August 7, 2009 page 9 of 9 Guardian,

LIST OF TERRORIST ATTACKS SINCE 2001 n n n n n Year Victims Attacks LIST OF TERRORIST ATTACKS SINCE 2001 n n n n n Year Victims Attacks 2001 3221 26 2002 1184 81 2003 581 31 2004 1339 222 2005 419 38 2006 675 51 2007 801 91 2008 2241 226 2009(July) 781 137 n Attacks in Iraq only. Not included in the other list n 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 n n n 25 140 478 297 442 257 76

NARCOTERRORISM Khun Sa Pablo Escobar Drug money has financed terrorist activities in countries such NARCOTERRORISM Khun Sa Pablo Escobar Drug money has financed terrorist activities in countries such as Colombia, Peru and other South American countries and that the international drug trade generates profits which help terrorists flourish in Afghanistan? Source: 2009

NARCOTERRORISM “Narcoterrorismo” (Narcoterrorism or Narco-Terrorism). Term coined in 1983 by Fernando Belaúnde Terry, President NARCOTERRORISM “Narcoterrorismo” (Narcoterrorism or Narco-Terrorism). Term coined in 1983 by Fernando Belaúnde Terry, President of Peru (1963 -68 / 1980 -1985) when describing terror against his nation’s anti-narcotics police. The president was referring to “Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path)” a communist group conducting terrorist attacks against the police and institutions in his country. Fernando Belaúnde Terry (1912 -2002)

NARCOTERRORISM UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES, 1988 NARCOTERRORISM UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES, 1988 See next page

NARCOTERRORISM n. The Parties to this Convention, n. Deeply concerned by the magnitude of NARCOTERRORISM n. The Parties to this Convention, n. Deeply concerned by the magnitude of and rising trend in the illicit production of, demand for and traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, which pose a serious threat to the health and welfare of human beings and adversely affect the economic, cultural and political foundations of society…, n. Recognizing the links between illicit traffic and other related organized criminal activities which undermine the legitimate economies and threaten the stability, security and sovereignty of States… (page 10 of the: ) FINAL ACT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE FOR THE ADOPTION OF A CONVENTION AGAINST ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES

NARCOTERRORISM International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) (1992) 5. Illicit cultivation of narcotic plants and NARCOTERRORISM International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) (1992) 5. Illicit cultivation of narcotic plants and illicit trafficking in drugs continue to be a threat to the political, economic and social stability of several countries. Links appear to exist between illicit cultivation and drug trafficking and the activities of subversive organizations in some countries in South America and south east Asia, but similar connections have also been reported in other regions in the world. Proceeds derived from offering “protection” to illicit cultivators and from involvement in the illicit marketing and distribution of the illicit products often constitute the main financial basis of terrorist activities. ”

NARCOTERRORISM World Conference on Human Rights Vienna, Austria, 14 -25 June, 1993 17. The NARCOTERRORISM World Conference on Human Rights Vienna, Austria, 14 -25 June, 1993 17. The acts, methods and practices of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations as well as linkage in some countries to drug trafficking are activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity, security of States and destabilizing legitimately constituted Governments. The international community should take the necessary steps to enhance cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism.

NARCOTERRORISM Council of Europe Pompidou Group 2 nd Pan-European Ministerial Conference Strasbourg, 4 February, NARCOTERRORISM Council of Europe Pompidou Group 2 nd Pan-European Ministerial Conference Strasbourg, 4 February, 1994 "considering the continuous increase in and the spread of drug trafficking incidents, the involvement of violent organizations in such activities constitute a serious threat to the contemporary society", and thus, "it is vital for the security forces to combat terrorism effectively" (Art. 15)

NARCOTERRORISM United Nations Declaration 49 th Session of the General Assembly 2005 Underlines the NARCOTERRORISM United Nations Declaration 49 th Session of the General Assembly 2005 Underlines the concern of the international community at the growing and dangerous links between terrorist groups, drug traffickers, and their paramilitary gangs which have resorted to all types of violence, thus endangering the constitutional order of the States and violating basic human rights.

Definitions of NARCOTERRORISM In the original context, narcoterrorism is understood to mean that the Definitions of NARCOTERRORISM In the original context, narcoterrorism is understood to mean that the narcotics traffickers attempt to influence the policies of governments by the systematic threat or use of violence. Oxford Dictionary: Narcoterrorism: Terrorism associated to the trade of illegal drugs. (1999) U. S. criminologist Rachel Ehrenfeld: Narcoterrorism: Use of drug trafficking to conduct the objectives of some governments and terrorist organizations. (1990) Rachel Ehrenfeld Italian economist Loretta Napoleoni: Narcoterrorism: Use of terror tactics by the narco-traffickers and drug lords to protect their illegal businesses. It also describes the alliance between drug lords and armed organizations. Both have interests in destabilizing governments and breaking down the established social order. (2003) Loretta Napoleoni

Definitions of NARCOTERRORISM C. Augustus (Gus) Martin, California State University Dominguez Hill: Narcoterrorism: Political Definitions of NARCOTERRORISM C. Augustus (Gus) Martin, California State University Dominguez Hill: Narcoterrorism: Political violence committed by dissident drug traffickers who are primarily concerned with protecting their criminal enterprise. (2003) Combs & Slann (Encyclopedia of Terrorism): Narcoterrorism: Narcoterrorism is the alliance between drug producers and an insurgent group carrying out terrorist acts. (…) While the ultimate ends sought by each group are usually different, the alliance offers them immediate benefits. The members of these alliances – the coca growers, drug traffickers, and terrorist groups – often share common goals. These include, but are not limited to, the destabilization of the government, the creation of discipline (for market purposes) among growers, and liberation from the meddling of the police and military. Mutual needs make the pursuit of these goals beneficial in some respects to all involved. (2003)

