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NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Deformation of Asphalt Mixtures NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Deformation of Asphalt Mixtures Field Studies by Manfred N. Partl Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, EMPA Center Road Engineering/Sealing Components Dübendorf, www. empa. ch/Abt 113 NABin Seminar on Deformations of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th October 2004, Oslo, Norway 1 Pl/113/’ 04

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Content Introduction Swiss LTTP NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Content Introduction Swiss LTTP Study Field Monitoring A 1 Footprint APT- MMLS RILEM TC 182 PEB-TG 4 TC-APT 2 Pl/113/’ 04

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Deformation Distress Types Life NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Deformation Distress Types Life Loadi Phase ng Loading Speed Instal- Com. Fast lation paction (Vibro, High Frequ. ) Slow (Static, Low Frequ. ) Service Traffic Example Loadin Matg Mode Respons e Plate Vibrator Static Roller C/T Shear Creep/ Relaxation Mat Prop Deformation. Distress Visco. Plastic • Deform. Evenness • Surface Cracks • Delamination (Interlayer Bond) • Fatigue Cracks Fast C/T Fatigue Elasto(Vibro, High Frequ. ) Trucks Shear Plastic Slow Bus stops Bending Creep/ Visco(Static, Low Frequ. ) Relaxation Elasto. Plastic Climate Slow Sunshine, C/T Creep/ Viscos (Thermal Movement) Frost Shear Relaxation (warm) Elastic (cold) 4 Pl/113/’ 04 • Ruts/Perm. Deform. • Creep-Cracks • Thermal cracks • Delamination (Interlayer Bond)

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo LTPP Cross Section of NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo LTPP Cross Section of Pavement with extensive Rutting 6 Pl/113/’ 04

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Investigated Sections Basel LTPP: NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Investigated Sections Basel LTPP: Sections A. . . H 16 H. Fritz, M. Seeberger, M. N. Partl 0 A B C 5 1 D E 4 F 2 G/H 3 E 1 A/B Zürich C/D 2 14 1 4 Luzern Bern 12 F 2 8 6 G H WC BDC UBC 50 100 150 LBC 200 250 mm 3. 9 m 7 Pl/113/’ 04 7 1

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo LTPP: Normalized Properties WC NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo LTPP: Normalized Properties WC 1 8 Pl/113/’ 04 < >70°C 70°C -20°C -20°C B C D E F G H Warm Temp. WC: A Cold Normalized Properties =1 : "Stiff", =0 : "Soft" M. N. Partl, H. W. Fritz, ISAP, Seattle, (1997) Pen(min. ) /Pen R&B /R&B(max. ) (min. ) / ln. G* /ln. G*(max. ) BP(max. )/BP S/S(max. ) m(min. ) /m =1 (stiff); =0 (soft)

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo LTPP: STS-LTS Penetration M. NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo LTPP: STS-LTS Penetration M. N. Partl, H. W. Fritz, ISAP, Seattle, (1997) 80 60 Pen. @ 25°C, STS (. 1 mm) 40 20 9 F 0 80 A B G E C H UBC 60 40 F H E 20 0 Pl/113/’ 04 D WC 0 BA D G C BDC A BD G LTS: Long Term LTS Storage Slabs (17 yrs @ Room Temp) E H STS: Short Term STS Storage (After Sampling of Slabs) LBC A BG E HC F 20 80 0 40 60 20 Pen. @ 25°C, LTS (. 1 mm) 40 60 80

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo LTPP: STS-LTS R&B Softening NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo LTPP: STS-LTS R&B Softening M. N. Partl, H. W. Fritz, ISAP, Seattle, (1997) 100 WC 80 R&B Softening Pt. , STS (°C) 60 10 40 CF H E B A G D BDC LTS: Long Term Storage Slabs (17 yrs @ Room Temp) H E G B D A STS: Short Term STS: Storage (After Sampling of Slabs) 20 0 100 UBC 80 60 40 HF CE G A D B LBC CH EF G B A 20 0 Pl/113/’ 04 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 R&B Softening Pt. , LTS (°C) 40 60 80 100

