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Music: An Appreciation 6 th Brief Edition by Roger Kamien Part II: The Middle Ages and Renaissance Presentation Development by Robert Elliott Tennessee State University © 2008 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 10: Musical Style Based upon time period and the continuous development of music as an art form Western art music can be divided into: Middle Ages: 450 -1450 Classical: 1750 -1820 Renaissance: 1450 -1600 Romantic: 1820 -1900 Baroque: 1600 -1750 20 th century, to 1945 to present Music of each these periods reflects the society that supported it Chapter 10
The Origins of Music Can you imagine the first music? How old is music? What factors determine whether music will be remembered later in history?
Prehistoric Flute http: //news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/science/nature/81 17915. stm
Seated harp player, ca. 2800– 2700 b. c. ; Early Cycladic I–II Cycladic; Grotta-Pelos culture
Music Before the Middle Ages Egypt, Greece, Israel, Rome. Almost no notation survives. How was music passed on before notation?
The Epitaph of Seikilos Around 200 B. C Lyrics: Shine, as long as you live; do not be sad. Cause life is surely too short, and time demands its toll.
Time Line Middle Ages (450 -1450) Rome sacked by Vandals Beowolf 455 c. 700 First Crusade 1066 Black Death 1347 -52 Joan of Arc executed by English 1431 Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
Middle Ages What do you know about life in Europe during the Middle Ages? Who are some legendary names that we associate with the Middle Ages? What is the prejudice involved in the phrase, “Middle Ages”?
The Middle Ages Period of wars and mass migration Strong class distinctions – Nobility: castles, knights in armor, feasting – Peasantry: lived in huts; serfs—part of land – Clergy: ruled everyone; only monks literate Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
The Middle Ages Architecture – Early: Romanesque – Late: Gothic Visual Arts – Stressed iconic/symbolic, not realism Late Middle Ages saw technological progress Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
Chapter 1: Music in the Middle Ages Church dominates musical activity – Most musicians were priests – Women did not sing in mixed church settings Music primarily vocal and sacred – Instruments not used in church – How does this differ from church and gospel music of today? Chapter 1
Gregorian Chant Was official music of Roman Catholic Church – No longer common since Second Vatican Council Monophonic melody set to Latin text Flexible rhythm without meter and beat Named for Pope Gregory I (r. 590 -604) Originally no music notation system – Notation developed over several centuries
The Church Modes “Otherworldly” sound—basis of Gregorian Chant Different ½ and whole steps than modern scales Middle Ages and Renaissance used these scales – Some Western Music uses these scale patterns - What Do You Do With a Drunken Sailor? —Dorian mode Scarborough Fair – Dorian Mode - When Johnny Comes Marching Home—Aeolian mode Chapter 1
Listening Alleluia: Vidimus stellam (We Have Seen His Star) Listening Outline: p. 68 Brief set, CD 1: 47 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Ap. X 4 DJv. Pp. Eg Listen for: Gregorian Chant (Latin language) Many notes per syllable of text Monophonic texture Ternary form—A B A Chapter 1
Listening O Successores (You Successors) Hildegard of Bingen Listening Guide: p. 70 Brief Set, CD 1: 50 Chant Originally written without accompaniment This recording includes a drone—long, sustained notes Note extended range of melody Written for nuns by a nun (to be sung in convent) Chapter 1
Dies Irae http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Dlr 90 NLD p-0
Secular Music in the Middle Ages Troubadours (southern France) and Trouveres (northern France) – Nobles wrote poems/songs for court use - Performed by jongleurs (minstrels) – Topics: courtly love, Crusades, dancing Chapter 1
Estampie Medieval (Middle Ages) dance music Triple meter with strong beat (for dancing) – Notated as chant: only a single melody line - Performers probably improvised accompaniment Listening example—Brief Set, CD 1: 51 – This performance played on period instruments - Melody played on rebec (bowed string instrument and pipe (tubular wind instrument) - Drone on psaltery (plucked or struck string instrument) Chapter 1
Dance Music Have you ever danced to music by live musicians? What element of music is most important for dancing?