Definitions of NARCOTERRORISM Gregory J. Petrakis (+2008): Narcoterrorism: …. the involvement of terrorist organizations Definitions of NARCOTERRORISM Gregory J. Petrakis (+2008): Narcoterrorism: …. the involvement of terrorist organizations and insurgent groups in the trafficking of narcotics, …. there are three main variants of narcoterrorism. These include: 1. Insurgents using the drug trade to support their political objectives; 2. States sponsoring ´drugs for arms´ and narcotics operations to further their influence to create instability; 3. Dope dealers utilizing terrorist tactics like bombings, assassinations and kidnappings to enhance their profits. (2001) United States Drug Enforcement Administration. Asa Hutchinson, Administrator: Narcoterrorism: A subset of terrorism, in which terrorist groups, or associated individuals, participate directly or indirectly in the cultivation, manufacture, transportation, or distribution of controlled substances and the monies derived from these activities. (…) Further, DEA uses the term to characterize the participation of groups or associated individuals in taxing, providing security, or otherwise aiding or abetting drug trafficking endeavours in an effort to further, or fund, terrorist activities. (2002)

Definitions of NARCOTERRORISM Rudolf Giuliani, former Mayor of New York: The links between drugs Definitions of NARCOTERRORISM Rudolf Giuliani, former Mayor of New York: The links between drugs and terrorism are substantial. The link has been known to law enforcement for a long time, but we didn't see it as Americans because we thought we were immune to terrorism. General Serrano arrests Miguel Rodriguez Orejuela (Cali Cartel) General Rosso Josè Serrano Cadena, former Chief of the Colombian Police from 1994 to 2000: Pablo Escobar Gaviria and the others used terror, yes, but as a mean to intimidate the legimate Colombian government not to interfere with their criminal activities”. Those were regular criminals without ideologies, they only were delinquents following the myth of Al Capone and were not looking for power, but only for space to conduct their criminal activities. They were brutal and were not looking for public approval in some revolutionary antisystem ideologies as it happens now with the Taliban or FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revoluzionarias de Colombia).

Terrorists and Narcotics The Nexus n n Some terrorist groups believe that they can Terrorists and Narcotics The Nexus n n Some terrorist groups believe that they can weaken their enemies by flooding their societies with addictive drugs. Terrorists gain a source of revenue and expertise in illicit transfer and laundering of proceeds from illicit transactions. Drug traffickers benefit from the terrorists military skills, weapons supply, and access to clandestine organizations. Traffickers and terrorists have similar logistical needs in terms of material and the covert movement of goods, people and money.

Terrorists and Narcotics The Nexus The methods used for moving and laundering money for Terrorists and Narcotics The Nexus The methods used for moving and laundering money for general criminal purposes are similar to those used to move money to support terrorist activities. n Migrant smuggling, document fraud, arms trafficking, auto theft, smuggling of contraband, and illegal financial transactions are tools for terrorists as well as narcotics traffickers. n

Five categories of Narcoterrorism 1. Narcotics traffickers use terrorist tactics to further the organizations Five categories of Narcoterrorism 1. Narcotics traffickers use terrorist tactics to further the organizations narcotics enterprise. Avoid prosecution, hinder or prevent enforcement activity, through intimidation of judges, prosecutors, police, and the public. -Pablo Escobar (Colombia) -Medellin/Cali/Norte del Valle Cartels (Colombia) - Mexican Drug Cartels (Mexico) SENDERO LUMINOSO (Peru) FARC Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia ELN Ejército de Liberación Nacional, Colombia AUC Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia

Five categories of Narcoterrorism 2. Terrorist organization provides protection for narcotics traffickers or allows Five categories of Narcoterrorism 2. Terrorist organization provides protection for narcotics traffickers or allows shipments to travel through regions without interference for money but is not involved in narcotics trafficking. -Al Qa’eda -AUC

Five categories of Narcoterrorism 3. Organization actively involved in narcotics trafficking and using proceeds Five categories of Narcoterrorism 3. Organization actively involved in narcotics trafficking and using proceeds to fund terrorist activities. -FARC -Sendero Luminoso

Five categories of Narcoterrorism Drug Trafficking Organization shares its smuggling routes, money laundering capabilities Five categories of Narcoterrorism Drug Trafficking Organization shares its smuggling routes, money laundering capabilities and other criminal enterprises with terrorist organizations in exchange for money/weapons. But Lorenzo Fernando Da Costa 4. exploits was in Colombia. According to the Colombian military, he hooked up with the rebel Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, providing cash and weapons smuggled from Suriname in exchange for cocaine and protection. Souce: CNN May 27, 2001

Five categories of Narcoterrorism 5. Governments and Terrorist Organizations who, allegedly, flood their “enemy” Five categories of Narcoterrorism 5. Governments and Terrorist Organizations who, allegedly, flood their “enemy” with narcotics aimed at the destabilization of the target government and the undermining of its society. n. Taliban n. Asian countries -Colombia -Cuba

World Narcoterrorism Countries Содружество Независимых Государств СНГ (CSI) Ireland United States Mexico Cuba Panama World Narcoterrorism Countries Содружество Независимых Государств СНГ (CSI) Ireland United States Mexico Cuba Panama Venezuela Colombia Peru Spain Baltic Countries Syria Afghanistan Libya Israel Pakistan Lebanon Iran Egypt Sri Lanka China Japan

Cocaine Coca Plant Cocaine HCL Cocaine Coca Plant Cocaine HCL

Coca Cultivation Areas Coca Cultivation Areas

Cocaine Trafficking Routes Source: DEA Cocaine Trafficking Routes Source: DEA

Andean Potential Cocaine Production 1997 – 2008 (in metric tons) 875 925 825 1008 Andean Potential Cocaine Production 1997 – 2008 (in metric tons) 875 925 825 1008 980 984 994 879 827 879 859 Source: UNODC World Drug Report 2009 845 Totals

