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Multimedia Production: Computer Apps II Essential Standard 3. 02 & 3. 03
Essential Standard 3. 02 1. Evolution of Multimedia 2. Multimedia Systems 3. Fair Use Guidelines 4. Multimedia Presentation Basics 5. Authoring Programs 6. Development of Multimedia Titles
3. 02 Demonstrate Interactive Multimedia Titles Clearning goal: The learner will be able to explain important elements of multimedia production.
Essential Standard 3. 02 Evolution of Multimedia
Meaning of Multimedia Originally Two or more different media Today Products, processes, applications, and interactivity
Growth of Multimedia • Multimedia first emerged in the 1980 s when desktop computers became more prevalent in businesses, schools, and homes. • Growth in multimedia exploded significantly as technology improved, allowing animation, complex graphics, sound files, and video clips to be included in presentations.
Barriers to Multimedia Originally Limited Software Today Abundant Large Files Barriers of Multimedia Originally Limited internal and external storage mediums Limited multimedia effectiveness due to processor speeds and RAM sizes. Today Faster processors Audio cards Video cards, CDs, DVDs, and flash/jump drives
Business Uses of Multimedia • Businesses and organizations use multimedia for marketing, training, and presentations purposes. • Presentations are customized for possible outcomes to: – – – Inform Motivate Persuade Sell Teach Train
Advantages of businesses using multimedia • Enhance communication. • Add positive visual appeal to presentations. • Provides entertainment.
New Dimensions of Multimedia Titles • • Webzines Online books Music distribution Interactive games Online news Social interaction Online purchases
Future of Multimedia • Multimedia is only in its infancy. • Multimedia will continue to grow as new innovations in computer hardware emerge and new software is developed.
Essential Standard 3. 02 Multimedia Systems
Playback Systems o o o Playback systems refer to the computer systems used for viewing multimedia titles. Computer systems must include video graphics and audio cards to display graphics and sound effects. The minimum configuration for any multimedia title is found on the package.
Development Systems o o o High-end equipment can minimize production cost and time spent in creating multimedia titles. Multimedia titles require extensive storage space. Development systems consist of basic computer systems and other hardware devices.
Possible Hardware Devices o o o Basic computer system Speakers External storage devices Scanner Microphone CD/DVD burners
Possible Hardware Devices (Continued) o o o Audio cards Analog camcorders Digital video camera Webcams Video capture cards and interface Video tuners
Multimedia Systems o Evaluate multimedia systems at Top Ten Reviews. o Examine: Hard drive Memory Audio Video card Video memory Networking Processor speed Operating system
Essential Standard 3. 02 Fair Use Guidelines
Guidelines for using copyrighted multimedia elements: 10% or less (depending on media type) l l l Text l or 1000 words Motion media l Or 3 minutes Illustrations l 1 picture or 15 out of a collection Music l Or 30 seconds Internet l l Multimedia Fair Uses Guidelines Numerical data sets (database) l Or 2500 fields or cells Copying and distribution l Ask for permission even if it is okay under fair use. Alteration limitations l Can alter copyrighted work if used for educational use. Citations l Site EVERYTHING
Essential Standard 3. 02 Multimedia Authoring Programs
Multimedia Authoring Programs There are four types of metaphors addressed in Computer Applications II. A metaphor is just something that you can compare your multimedia production to. Slide show metaphor (Power. Point). The project is called a presentation and each page or screen is called a slide. When you finish, you present a "slideshow".
Multimedia Authoring Programs Card/Book Metaphor (Hyper. Studio) Each screen is called a card. Think of it as a stack of index cards instead of a group of slides. Time-based Metaphor (Macromedia Director) The project is called a movie. Think of Windows Movie Maker. At the bottom you have the timeline. You position everything on the timeline when you want it to appear or play.
Multimedia Authoring Programs Icon-based Metaphor (Macromedia Authorware) You drag icons from the toolbox onto the work area to create your presentation or project.
Essential Standard 3. 02 Multimedia Presentation Basics
Basic Parts of Multimedia Presentations l Menus are a list of options available for users. l Commands link to other parts of the presentation. Without the links between pages, the user cannot navigate the presentation.
Basic Parts of Multimedia Presentations (Continued) Hyperlinks are “hot spots” or “jumps” that locate another file or page. They are represented by a graphic or colored and underlined text. Some of the many hyperlinks Hyperlink to video clip
Basic Parts of a Multimedia Presentations (Continued) Hyperlinks allow the end user to navigate between slides, additional elements (i. e. Word and Excel documents), audio, video clips, and other interactive parts of the presentation. Hyperlinks also allow the user to launch the Internet browser and open a selected site in cyberspace.
Basic Parts of a Multimedia Presentations (Continued) A slide Transition is the visual effect of a slide as it moves on and off the screen during a slide show. Each slide can only have one transition. Transition features include: Speed Sound Direction Timing
Basic Parts of a Multimedia Presentations (Continued) Build effect is applied to text to make it appear on a slide in increments of one letter, word, or section at a time in order to keep viewers’ attention. Additional build effects can be used with audio clips, video clips, graphics, and other parts of the presentation.
Essential Standard 3. 02 Development of Multimedia Titles
) Determine theme
Planning of Multimedia Titles) Determine a theme for the multimedia title. v A theme contains a color scheme. v It consists of unified design elements for bullets, fonts, images, navigation bars and other media elements.