Instruments of the Middle Ages Psaltery Rebec Tube
Sacred vs. Secular Can you tell the difference? http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Nb 2 Ezif 7 z f 8 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=d 5 p_U 8 J 0 i RQ
The Development of Polyphony: Organum Between 700 -900 a second line added to chant – Additional part initially improvised, not written – Paralleled chant line at a different pitch 900 -1200 added line grew more independent – Contrary motion, then later a separate melodic curve – c. 1100 note-against-note motion abandoned - 2 lines with individual rhythmic and melodic content - New part, in top voice, moved faster than the chant line Chapter 1
School of Notre Dame: Measured Rhythm Parisian composers developed a rhythmic notation – Chant notation had only indicated pitch, not rhythm – Notre Dame’s choirmasters Leonin and Perotin were leaders - Writing with notated rhythm came to be called the Notre Dame style Medieval thought was that interval of third dissonant – Modern chords built of thirds are now considered consonant Notre Dame Cathedral Chapter 1
Diabolus in Musica “The devil in music. ” The interval of a tritone (3 whole steps) This interval was banned by the church in the end of the Middle Ages. How does the definition of consonance and dissonance change depending on time and place?
14 th-Century Music: “New Art” In France Composers wrote music not based on chant – Borrowed secular melodies to put in sacred music New music notation system had developed – New system allowed for better rhythmic notation – Syncopation, now possible, became common The new type of music was called ars nova Chapter 1
Guillaume de Machaut Mid- to late-14 th-century composer (1300 -1377) – Also famous as a poet – Though a priest, spent most of life working at court Wrote both sacred and secular music Best known for his Notre Dame Mass http: //www. nvcc. edu/home/jwulff/machaut/Machaut. htm
Listening Puis qu’en oubli sui de vous (Since I am forgotten by you; around 1363) by Guillaume de Machaut Vocal Music Guide: p. 75 Brief Set, CD 1: 52 Listen for: Melancholy feel Rondeau form (8 lines, ab aa ab ab, ) Syncopation Interpretation (3 notated lines, 1 text) Chapter 1
Mass Ordinary Kyrie Gloria Credo Sanctus Agnus Dei
Listening Agnus Dei from Notre Dame Mass by Guillaume de Machaut Vocal Music Guide: p. 79 Brief Set, CD 1: 53 Performance Profile: Andrew Parrott-conductor Listen for conductor’s interpretation, use of solo voices, and attempt to create an historically accurate performance 14 th century, part of mass ordinary Polyphonic— 4 voices (parts) Ternary form: A B A (form results from the text) Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi: miserere nobis Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi: dona nobis pacem Chapter 1
Review Gregorian chant Instruments: Church modes rebec Drone tube organum psaltery mass ordinary Diabolus in Musica School of Notre Dame Ars nova
Composers of the Middle Ages Pope Gregory I (The Great) Anonymous the 4 th Hildegard of Bingen Leonin Perotin Machaut troubadours and trouveres
Morality and Music What is the relationship between morality and music? What is the moral content of the music that we hear on the radio today?
Time Line Renaissance (1450 -1600) Guttenberg Bible 1456 Columbus reaches America 1492 Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisa c. 1503 Michelangelo: David 1504 Raphael: School of Athens 1505 Martin Luther’s 95 Theses 1517 Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet 1596 Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
The Renaissance Rebirth of human learning and creativity Time of great explorers Humanism Fascination with ancient Greece and Rome Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
The Renaissance Visual art becomes more realistic – Mythology is favorite subject – Nude body, as in ancient times, is shown Weakening of the Catholic Church Education and literacy now status symbol – Result of invention of printing press David by Michelangelo Part II – The Middle Ages and Renaissance
Chapter 2: Music in the Renaissance Church choirs grew in size (all male) Rise of the individual patron – Musical center shifted from church to courts – Court composers wrote secular and sacred music – Women did not sing in mixed church settings Chapter 2
Professional Musicians How did the life of professional musicians change between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance? Renaissance musicians Where did they work? What was their status?