NARCOTERRORISM MAJOR COCAINE TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS n Pablo Escobar n Medellin Cartel At the height NARCOTERRORISM MAJOR COCAINE TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS n Pablo Escobar n Medellin Cartel At the height of their power the Medellin Cartel was making over 60 million dollars per months for an estimated total of over 28 billion dollars. Responsible for the murder of government officials and police officers along with the killings of rival traffickers. n Cali Cartel Colombian sources say that at the height of their power, the Cali Cartel was responsible for 80% of the cocaine exported from Colombia to the U. S. Responsible for the murder of government officials and police officers along with the killings of rival traffickers.

NARCOTERRORISM MAJOR COCAINE TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS Norte del Valle Cartel According to RICO, the U. NARCOTERRORISM MAJOR COCAINE TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS Norte del Valle Cartel According to RICO, the U. S. Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, between 1990 and 2004, the Norte del Valle Cartel exported from Colombia to the U. S. over 500 tons of cocaine valued at over 10 billion dollars. Their fight against rival traffickers caused over 1000 deaths between 2003 and 2004 in the region of Valle del Cauca. n Mexican Cartels Mexico, a major drug producing and transit country, is the main foreign supplier of marijuana and a major supplier of methamphetamine to the United States. Although Mexico accounts for only a small share of worldwide heroin production, it supplies a large share of heroin consumed in the United States. An estimated 90% of cocaine entering the United States transits Mexico. In the actual drug wars in Mexico there have been over 5000 deaths so far in 2009 (January-September).

NARCOTERRORISM MAJOR COCAINE TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS n n NDRANGHETA Italian organized crime group originating from NARCOTERRORISM MAJOR COCAINE TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS n n NDRANGHETA Italian organized crime group originating from Calabria, a region in the lower tip of Italy.

Pablo Escobar n. The most wealthy and ruthless of the Colombian drug traffickers was Pablo Escobar n. The most wealthy and ruthless of the Colombian drug traffickers was Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria. n. Born in a suburb of Medellin (Colombia) in 1949, in 1975 took the position of Fabio Restrepo who was murdered that year. n. He became known for his way of dealing “Plata o Plomo” (Silver or Lead) indicating that he was willing to pay for services or kill whoever he could not buy.

Pablo Escobar n Escobar was, allegedly, behind the November 6, 1985 attack on the Pablo Escobar n Escobar was, allegedly, behind the November 6, 1985 attack on the Supreme Court, carried out by the “ 19 th of April” insurrectionist movement in which 12 of 25 Supreme Court Justices were killed. (On July 11, 2008, Virginia Vallejo, former lover of Pablo Escobar from 1983 to 1987 gave a statement at the Colombian Consulate in Miami in which she said that Escobar told her he gave 1 million dollar cash plus 1 million dollar in weapons and ammunitions to the movement “ 19 th of April” to attack the Supreme Court to steal files of the cocaine traffickers to be extradited to the United States). n On November 27 1989 a bomb exploded on Avianca flight 203 from Bogota to Cali few minutes after take off killing all 107 passenger and crew plus 3 victims on the ground. The alleged target was César Gaviria Trujillo, leading candidate in the presidential election who was not on board. Virginia Vallejo Garcia author of the book: Amando a Pablo, Odiando a Escobar (Loving Pablo, Hating Escobar) Random House, 2007

Pablo Escobar n Later accused for the bomb on the Avianca flight was Dandeny Pablo Escobar n Later accused for the bomb on the Avianca flight was Dandeny Muñoz Mosquera, also known as "La Quica", allegedly chief assassin for the Pablo Escobar’s Medellin Cartel. Muñoz Mosquera was arrested in Queens, New York while travelling with false passport in 1991 and was eventually sentenced to 10 life sentences plus 45 years, all to be served consecutively at the Federal ADX Florence prison, the same were Zacarias Moussaoui, the terrorist who admitted guilty on the September 11, 2001 bombing in New York, is incarcerated.

Pablo Escobar n. On December 6, 1989, a bomb on a bus which was Pablo Escobar n. On December 6, 1989, a bomb on a bus which was parked outside DAS Colombia's police intelligence headquarters in Bogota, was detonated by remote control. Over 70 people died and hundreds were wounded, more than 300 commercial properties in the area destroyed. n. Had over 500 Medellin police officers killed in 1990 paying $2, 000. 00 to $3, 000. 00 for each death. n Once arrested, afraid of being extradited to the United States he escaped from prison and was eventually killed in a gunfight with police on December 2, 1993.

Pablo Escobar Medellin Cartel Jorge Ochoa t figh un in g 1993 e led Pablo Escobar Medellin Cartel Jorge Ochoa t figh un in g 1993 e led Kil polic h wit Barry Seal Fabio Ochoa ted era p Coo n h wit mbia t. o n Col rnme e gov e Fre ced ten ars en n. S 30 ye so Pri 003 to the r in 2 SA fo Barry U of Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha in urder m l Sea George Jung ed der in r Mu 2/86 SA /0 ana, U 19 isi Lou plus others l arte e. C f th ght ro i nde gunf 9 u 8 Fo ed in e 19 l Kil polic h wit n so Pri Juan David Ochoa d rate pe Coo n h wit mbia t. o n Col rnme e gov e Fre Carlos Lehder d rate on pe Coo USA riega. h wit l of No ness t tria er Wi Und tection Pro gram Pro

Cali Cartel Helmer Herrera Buitrago “Pacho” Gilberto Rodriguez-Orejuela Victor Patiño-Fomeque n n riso P Cali Cartel Helmer Herrera Buitrago “Pacho” Gilberto Rodriguez-Orejuela Victor Patiño-Fomeque n n riso P son Pri Jose Santacruz Londono so Pri son Pri Henry Loaiza-Ceballos El Alacran (The Scorpion) Miguel Rodriguez-Orejuela ht nfig u in g 1996 e led Kil polic h wit plus others n riso P son Pri

Norte del Valle Cartel Diego Leon Montoya Sanchez Carlos Alberto Rentería Mantilla n riso Norte del Valle Cartel Diego Leon Montoya Sanchez Carlos Alberto Rentería Mantilla n riso P Wilber Alirio Varela Fajardo $ Juan Carlos Ramirez-Abadia ed der ur d m da, VZ n Fou Meri 2008 In uary Jan plus others ve giti eward Fu n r lio mil 5 José Dagoberto Flores Ríos n so Pri Luis Hertnando Gomez-Bustamante son Pri Eugenio Montoya Sanchez n so Pri

Mexico Source: Map Resources Congressional Research Service, Mexico’s Drug Cartels, updated February 25, 2008 Mexico Source: Map Resources Congressional Research Service, Mexico’s Drug Cartels, updated February 25, 2008

Mexican Cartels Source: U. S. Drug Enforcement Admnistration Congressional Research Service, Mexico’s Drug Cartels, Mexican Cartels Source: U. S. Drug Enforcement Admnistration Congressional Research Service, Mexico’s Drug Cartels, updated February 25, 2008

Mexican Cartels After the disappearance of Colombia's Cali and Medellin, Mexican drug cartels or Mexican Cartels After the disappearance of Colombia's Cali and Medellin, Mexican drug cartels or Drug Trafficking Organizations, in existence sine the 1980’s, have become more powerful. Mexico, a major drug producing and transit country, is the main foreign supplier of marijuana and a major supplier of methamphetamine to the United States. Although Mexico accounts for only a small share of worldwide heroin production, it supplies a large share of the heroin distributed in the United States. Drug cartels in Mexico control approximately 70% of the foreign narcotics that flow into the United States. The State Department estimates that 90% of cocaine entering the United States transits Mexico with Colombia being the main cocaine producer and that wholesale of illicit drug sale earnings estimates range from $13. 6 billion to $48. 4 billion annually. Mexican drug traffickers increasingly smuggle money back into Mexico in cars and trucks, likely due to the effectiveness of U. S. efforts at monitoring electronic money transfers. The violence of these cartels is recognizable by the number of deaths, approximately 15. 000 from December 2006 to September 2009 of whom over 1. 000 police and other government officials such as prosecutors and hundreds of civilians. Close to 45. 000 cartel members are incarcerated. close to 50. 000 soldiers and 10. 000 policemen are at war against un undisclosed number of traffickers (close to 10. 000). In addition the war of the cartels against themselves. Red area are where most of the conflicts take places Source: Congressional Research Service, Mexico’s Drug-Related Violence, May 27, 2009

Mexican Cartels Sinaloa Federation and Cartel (Sinaloa) By 2008, a federation dominated by the Mexican Cartels Sinaloa Federation and Cartel (Sinaloa) By 2008, a federation dominated by the Sinaloa cartel (which included the Beltrán Leyva Organization and the Carillo Fuentes or Juárez cartel) broke apart. The federation reportedly had controlled a majority of the cocaine passing through Mexico to the United States. The Sinaloa cartel itself remains strong and effective in smuggling cocaine from South America to the United States, but it has lost control of territory in Mexico to its competitors as the result of the intercartel battles during 2008. It is headed by Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman, probably the most wanted drug smuggler in Mexico. Gulf Cartel (Tamaulipas) A year ago, the Gulf cartel was considered the most powerful DTO in Mexico, but it has been a steady target of the government campaign and now it is “an open question…whether the cartel is intact. ” 19 The cartel’s headquarters is the northeastern Mexican state of Tamaulipas. The suspected leader of the cartel, Osiel Cardenas Guillen, was arrested in 2003. However, he was not extradited to the United States until 2007. The Gulf cartel no longer controls Los Zetas, formerly their paramilitary enforcement arm. The relationship today between the Gulf cartel and Los Zetas remains unclear though it is likely they still cooperate. Source: Congressional Research Service, Mexico’s Drug-Related Violence, May 27, 2009

Mexican Cartels Beltrán Leyva Organization (Michoacan) Until last year, this syndicate was a part Mexican Cartels Beltrán Leyva Organization (Michoacan) Until last year, this syndicate was a part of the Sinaloa federation. As part of the Sinaloa federation, it controlled access to the U. S. border in Sonora state. It has become independent of the Sinaloa federation and has grown to be one of the most powerful drug trafficking organizations in Mexico, still controlling large areas of the country. It is believed to be responsible for the May 2008, assassination of acting federal police director Edgar Millán Gomez in Mexico City, and has gone after other high-ranking government officials. This organization has quickly secured narcotics transport routes in the states of Sinaloa, Durango, Sonora, Jalisco, Michoacan, Guerrero and Morelos. Their attempt to take territory from their former Sinaloa partners reportedly unleashed a wave of violence. Arrellano Felix Organization/Tijuana Cartel (Baja California) This syndicate, once one of the two most powerful Drug Trafficking Organizations, was weakened significantly in 2008 by both U. S. and Mexican law enforcement efforts to capture their highest ranking leadership. The arrest of Eduardo “El Doctor” Arrellano Felix, in October 2008, the last of the Arrellano brothers to be captured or killed, was symbolic of its demise. This cartel split into two groups whose conflict for dominance led to extensive violence in the Tijuana area. Source: Congressional Research Service, Mexico’s Drug-Related Violence, May 27, 2009

Mexican Cartels Vicente Carillo Fuentes Organization/Juárez Cartel (Chihuahua) This organization is based in Ciudad Mexican Cartels Vicente Carillo Fuentes Organization/Juárez Cartel (Chihuahua) This organization is based in Ciudad Juárez in Chihuahua state, across the border from El Paso, Texas. It operates in much of northern Chihuahua state and part of Nuevo Leon and Sonora states. Over the past year there has been an ongoing violent battle between Sinaloa (their former partner) and this cartel for control of Juárez. The Juárez cartel has a longstanding alliance with the Beltrán Leyva Organization. Some analysts fear that this once very powerful cartel will again grow in power after splitting from Sinaloa. La Familia Michoacana (Michoacan) Once a criminal group affiliated with the Sinaloa cartel and now described by the DEA as an “emergent cartel, ” is active in the struggle for control of drugs arriving from Colombia in the seaports of Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas states. La Familia was among three Drug Trafficking Organizations designated as significant foreign narcotics traffickers under the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act, on April 15, 2009 by President Barack Obama in advance of his trip to Mexico to meet with President Calderón. 29 Four days after this designation, which imposes U. S. financial sanctions on group members, the Mexican government arrested an entire party of suspected La Familia members at a christening hosted by Rafael Cedeña Hernández, allegedly the number two in the gang. During October 2009, U. S. DEA and FBI arrested over 300 members of the Familia in the United States. (source: DEA October 22, 2009) Source: Congressional Research Service, Mexico’s Drug-Related Violence, May 27, 2009

Mexican Cartels Los Zetas This group of former military counternarcotics commandos, known for its Mexican Cartels Los Zetas This group of former military counternarcotics commandos, known for its violence and effective use of tactics and weaponry, has grown in power even though it lost Daniel Perez Rojas. He was arrested in Guatemala this past year and was allegedly the leader of the group’s activities in Central America. Los Zetas, since their split with the Gulf cartel, have contracted themselves to a variety of drug trafficking organizations throughout the country, notably the Beltrán Leyva Organization. The Zetas who formed as fearsome enforcers for the Gulf cartel have gained power under suspected Zeta leader Heriberto Lazcano. In 2009, U. S. authorities have come to believe this organization may be operating as an independent Drug Trafficking Organizations. Los Zetas quickly established a reputation as one of the most violent enforcer gangs with military-level expertise in intelligence, weaponry and operational tactics. Some argue that the escalation in violence in 2007 and 2008 can be traced in part to them. Source: Congressional Research Service, Mexico’s Drug-Related Violence, May 27, 2009

NDRANGHETA The most powerful and wealthy Italian organized crime group. It originates from Calabria, NDRANGHETA The most powerful and wealthy Italian organized crime group. It originates from Calabria, the lower tip of Italy, mostly in the province of Reggio Calabria. Today this group is the most dangerous and active in the drug trafficking specializing in cocaine. It is estimated that since the early 1990’s the Ndrangheta imported from South America tons and tons of cocaine. From 1991 trough 1994 they had already imported 11 tons of cocaine, 5. 4 tons of which were seized in northern Italy in 1994. The Ndrangheta had dealing with Colombian guerrilla groups such as the AUC (Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia) whose leader Salvatore Mancuso Gomez, son of an Italian emigrant to Colombia, was arrested in 2007 and extradited to the United States during May 2008, along with other 13 guerilla associates. According to Eurispes 2008, Ndrangheta has a business turnover of 44 billions Euro. Salvatore Mancuso Gomez Source: Open Sources DEA Italian Direzione Centrale per i Servizi Antidroga

HEROIN Brown Heroin White Heroin HEROIN Brown Heroin White Heroin

Heroin Source Areas MEXICO AFGHANISTAN PAKISTAN BURMA COLOMBIA LAOS THAILAND Heroin Source Areas MEXICO AFGHANISTAN PAKISTAN BURMA COLOMBIA LAOS THAILAND

The Threat from Illegal Drugs International Heroin Trafficking Flows Mexico Guatemala Colombia Iran Lebanon The Threat from Illegal Drugs International Heroin Trafficking Flows Mexico Guatemala Colombia Iran Lebanon Pakistan Afghanistan Burma Laos Thailand

Heroin Movement from Afghanistan K. K. T. C. • NORTHERN BLACK SEA ROUTE • Heroin Movement from Afghanistan K. K. T. C. • NORTHERN BLACK SEA ROUTE • BALKAN ROUTE • EAST MEDITERRANEAN ROUTE Source: Turkish Police 2008

Estimated Worldwide Opium Production 1997 – 2008 (in metric tons) Totals 2008 estimates are Estimated Worldwide Opium Production 1997 – 2008 (in metric tons) Totals 2008 estimates are a total for Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lao, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Colombia. Estimates for Mexico and smaller production countries not available. Source: UNODC World Drug Report 2009

COMPARING OPIUM PRODUCTION BETWEEN AFGHANISTAN AND REST OF THE WORLD Year OPIUM PRODUCTION IN COMPARING OPIUM PRODUCTION BETWEEN AFGHANISTAN AND REST OF THE WORLD Year OPIUM PRODUCTION IN AFGHANISTAN (TONS) GLOBAL OPIUM PRODUCTION (TONS) PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCTION IN AFGHANISTAN 1998 2, 693 4, 346 62% 1999 4, 565 5, 764 79% 2000 3, 276 4, 691 70% 2001 185 1, 596 12% 2002 3, 400 4, 491 76% 2003 3, 600 4, 765 76% 2004 4, 200 4, 850 87% 2005 4, 100 4, 620 89% 2006 6, 100 6, 610 92% 2007 8, 200 8, 847 93% Source: UNODC World Drug Report 2008 Source: UNODC