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Tank IR: Traffic (Heat NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Tank IR: Traffic (Heat Effect) SRT Pendulum Resin Surface Rubber pads heated up to 65°C Pavement reached 50°C (ca 40°C before passing) 12 Pl/113/’ 04 Stones Unter motor +4°C, under wheels +2°C than surface

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo A 1 Monitoring Station NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo A 1 Monitoring Station WIM: Weigh in Motion DDM: Differential Deflection Meas. MRDS: Magnetostrictive Deform Sensor Temp: Temperature WIM 4 cm 8 cm 10 cm 1 DM#2 emp DM#3 MRDS D D T D 1 A T 2 2 B 1 D 2 D T 17 3 A 3 C T 27 TA, B 17 SMA 11 HMT 22 HMT 32 HMF 22 Base 1 E 2 E Pl/113/’ 04 TA, B 2 TA, B 5 TA, B 8 TA, B 27 58 cm 13 p Tem TA, TB 3 E

EMPA Magnetostrictive Deform. Sensor (MRDS) : NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct EMPA Magnetostrictive Deform. Sensor (MRDS) : NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo P. Anderegg, R. Brönnimann [m m] 0 Magnet 1 Magnet 2 Magnet 3 40 -120 -220 -320 Magnet 4 14 Pl/113/’ 04 1

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Comparison DDM - MRDS NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Comparison DDM - MRDS (5 -axle Truck) 15 Pl/113/’ 04

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Motorway A 1: Lenzhard NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Motorway A 1: Lenzhard Taking Slabs Trench 16 Pl/113/’ 04 1

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Depth, cm A 1 NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Depth, cm A 1 Temp Distribution 2 5 8 Summer 1999 17 2 7 32 Depth, cm 05. 07. 99 -11. 07. 99 2 5 8 17 2 7 32 17 Pl/113/’ 04 12. 07. 99 -18. 07. 99 18 July max 41. 7 C @2 cm July max was 4 July (47. 2 C) 07. 12. 99 -11. 12. 99 6 Dez. min -2 C @2 cm Dez. min was 17 Dez (-4. 7 C)

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Measurements PA/SMA -10 Temperature NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Measurements PA/SMA -10 Temperature [°C] -8 -6 -4 -2 0 -5 -10 -15 SMA PA WC-Limit 18 Pl/113/’ 04 -20 -25 -30 Depth [cm] . 0

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Lenzhard: Deformation Signal 19 NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Lenzhard: Deformation Signal 19 Pl/113/’ 04 1

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo DDM Measurements 9. Jul. NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo DDM Measurements 9. Jul. 1999, 2 B, 12 cm Deform. A. M. Partl 22. Jan. 1999, 2 B, 12 cm Deform. 22. Jan. 1999, Temp. , 2 cm 9. Jul. 1999, WIM 21 Pl/113/’ 04 Day Time

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Eureka Logchain Footprint E!2486 NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Eureka Logchain Footprint E!2486 Relate the environmental footprint of a vehicle to the cost of maintaining the infrastructure Develop and use the same methodology for road and rail in order to facilitate intermodality Vehicle load, Noise, Vibration, Gaseous emissions 22 Pl/113/’ 04

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Footprint Monitoring Site, Road NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Footprint Monitoring Site, Road Aargau , Switzerland Lineas WIM Modulas, SIM Deformation Direction Bern Vibration Microphone Humidity Temperature Induction loop Slow Lane Induction loop Empa DAQ 23 Pl/113/’ 04

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo The Kistler Modulas System NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo The Kistler Modulas System (E. Doupal, R. Calderara Kistler Instruments) 9 km/h, 6 bar, max 497 N 24 Pl/113/’ 04

Maintenance U 2000 R. Gubler et al. 2004 Rutting on Test Sections & Circular Maintenance U 2000 R. Gubler et al. 2004 Rutting on Test Sections & Circular Track 26 Pl/113/’ 04 Sections #12, #13 NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Circular Track #2, #3

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Circular Track ETHZ@ EMPA NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Circular Track [email protected] EMPA Max 80 km/h Load 80 k. N (=Half Axle) Lat. Wandering ± 675 mm 27 Pl/113/’ 04

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Materials, Design U 2000 NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Materials, Design U 2000 A 2 Motorway #12 #13 MR 8, B 50/70 30 mm HMT 22, B 50/70 80 mm Gasperini uncertain Existing old HMT MR 8, B 50/70 HMT 22, B 70/100 Gasp. & Sp. Filler Existing old HMT Gravel-Sand 100% crushed HMT 22, B 70/100 Zeofil Gravel-Sand 100% crushed Circular Test Track 40 mm 70 mm #2 #3 AC 11 S, B 50/70 HMT 22, B 70/100 Gasperini & Special Filler Gravel-Sand 100% crushed 28 AC 11 S, B 50/70 HMT 22, B 50/70 Gasperini Gravel-Sand 100% crushed Pl/113/’ 04 Motorway Circular test track Base Material Compacted Gravel -Sand Lower bearing course Remaining old bearing course 70 mm HMT 22 S Upper bearing course 80 mm HMT 22 S 70 mm HMT 22 S Wearing course 30 mm MR 8 40 mm AB 11 S

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Mixture Tests CAST 65 NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Mixture Tests CAST 65 mm LVDT Inner Cylinder Outer Cylinder Glue 50 mm Data do=150 mm di=50 mm T=5… 40°C f=0. 01. . 10 Hz h<100 mm 29 Cyclic Load LCPC-WT Pl/113/’ 04 Support Data T=60°C D=400 mm (no Thread) p=600 k. Pa P=5 k. N Lx. Wx. H=500 x 180 x 100 mm v=2 Passes/s = 2 Hz N=7200 Passes/h Nmax=30’ 000 Passes

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo MMLS 3 - Principle NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo MMLS 3 - Principle 2400 mm 1200 mm Data l=2400 mm D=300 mm p=600 k. Pa P=2. 1 k. N 30 Pl/113/’ 04 v=3 m/s = 9 km/h N=7200 Passes/h Nmax=72’ 000 Passes Lateral wandering: No 940 mm 300 mm Tire Pressure Distribution

MMLS on A 2 (Basel) & Circular Track @ EMPA NABin: Deform. of Asphalt MMLS on A 2 (Basel) & Circular Track @ EMPA NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo A 2 31 Pl/113/’ 04 Circ. Track

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo MMLS 3 Pavement Temp. NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo MMLS 3 Pavement Temp. A 2 Motorway Temp. Range in 3 cm Depth: #12 #13 Circular Test Track #2 32 Pl/113/’ 04 #3 #12 (20… 42°C), #13 ( 18. . 43°C), #2 (13. 6… 45°C), #3 (15. 2… 39°C)

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Results MMLS #12, #13 NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Results MMLS #12, #13 Motorway A 3 #2, #3 Circular Test Track #12 #13 Passes #2 33 Pl/113/’ 04 #3

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo MMLS Rutting Circular Track NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo MMLS Rutting Circular Track /Section #12, #13 Section; #2, #3 Circular Track 3 3 72'000 Passes 2 1 0 -3 -1 1 -1 y = 0. 8754 x 3 #2, Depth [mm] #12, Depth [mm] 2 1 0 -3 -1 1 -1 2 -2 R = 0. 9609 -3 #13, Depth [mm] y = 0. 8128 x 2 -2 R = 0. 9118 -3 #3, Depth [mm] S Sections generally more deformation than circular track S #12, #2 less rutting than #13, #3 mixture in both cases 34 Pl/113/’ 04 3

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo LCPC Rut Test of NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo LCPC Rut Test of Compacted Mix Rut Depth [%] 10. 0 1. 0 #2 #3 0. 1 10 10000 Number of Passes 35 Pl/113/’ 04 100000

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Comparison Field & Lab NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Comparison Field & Lab Testing Section Cross Section Rut Depth LCPC Rut of MMLS Rut Test 60°C, ca. 15. . 43 C 30’ 000 Passes [mm 2] [mm] #12 (road) #13 (road) #2 circular track #3 circular track 154 171 75 84 2. 56 3. 55 DSR 40°C, 2 Hz [MPa] CAST 40 °C, 2 Hz [MPa] 0. 0967 0. 0703 239 188 - Ratios of „Soft“ : „Stiff“ Mix MMLS rut area [mm 2] ca 15. . 43°C, Ratio (#13/#12) MMLS rut area [mm 2] ca 15. . 43°C, Ratio (#3/#2) 1. 12 LCPC rut depth 60°C [mm], Ratio (#3/#2) 1. 39 DSR 40°C, 2 Hz G* [MPa], Ratio (#3/#2) -1 1. 38 CAST 40°C, 2 Hz G* [MPa], Ratio ( #3/#2) -1 36 1. 11 1. 27 Pl/113/’ 04

International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures NABin: Deform. International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Members & Experts of TC 182 -PEB Performance Testing and Evaluation of Bituminous Materials Chairman: M. N. Partl, EMPA, Switzerland; Secretary: C. De La Roche, LCPC, France D. A. ANDERSON, (USA); G. AIREY, (United Kingdom); H. U. BAHIA, (USA); L. BAKLØKK , (Norway); W. BANKOWSKI, (Poland); J. M. BARREIRA DE SOUSA, (Portugal); P. BERNALDO DE QUIRÓS MIRABENT, (Spain); R. J. H. BREUKER, (The Netherlands); J. BETHUNE, (Australia); Y. BROSSEAUD, (France); M. BUTCHER, (Australia); W. G. BUTTLAR, (USA); A. CALAHORA, (Israel); F. CANESTRARI, (Italy); C. CELAURO, (Italy); A. CHABOT, (France); J. CHEN, (Taiwan); E. CHAILLEUX, (France); A. COLLOP, (United Kingdom); C. DE LA ROCHE, (France); H. Di BENEDETTO, (France); B. ECKMANN, (Belgium); A. FIDATO, (Italy); L. FRANCKEN, (Belgium); R. GUBLER, (Switzerland); R. HOFMAN, (The Netherlands); P. HOPMAN, (The Netherlands); H. E. HÖPPEL, (Germany); M. HUGENER, (Switzerland); U. ISACSSON, (Sweden); H. KHALID, (United Kingdom); I. ISHAI, (Israel); E. KUPPENS, (The Netherlands); B. KOENDERS, (France); D. LÉONARD, (Belgium); X. LU, (Sweden); M. LUMINARI, (Italy); A. PAEZ, (Spain); J. PAIS, (Portugal); M. N. PARTL, (Switzerland); A. PFEILER, (Austria); H. PIBER, (Austria); J. -P. PLANCHE, (France); J. E. POIRIER, (France); L. POROT, (France); A. C. PRONK, (The Netherlands); C. RAAB, (Switzerland); G. ROWE, (USA); E. SAUGER, (France); S. SAID, (Sweden); M. SMILJANIC, (Serbia); H. SOENEN, (Sweden); L. SUN, (China); G. SVECHINSKY, (Israel); D. SYBILSKI, (Poland); S. TOTH, (Hungary); M. VAN DE VEN, (The Netherlands); B. VERHAEGE, (South Africa); A. VANELSTRAETE, (Belgium); M. W. WITCZAK, (USA); L. ZANZOTTO, (Canada) 62 members & experts from 22 countries (since 1999) 38 Pl/113/’ 04

International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures NABin: Deform. International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo TC 182 -PEB Activites Task Groups « « TG 1 TG 2 2 TG 3 TG 4 Piber) 39 Pl/113/’ 04 Bituminous Binders (D. Sybilski) Mix Design (not active) Testing of Mixtures (H. Di Benedetto) PPPE Pavement Performance Prediction Eval. (H.

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo TG 4 PPPE Pave. NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo TG 4 PPPE Pave. Perform. Predict. Eval. : H. Piber (AT) « Inter-lab PPPE study to compare performance testing & predictions by different labs with LTPP field observations for 10 yrs « CCRIPPPE (Cold Climate RILEM Inter-laboratory PPPE) section in Austria (Villach) « WWRIPPPE (Warm Weather RILEM Inter-laboratory PPPE) sect. in Portugal (Mindelo) 13 Labs: Bautechnik Klagenfurt (AT), BRRC (BE), EMPA (CH), Tech. Univ Bruno (CZ), Asphalt Labor Wahlstedt, (DE), BAM (DE), Danish Road Inst. (DK), CEDEX (ES), Univ. Parma (IT), Consulpav (PT), VTI (SE), Univ. California Berkeley (US), CSIR (ZA) Reference: « « 40 Paper at ISAP 2002, and RILEM sympos. PTEBM 03 and AAPA 2004 on: Interlaboratory Tests on Performance Prediction of Pavements. Report available on CD soon Pl/113/’ 04

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo TG 4 Goal 1) NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo TG 4 Goal 1) Compare different prediction methods 2) Compare test methods for predictions 3) Compare predictions 4) Check w. LTPP in cold & warm region after 1, 2, 4, 9 yrs 41 Pl/113/’ 04

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo TG 4 Distress Classification NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo TG 4 Distress Classification Table No Type of Damage Dimension 1 Rutting 1) 2 Class of Distress A B C D mm <5 5. . . <10 10. . . <20 20 Single Cracks (Thermal Cracking) m/100 m <4 3 Net Cracks (Fatigue Cracking) % of 100 m 2 <5 4 Surface Defects 2) % of 100 m 2 <2 1) 2) 42 Pl/113/’ 04 4 5. . . <10 10. . . <20 2 Rutting in surface course and deformation of each asphalt course, (max. depth and change of thickness) Loss of material and/or ravelling 20

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo TG 4 Sections: Construction NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo TG 4 Sections: Construction Data WWRIPPPE Mindelo CCRIPPPE Villach SC: 40 mm PA (1997) B 2: 110 mm AC „Caltrans“ (1996) B 1: 110 mm AC „Arizona“ (1996) SC: 35 mm SMA 11 (1997) B 4+B 3: 160 mm BT I 22 HS (1997) B 2+B 1: 130 mm BTS I 22 (1988) 200 mm unbound material (1996) 200 mm unbound material (1988) 300 mm unbound material (1996) 300 mm unbound material (1988) cutting (1996) embankment (1987) WWRIPPPE Mindelo 43 Avg. Annual Daily Heavy Traffic: Days with Max. Temp. > +25 °C: Days with Min. Temp. < 0 °C: 7 d Hottest Air Temp. SHRP [°C]: Pl/113/’ 04 CCRIPPPE Villach 971 2, 350 32 46 2 128 30. 04 2. 46 30. 7 1. 8

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo TG 4 7 Rutting NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo TG 4 7 Rutting Test Methods Test-Type Loading Compression CO Static S F, v Set-Up, Geometry d, h Simple Shear SH Cyclic C Ind. Tensile IT Wheel Tracking WT Cyclic C F, f d, h, dp Input Temp. °C Deform. 50 Load -15. . . 50 Load 43. . . 52 Cyclinder CY S-CO-CY 1 C-CO-CY 2, 3, 4 C-SH-CY 6, 7 Prisma PR 44 Pl/113/’ 04 C-CO-PR 5 d, h, s Load 25. . . 44 C-IT-CY (horiz. Cores) 14 F f, l h L, B Load 20. . . 60 C-WT-CY 13 C-WT-PR 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Rutting: Layers & Number NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Rutting: Layers & Number of Tests Test- No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CCRIPPPE Villach SC BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 WWRIPPE Mindelo SC BC 2 BC 1 45 Pl/113/’ 04 9 10 11 12 13 14