Musicians: higher status and pay than before – Composers became known for their work Many composers were Franco-Flemish – Worked throughout Europe, especially in Italy became music capital in 16 th century – Other important centers: Germany, England, Spain Chapter 2
Characteristics of Renaissance Music Words and Music Vocal music more important than instrumental Word painting/text painting Chapter 2
Texture Polyphonic Primarily vocal - a cappella – Instruments, if present, doubled the vocal parts Rhythm and Melody Rhythm “flows” and overlaps – Composers less concerned with metrical accents Smooth, stepwise melodies predominate – Melodies overlap rhythmically between voices Chapter 2
Sacred Music in the Renaissance Two main forms: Motet – Short polyphonic choral work – Latin text usually overlaid with vernacular text – Often borrows lowest voice part from a chant Mass—the Catholic worship service – Long work that includes five main parts of service - Kyrie - Sanctus - Gloria - Agnus Dei - Credo Chapter 2
Josquin Desprez 1440 -1521 (contemporary of Columbus & da Vinci) Wrote both sacred and secular music – Worked with the Papal Choir in Rome – Worked for King Louis XII of France – 19 Masses, 100 Motets, 70 Chansons, and Instrumental Pieces Leading composer of his time; famous while alive – His work influenced other composers – Was highly praised by Martin Luther Chapter 2
Listening Ave Maria…Virgo Serena Josquin Desprez Vocal Music Guide: p. 82 Brief Set, CD 1: 56 Listen for: Four voices Polyphonic imitation Overlapping voice parts Chapter 2
Manuscript to Ave Maria(Josquin)
Palestrina Culmination of the Renaissance (1525 -1594) Worked primarily in Rome – Music director at St. Peter’s Worked during and after Council of Trent – Council of Trent (1545 -1563) addressed: - Abuses and malpractice within church - Emerging Protestantism - Role of music in worship - Some advocated a return to monophonic music - Finally decided on non-theatrical worship music Wrote music meeting demands of Trent – His work became the model for mass composers Chapter 2
Listening Pope Marcellus Mass (1562 -63) Kyrie by Palestrina Vocal Music Guide: p. 85 Brief Set, CD 1: 59 Six voices Polyphonic imitation w/ overlapping voice parts Text: Kyrie eleison Christe eleison Kyrie eleison Chapter 2
Manuscript of Pope Marcellus Mass (Palestrina)
Secular Music in the Renaissance Madrigal – Intended for amateur performers (after dinner music) – Extensive use of text painting – Printed in part-book or Printing opposing-sheet format Printing – Originated in Italy - English madrigal lighter and simpler Chapter 2
Listening As Vesta was Descending (1601) by Thomas Weelkes Vocal Music Guide: p. 87 Brief Set, CD 1: 62 Follow text (English) throughout song Note text painting: Pitches rise on “ascending” Pitches fall on “descending” “Running down” “Two by two, ” “three by three, ” “all alone” Chapter 2
Instrumental Music Still subordinate to vocal music – Increasingly, instruments accompanied voices – Sometimes played adapted vocal music alone Published music stated that various parts of the music could be sung or played Chapter 2
Lute (c. 1500) Associate of Leonardo da Vinci
Purely instrumental music existed almost exclusively for dancing – Dancing became ever more popular during the Renaissance Distinction between loud outdoor instruments and softer indoor ones Composers did not specify instrumentation Chapter 2
Renaissance Dance http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Icc. Bb. E 022 I Y
Listening Passamezzo and Galliard by Pierre Francisque Caroubel From Terpsichore (1612) by Michael Praetorius Listening Guide: p. 91 Basic Set, CD 1: 81 Renaissance dance music Dances frequently played in pairs Passamezzo in duple meter (form: a a’ b b’ c c’) Galliard in triple meter (form: a a’ b b’ c c’ a’ b’ c’) Instrumentation not specified in written music Chapter 2
Performance Practice Original instruments vs. Modern instruments Which is more authentic? Which would you prefer to listen to?
Comparison of Middle Ages to Renaissance Education Art Architecture Music How can you recognize the difference between music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance?