n Essential Question Question How did America progress

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n Essential Question: Question –How did America progress towards greater democracy between 1800 & n Essential Question: Question –How did America progress towards greater democracy between 1800 & 1840? n Essential Question: –Examine Alexis de Tocqueville’s journey through America in the 1830 s & read excerpts from his observations. What did this French visitor observe about U. S. society & gov’t in the 1830 s?

Alexis de Tocqueville Alexis de Tocqueville

The Growth of White Men's Democracy The Growth of White Men's Democracy

Less The 50% of white Democracy than Growth of men could vote n From Less The 50% of white Democracy than Growth of men could vote n From 1824 to 1840, democracy was extended to more Americans: This increase in “democracy” was a –Before 1800, most states limited major shift from the “virtuous republic” the right to vote exclusively to envisioned by Jefferson & Hamilton property owners & taxpayers –By 1840, these restrictions were removed for most white men –Nowhere else in the world was the right to vote as widespread 90% of white men could vote as in the USA

The Growth of Democracy There was a growing % of White males who owned The Growth of Democracy There was a growing % of White males who owned no land were seen as equal Americans law & in voting n By the 1830 s, a “democracy of before the Rising industrialization led more commoners” became to a Decreasedof low-paid laborers requirements in population the licensed professions accepted than a “republic of Division between commercial No aristocrats” domestic natural clear yeoman farmers & class servant –Positions of power became attainable for “self-made” men –Americans valued equal opportunities among white men, but not necessarily equality

Before 1800, most states limited the right to vote exclusively to property owners & Before 1800, most states limited the right to vote exclusively to property owners & taxpayers Quick Class Discussion: Why did this unprecedented growth in democracy occur? The Simple Answer: Westward expansion led to an increase in democracy

Westward expansion “republicanism”suffrage Jefferson’s vision 90% to increased did not By 1840, more than Westward expansion “republicanism”suffrage Jefferson’s vision 90% to increased did not By 1840, more than of led of all adult white men for “common”West in the “new states” who apply in the men because there were no could vote (“universal white male suffrage”) “virtuous elite” to rule“older states” did not qualify in the for the people As more western states extended democracy to “common men, ” political parties in eastern statesof suffrage did not But…this extension felt pressure African-Americans or women include to do the same

Universal Manhood Suffrage n Political parties developed new types of politicking in order to Universal Manhood Suffrage n Political parties developed new types of politicking in order to reach “new voters” –In the 1820 s, politicians began using campaigns, parades, slogans to appeal to the masses –Well-organized, statewide “political machines” developed –Party loyalty became expected –Partisan newspapers boomed

Universal Manhood Suffrage Partisan newspapers played an important role in early American rule” really Universal Manhood Suffrage Partisan newspapers played an important role in early American rule” really Could “mob politics work in America?

Universal Manhood Suffrage n The 1830 s & 1840 s experienced: –Massive voter turnout Universal Manhood Suffrage n The 1830 s & 1840 s experienced: –Massive voter turnout due to the growth of suffrage & increased organization of political parties –Direct methods of selecting presidential electors, county officials, state judges, & governors (replaced indirect methods by state legislatures)

What is voter turnout like today? What is voter turnout like today?

Democratic Culture n In the 1830 s, high literacy & cheap printing allowed artists Democratic Culture n In the 1830 s, high literacy & cheap printing allowed artists & writers to work for a “mass” audience: –Popular genres include romanticism, gothic horror, & landscape paintings –Authors included Wadsworth, Emerson, Melville, Hawthorne, Whitman, Poe; showed human nature, morality, romanticism

Kindred Spirits, by Asher Durand Kindred Spirits, by Asher Durand

Politics: Politics The Elections of 1824 & 1828 John Quincy Adams video Politics: Politics The Elections of 1824 & 1828 John Quincy Adams video

Sec The Election of 1824 of State Sec of Treasury under Monroe n The Sec The Election of 1824 of State Sec of Treasury under Monroe n The election of 1824 was a 4 -way race among Dem-Republicans: –John Quincy Adams represented New England –William Crawford represented the South –Henry Clay & Andrew Jackson represented the West Speaker of the Not taken seriously at first; n Jackson but “war hero” status made House; author ofwon the popular vote but American System Jackson a nat’l candidate not a majority of electoral votes

But, because no one candidate received 51% JQ the electoral votes, the House of But, because no one candidate received 51% JQ the electoral votes, the House of Reps had Adams won NE Adams won when of Led to charges that Henry Clay threw his presidential winner to determine but Crawford won VAthe Adams had "bought" support Southern states the presidency few other behind him (Corrupt Bargain!!) Clay’s influence was limited to a few western states Jackson did well in the South & the West

J. Q. Adams' Administration n Adams had a difficult presidency: One exception: –JQ Adams J. Q. Adams' Administration n Adams had a difficult presidency: One exception: –JQ Adams wanted to continue the National Road the nationalist programs of the “Era of Good Feelings” –The depression of 1819 limited the nationalist agenda & few of Adams’ policies became law –A protective tariff was passed to help farmers & industry, but this angered the South

Jackson Comes to Power n “Jacksonians” prepared for the “Democrats”of 1828 by creating a Jackson Comes to Power n “Jacksonians” prepared for the “Democrats”of 1828 by creating a as election distinguished themselves well different from the “Nationalist Republicans” -organized, national campaign who has strayed from the Jeffersonian ideal – Jackson (TN) formed a coalition But, these “Jacksonian Democrats” are not with Adams’ VP Calhoun (SC), going to mirror the “Jeffersonian Republicans” Van Buren (NY), & 2 newspaper editors (KY) to rival JQ Adams – Formed the basis of 1 st modern political party, calling themselves the “Democrats” Democrats

Jackson Comes to Power Democrats presented Jackson changed n The election of 1828 Democrats Jackson Comes to Power Democrats presented Jackson changed n The election of 1828 Democrats as “Old Hickory, ” painted Adams American politics: uneducated, a hero, a dueler as an out-of. Showed the effectiveness of & a–man of the people touch aristocrat political parties in elections – It was the 1 st election with overt mudslinging & propaganda – Exciting appeals to average the man (public bigamist” barbeques) rallies & “Ms. Jackson is a & “Ms. Adams is bastard” n Jackson wonathe election as a “common man of the people”

Jackson’s wild & rowdy inauguration Who is Andrew Jackson? Jackson’s wild & rowdy inauguration Who is Andrew Jackson?

Jackson Comes to Power n Jackson was a popular candidate but it was not Jackson Comes to Power n Jackson was a popular candidate but it was not clear what type of president Jackson would be: –Jackson’s supporters wanted states’ rights & limited gov’t –During the campaign, Jackson never clarified his stand on major issues: banks, tariffs, etc. –Only stood for Indian removal

Conclusions n In the 1820 s & 1830 s, America became more democratic: –Westward Conclusions n In the 1820 s & 1830 s, America became more democratic: –Westward expansion facilitated the expansion of suffrage for common white men –Led to unprecedented voter participation by citizens –Allowed for a new breed of “common man” politicians to come to power

n Review Questions: Questions –What did the term common man mean in the early n Review Questions: Questions –What did the term common man mean in the early 19 th century? –In what ways were Presidents Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, & Monroe different from the “common man”?




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