Estimated Worldwide Heroin Production 1997 – 2008 (in metric tons) Totals 2008 estimates are Estimated Worldwide Heroin Production 1997 – 2008 (in metric tons) Totals 2008 estimates are a total for Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lao, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam and Colombia. Estimates for Mexico and smaller production countries not available. Source: UNODC World Drug Report 2009

NARCOTERRORISM MAJOR HEROIN TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS n Khun Sa n Le Milieu French-Corsican. The French NARCOTERRORISM MAJOR HEROIN TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS n Khun Sa n Le Milieu French-Corsican. The French Connection. Chang Chi-fu (traditional Chinese: 張奇夫. Thai Name : Chan Jangtrakul (Thai : นายจนทร จางตระกล ), more commonly known by the nom de guerre of Khun Sa, was a warlord from Burma. He was also dubbed the "Opium King" due to his opium trading in the so-called Golden Triangle (350, 000 square kilometres that overlaps the mountains of four countries of Southeast Asia: Myanmar (Burma), Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand). He was the leader of the Shan United Army. In partnership with the Italian Mafia, the Milieu, whose leaders for drug trafficking were François Spirito and Antoine Guérini associated with Brasilian Auguste Ricord, the Corsicans Paul Mondoloni and Lucian Sarti and others, was trafficking heroin from France to the United States. n n Mafia (Italy). The Pizza Connection. When the French Connection was disbanded from police authorities, Italian Mafia took over the heroin trafficking from Southeast Asia to Italy and the United States. Taliban (Afghanistan-Pakistan) Afghan and U. S. officials believe that taliban insurgents and regional groups associated with Al Qaeda continue to profit from Afghanistan’s burgeoning narcotics trade. Officials also suspect that drug profits provide some Al Qaeda operatives with financial and logistical support. U. S. officials believe that financial and logistical relationships between narcotics traffickers, terrorists, and criminal groups pose threats to the security of Afghanistan and the wider international community. (source: International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs ) source: International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs

HEROIN n n n Khun Sa Until January 1996, Khun Sa also known by HEROIN n n n Khun Sa Until January 1996, Khun Sa also known by his Chinese name of Chang Chi Fuwas, the head of the Shan United Army (SUA), was the leading heroin trafficking group in the Golden Triangle, which comprises the countries of Burma, Thailand, and Laos. In 1989 a court in New York accused him to have attempted to introduce 1000 kilograms of heroin to the USA. Khun Sa and his family have been active in the opium trade for many years. In 1960, the Burmese government organized a self defense force under Khun Sa to defend itself against ethnic Shan resistance groups in the Shan State. To support his self defense force, Khun Sa transported opium for some of the major traffickers. By January 1969, Khun Sa emerged as one of the most powerful ethnic Chinese self defense force leaders in Upper Burma. Source: Open Sources Drug Enforcement Administration

HEROIN n n After arrest and subsequent release by Burmese authorities, Khun Sa took HEROIN n n After arrest and subsequent release by Burmese authorities, Khun Sa took up residence in Thailand. A Thai sweep operation against his Shan United Army headquarters forced Khun Sa to relocate most of his headquarters to Burma. Khun Sa eventually built an army from a few thousand men to an estimated 20, 000 well-equipped and well trained troops. With this army, Khun Sa became the most significant heroin trafficker in the Golden Triangle and the world. Beginning in 1994, however, three major developments combined against Khun Sa. First, the Thai Government closed their border against him, thus depriving the SUA of valuable goods and services; second, the DEA, working with the Royal Thai Government, arrested 13 of Khun Sa's top lieutenants in "Operation Tiger Trap, " thus depriving the SUA of cash from heroin trafficking; and third, the Burmese Army stepped up military operations against him, thus depriving the SUA of needed military hardware. Source: Open Sources Drug Enforcement Administration

HEROIN n n n With their heroin-trafficking empire disabled, the Shan United Army surrendered HEROIN n n n With their heroin-trafficking empire disabled, the Shan United Army surrendered to the Burmese Army in December 1995, and Khun Sa stepped down from its leadership. After the surrender, Khun Sa relocated to Rangoon, and is reportedly involved in a number of business deals with the Burmese Government and the Burmese business community. Khun Sa died in Rangoon October 29, 2007. But during March 2009, Peerayuth Phetsakol, Charn-narong Muser also known as Kasemthat, and Vicharn Suthiphan were arrested in Chiang Mai, Thailand on charges of heroin trafficking and found in possession of some rifles and U. S. $ 3. 4 million in cash. According to a statement from the Thailand’s Department of Special Investigation, their office was urged by Drug Enforcement Administration in Thailand to investigate a drug and money laundering network. The group has a drug production factory in Burma near Thailand’s border, where it produces heroin and methamphetamine. The factory is guarded by UWSA (United Wa State Army). The drugs were smuggled in for sale in Thailand, China, Lao, Cambodia Vietnam and later sent to Philippines, Canada and USA. The group is related to the late Khun Sa. Source: Open Sources Drug Enforcement Administration un Kh Sa