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo 4 th Method Calculated NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo 4 th Method Calculated Rutting 1 S-CO-CY 2 C-WT-PL 5 C-CO-PR 8 C-WT-PL 9 C-WT-PL Rut Depth [mm] 14 12 1 S-CO-CY 2 C-WT-PL 5 C-CO-PR 8 C-WT-PL 9 C-WT-PL 14 C-IT-CY 14 10 8 6 12 10 8 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 0 46 CCRIPPPE Villach 16 Rut Depth [mm] 16 WWRIPPPE Mindelo Pl/113/’ 04 2 4 6 Time [Year] 8 10 0 2 4 6 Time [Year] 8 10

TG 4 No NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Summary TG 4 No NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Summary Distress Classification Class of Distress Type of Damage 1 Rutting [mm] CCRIPPPE Villach WWRIPPPE Mindelo 2 Single Cracks [m/100 m] CCRIPPPE Villach WWRIPPPE Mindelo 3 Net Cracks [% of 100 m 2] A 47 Pl/113/’ 04 BRRC (BE), EMPA (CH), Tech. Univ Bruno (CZ), Asphalt Labor Wahlstedt, (DE), BAM (DE), Danish Road Inst. (DK), CEDEX (ES), Univ. Parma (IT), Consulpav (PT), VTI (SE), Univ. California Berkeley (US), CSIR (ZA) C D <5 5. . . <10 10. . . <2 20 0 5 3 4 4 4 3 <4 4 Portugal (Mindelo) 4 Herald Piber, Report TG 4, Paris, 2004 4 <5 5. . . <10 10. . . <2 20 0 Austria 9 (Villach) 6 1 1 CCRIPPPE Villach WWRIPPPE Mindelo 4 Surface Defects [% of <2 100 m 2] CCRIPPPE Villach 2 WWRIPPPE Mindelo - B 13 Labs: Bautechnik Klagenfurt (AT), 2 1 Reference: Papers at ISAP 2002, and RILEM sympos. PTEBM 03 and AAPA 2004 on: Interlaboratory Tests on Performance Prediction of Pavements.

International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures NABin: Deform. International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo New RILEM TC ATB Advanced Testing and Characterization of Bituminous Materials TG 1 Binders (D. Sybilski) Evaluate binder properties with respect to durability relevant to distress accumulation performance and application; nanotechnology of binders; aging as a material property TG 2 Compaction (M. Van de Ven) Evaluation of lab. compaction methods and models with respect to field compaction TG 3 Mechanical testing of mixtures (H. Di Benedetto) Evaluate existing test methods (like simple performance tests) and models for different types of mixtures (like porous asphalt) considering subjects such as permanent deformation, micromechanics and size effects TG 4 Pavement performance prediction evaluation (H. Piber) Evaluate test methods to assess structural behavior (influence of layer thickness and interlayer bond), investigation of PPPE sections TG 5 Recycling (C. De La Roche) Evaluate test and mix design methods for the use of materials with bituminous materials from the road (STAR), focusing on hot mix recycling (RAP: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement). 48 Pl/113/’ 04

International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures NABin: Deform. International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Topics RILEM ATB-TG 3 Permanent deformation - rutting of bituminous mixes Bibliography : Ph. Ds , List of ref. Lab and models binder – mix RRT on wheel tracking tests: In situ results : NO except if LCPC has an idea Other more Fundamental Considerations (mixes & binders) Triaxial tests: tension, compression, …) Modelling (link with TC CAP) Same mix like for RRT WT Link binders – mixes 49 Pl/113/’ 04

NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Thank You 50 Pl/113/’ NABin: Deform. of Asphalt Mixtures 26 th Oct 04, Oslo Thank You 50 Pl/113/’ 04