HEROIN n French Connection The heroin trafficking of the Milieu originated in 1937 and HEROIN n French Connection The heroin trafficking of the Milieu originated in 1937 and the so-called French Connection is only a chapter of the history. After years of fighting the traffic, in 1971 the Turkish government agreed to a complete ban on the growing of Opium, effective from June 29, 1972 thus stopping the flow of opium to the French laboratories in Marseille. In the same period the United States Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD), predecessor of the U. S. DEA, had major roundups and BNDD agents with French authorities seized 50 kg of heroin at the Paris airport. Subsequently, traffickers Jean-Baptiste Croce and Joseph Mari were arrested in Marseilles. Another seizure by French authorities netted 95 kg of heroin worth $38 million (1973). In February 1972, French traffickers offered a U. S. Army sergeant $96, 000 to smuggle 109 kg of heroin into the United States. He informed his superior who in turn notified the BNDD. As a result of this investigation, five men in New York and two in Paris were arrested with 120 kg of heroin, which had a street value of $50 million. In a 14 -month period, starting in February 1972, six major illicit heroin laboratories were seized and dismantled in the suburbs of Marseilles by French national narcotics police in collaboration with U. S. drug agents. On February 29, 1972, French authorities seized the shrimp boat, Caprice des Temps, as it put to sea near Marseilles heading towards Miami, it was carrying 415 kg of heroin. Additional success of the police authorities finally terminated the trafficking operation. The French Connection investigation demonstrated that international trafficking networks were best disabled by the combined efforts of drug enforcement agencies from multiple countries. In this case, agents from the United States, Canada, Italy and France had worked together to achieve success. (source: Open Sources)

HEROIN n Pizza Connection When the heroin trafficking of the French Connection stopped around HEROIN n Pizza Connection When the heroin trafficking of the French Connection stopped around 1973 -1974 with the disbanding of the organization, the Italian Mafia started its own laboratories in Sicily for the production of heroin to send to the United States. The opium was coming from the Golden Triangle thanks to Khun Sa and other suppliers. In addition the murder of Carmine Galante, a New York based Mafia boss in 1979 and who did not want to share the drug trafficking market with other Mafia groups, left the road open to the Sicilians and production started. Several U. S. police agencies were seizing heroin and were working investigations without talking to each other until the request of the subscriber for one telephone number in Philadelphia brought together the FBI in New York working with the New York Police Department and the DEA in Philadelphia. The result was the Pizza Connection from the location were the heroin transactions were made, in pizza shops along the U. S. East Coast. Furthermore the assistance of Tommaso Buscetta and Salvatore Contorno, Mafia bosses who started to cooperate with authorities helped to bring to trial 32 mafia members and associates who were indicted in the case. Gaetano Badalamenti, a major player in the Mafia drug trafficking organization, was arrested in Spain and extradited to New York for the trial where he was sentenced to 45 years in prison and died incarcerated in 2004. The war between the Mafia groups in Sicily and the success of the authorities eventually ended the heroin trafficking between Italy and the United States. This war also claimed, in the years 1980 -1984, thousand of victims including magistrates and police officers. The war of the Mafia against the Institutions claimed also the life of Judges Giovanni Falcone (May 23, 1992) and Paolo Borsellino (July 19, 1992). (source: Open Sources)

n Taliban HEROIN The Taliban (Pashto: ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ ṭālibān, meaning n Taliban HEROIN The Taliban (Pashto: ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ ṭālibān, meaning "students") (students of Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam), also known as Taleban, is a Sunny Islamist, predominantly ethnic Pashtun radical religious. After the collapse of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in 1992 (born after the retreat of the Soviet Army in 1989), supported by the URSS, Afghanistan found itself in a civil war among the various fighters of Islamic resistance (mujaheddin) each fighting its own Jihad (fight). The Taliban were mostly Madrasah (public schools) teachers and Afghan refugees who had studied in Islamic schools in Pakistan, some were former military. With training, supplies and arms received from the Pakistani government, particularly the Pakistani Inter. Services Intelligence (ISI) and headed by Mullah Mohammed Omar, they waged a guerrilla war against the other groups and eventually were able to enter Kabul in 1996 and taking control of Afghanistan until 2001 when the U. S. lead coalition entered Afghanistan. The Taliban used, at the beginning, drug trafficking revenues until the year 2000 when they banned opium production in Afghanistan. The production of opium returned, increasing, to normal after 2001. Since the Taliban’s return to illegality the drug trafficking has become their major revenue. (source: Open Sources)

HEROIN n Taliban and Al Qaeda n Taliban are making more money today with HEROIN n Taliban and Al Qaeda n Taliban are making more money today with narco-traffic that when they were in power in Afghanistan. n Ten years ago the Taliban were receiving $75 -100 million per year by taxing the opium cultivation and that was the only way they could obtain dollars. Today the Taliban obtain approximately $125 million yearly by taxing the cultivation and commerce of opium plus they obtain money from the laboratories which are refining opium into heroin and from the importation of precursor chemicals necessary to the laboratories. Furthermore, Taliban and groups connected to Al. Qaeda are obtaining money from the opium products market in Pakistan (a market which is valued at approximately $1 billion). n The involvement of the Taliban in the drug trafficking allow them to finance a war machine always more complex and geographically expanded. Narco-cartels are now growing in Afghanistan and nearby countries. Source: UNODC Vienna, October 21, 2009 Statement by Antonio Maria Costa Executive Director

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Al-Qaeda n (source: Open Sources) DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Al-Qaeda n (source: Open Sources)

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n Al-Qaeda n Al-Qā‘eda ( , ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ al-qā‘ida DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n Al-Qaeda n Al-Qā‘eda ( , ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ al-qā‘ida /more proper), "the base". In an interview given by Osama bin Laden to Al Jazeera journalist Tayseer Alouni in 2001 said that the name “Al-Qaeda” was established a long time ago when the late Abu Ubaidah al-Banshiri (Egyptian born policeman, whose brother participated in the assassination of Egyptian president Anwar El Sadat, left Egypt to join anti-Soviet efforts in Afghanistan where Osama bin Laden made him Commander of the Afghan Arabs. Died in a boat accident in Lake Victoria in 1996) established the training camps for the mujahedeen against Russia's terrorism. They used to call the training camp Al-Qaeda. The name stayed. n Other opinions are available for the name, one given by U. K. newspaper The Guardian interview with former Foreign Minister Robin Cook says that Cook believed that the name Al-Qaeda meant “data-base” and it was a data-base of the U. S. government with the names of thousands of mujahedeen enrolled by CIA to fight against the Soviet troop in Afghanistan. (source: Open Sources)

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n Al-Qaeda was not funded by Bin Laden DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n Al-Qaeda was not funded by Bin Laden himself but was supported by fundraising from various Islamic charities in the Gulf region, mostly from Saudi Arabia who stopped financing in 1993, as well as "financial facilitators who gathered money from both witting and unwitting donors”. n At the time of the 9/11 attacks, Al Qaeda operated with $30 million per year, including $20 million that annually went to support the Taliban. Funds were also used for training camps in Afghanistan, to create terrorist networks and alliances, and support the jihadists and their families. A relatively small amount of money went to finance operations, including the 9/11 attacks. (source: Open Sources)

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n Al-Qaeda n The U. S. Commission Report DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n Al-Qaeda n The U. S. Commission Report on the September 11, 2001 attacks to the Twin Towers in New York, Pentagon in Washington and the Pennsylvania crash, stated that it might have cost Al-Qaeda between $400, 000 and $500, 000 to execute them considering that the operatives spent more than $270, 000 in the United States. And they say that, at the time of publication (2004) they did not see any connection with drugs, although the could not identify where the money was coming from: (see next page)

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n n “ …we have not been able DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n n “ …we have not been able to determine the origin of the money used for the 9/11 attacks. Al Qaeda had many sources of funding and a pre 9/11 annual budget of $30 million. If a particular source of funds had dried up, Al Qaeda could easily have found enough money elsewhere to fund the attack…“. Allegations that Al Qaeda used a variety of illegitimate means to finance itself, both before and after 9/11, continue to surface. The most common involve the drug trade, conflict diamonds, and state support; none can be confirmed… (Source: The 9/11 Commission Report, Executive Summary, page 14)

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n “ …After reviewing the relevant intelligence on DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n “ …After reviewing the relevant intelligence on Al Qaeda’s involvement in drug trafficking and interviewing the leading authorities on the subject, we have seen no substantial evidence that Al Qaeda played a major role in the drug trade or relied on it as an important source of revenue either before or after 9/11. While the drug trade was an important source of income for the Taliban before 9/11, it did not serve the same purpose for Al Qaeda. Although there is some fragmentary reporting alleging that Bin Laden may have been an investor, or even had an operational role, in drug trafficking before 9/11, this intelligence cannot be substantiated and the sourcing is probably suspect. One intelligence analyst described the reporting as “bizarre. ” Bin Laden may, however, have encouraged drug traffickers to sell to Westerners as part of his overall plan to weaken the West (though much of that intelligence is also suspect)”… Source: National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Chapter 2. Terrorist Financing Staff Monograph, 2004

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Arabian Gulf (Dec. 16, 2003) – A U. DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT Arabian Gulf (Dec. 16, 2003) – A U. S. Navy boarding team operation from the guided missile destroyer USS Decatur (DDG 73) discovered an estimated two tons of narcotics with a street value of around eight to ten million dollars aboard a 40 foot dhow intercepted in the Arabian Gulf. The dhow’s 12 crewmembers were taken into custody and transferred to USS Decatur, and Decatur sailors are in control of the dhow. The smuggling routes are known to be used by Al-Qaeda and three of the 12 -crew members are believed to have links to the organization. U. S. Navy photo by Photographer’s Mate 2 nd Class Michael Sandberg. (RELEASED) Source: Navy. Mil Official Website of the United States Navy Official Website of the United States December 16, 2003

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT A report from the US Department of State DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT A report from the US Department of State by the title: Afghanistan: Narcotics and U. S. Policy “Narco-Terrorism”: Afghan and U. S. officials believe that Taliban insurgents and regional groups associated with Al Qaeda continue to profit from Afghanistan’s burgeoning narcotics trade. Officials also suspect that drug profits provide some Al Qaeda operatives with financial and logistical support. U. S. officials believe that financial and logistical relationships between narcotics traffickers, terrorists, and criminal groups pose threats to the security of Afghanistan and the wider international community. page 12 Source: Department of State International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs 2005 Updated January 25, 2006

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n A new book published in 2009: n DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT n A new book published in 2009: n SEEDS OF TERROR n HOW HEROIN IS BANKROLLING THE TALIBAN AND AL-QAEDA See next page

DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT “This isn’t a fanciful conspiracy theory. Seeds of DRUGS AND TERRORISM A GLOBAL THREAT “This isn’t a fanciful conspiracy theory. Seeds of Terror is based on hundreds of interviews with Taliban fighters, smugglers and law enforcement and intelligence agencies. Their information is matched by intelligence reports shown to the author by frustrated U. S. officials who fear the next 9/11 will be far deadlier than the first-and paid for with drug profits. ” n Seeds of Terror makes the case that we must cut terrorists off their drug earnings if we ever hope to beat them. (quote from the dust jacket) Seeds of Terror by Gretchen Peters Thomas Dunne Books St. Martin’s Press New York May 2009

NARCOTERRORISM The same illegal drug production funds that attack civilized society also destabilize democracies NARCOTERRORISM The same illegal drug production funds that attack civilized society also destabilize democracies across the globe. Illegal drug production undermines worldwide’s culture; it funds terror; and it erodes democracy. And they all represent a clear and present danger to our security. Asa Hutchinson, Director, Drug Enforcement Administration Heritage Foundation: Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies Washington, DC, April 2, 2002

GLOBAL COOPERATION IS THE KEY GLOBAL COOPERATION IS THE KEY