) Basic Design Guidelines
Basic Design Guidelines • • • Use no more than three different font styles and sizes. Make colors consistent, harmonizing, and appropriate to title. Use enhancements such as bold, italics, colors, and shadowing to emphasis key points.
Basic Design Guidelines (Continued) • Do not use underline, because of its association with Internet links. • • Balance white space. End the presentation with a blank slide containing only the slide design.
) Create a storyboard
Planning of Multimedia Titles) Storyboard projects including all navigation links. A sample storyboard with its navigational links Font colors, background color, and other design ideas can also be noted at this stage
) Add text
Multimedia Elements Text features should be: l Appropriate for audience. l Readable, which serif is preferred due to the lines at the top and bottom of text and guide the eyes across the page. l Consistent.
) Determine the treatment
Planning of Multimedia Titles Treatment includes: Tone - Will the presentation be serious, humorous, light, heavy, formal, or informal? Approach – How much direction will be given to the end user? A rule of thumb: children’s presentations need less options while adults’ presentations need more navigation options. Metaphor – Will a comparison be used to provide interest or to aid in understanding? Ex. - Comparing the complexity of building a house to building a Web page Emphasis – How much weight will be given to each of the various elements in the presentation?
) Add graphics
Multimedia Elements l Graphics are an important part of the communication process that provide highlights, expressions, demonstrations, and backgrounds l The two types of graphics used in multimedia are draw-type (vector) and bitmap (raster). l l Draw-types are made up of arcs and lines. Bitmap is made of dots.
Multimedia Elements The multimedia designer must do the following to graphics: l l Balance the size and quality. Use the appropriate graphics according to intended purposes. File formats determine how graphics will be displayed. l Most popular: TIFF (Tagged Image File Format), BMP (Bitmap), PCX (Windows Paint) and PICT (Macintosh) l Standard for the internet: JPEG (Joint Photographer Experts Group), GIF (Graphics Interchange file format) and PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
Multimedia Elements l Graphics programs allow designers to draw, paint, or edit images. l A combination of the graphic programs may have to be used in creating multimedia titles.
Essential Elements of Multimedia Titles Graphics v 2 -D images v Vector graphics v Raster graphics v 3 -D images are much more lifelike than 2 -D images. v A 3 -D model is the mathematical representation of any 3 -D object.
Essential Elements of Multimedia Titles Graphics File Formats v BMP v A bitmap describes the array of pixels on a computer monitor. v This type of graphic is arranged as a rectangle and can be created in paint programs. v The video card determines the true color display. v Enlarged graphics lose resolution.
Essential Elements of Multimedia Titles Graphics File Formats (cont. ) v GIF v Graphics Interchange Format v This is best for solid color images. v These support transparency which allows the image to appear in a shape other that rectangular. v Animated GIFs are single files in which multiple images are stored. These images play back one at a time. This creates the illusion of motion.
Essential Elements of Multimedia Titles Graphics File Formats (cont. ) v JPEG v Joint Photographic Experts Group v This is best for photographs and continuoustone images where color fidelity cannot be compromised. v These create graphic compression. v Always save an original image, because it is impossible to recover lost imagery after compression.
Essential Elements of Multimedia Titles Graphics File Formats (cont. ) v PNG v Portable Network Graphics v This supports many color depths. v These create graphic compression. v This combines the best features of GIF and JPEG. It supports transparency, but produces quality images. v This format is not universally supported.
) Add animations
) Add sound files or music clips
Essential Elements of Multimedia Titles Working with Sound Files v Analog sounds must be converted to digital form. v A sound from an external source is sent to the sound card through a microphone. v The sound card samples or digitizes the sound based on the sample rate and resolution. v It then produces the digital approximation of the analog signal. v Sound files can be compressed. v There are free downloads available.
Multimedia Elements l Sounds in multimedia titles could include: l l l Music. Narrations. Sound effects. Original recordings. Sound waves are vibrations that are created when we speak. The patterns of sound waves are called analog wave patterns that have two attributes: volume and frequency.
Multimedia Elements l l l Volume is the peak of sound waves and the distance between the peaks is the frequency. The sound waves are converted from analog to digital form. This conversion is called sampling Sampling is the recording of sound every fraction of a second. l Sampling is impacted by sample rate and size. The rate is the number of times the sample is taken and rate is the information stored about the sample.
Audio File Size l Sampling rate l Sample size l Channels recorded
Sample Size l The number of bits used to store a sample. l Also called resolution. l In general, the more bits allocated per sample, the better the reproduction of the original analog information. l Audio sample size determines the dynamic range. DVD PCM audio uses sample sizes of 16, 20, or 24 bits.
Sample Rate l The frequency at which an analog audio stream is "sampled" or converted into digital. l The higher the sampling rate, the closer the digital file will be to the original analog source and the better the quality. l A sample rate of 44, 100 khz is considered CD-quality. l The number of digital samples recorded per second.
Sampling l Also called a sample rate. Typically expressed in samples per second, or hertz (Hz), the rate at which samples of an analog signal are taken in order to be converted into digital form. l A means of reproducing a continuous event, such as sound or motion, by recording many fragments of it.
Audio File Formats l l l AU CDA MP 3 MIDI WAV WMA
Audio File Formats l AU l l The standard audio file format used by Sun, Unix and Java. CDA l CD-A (Compact Disc Audio) is the format to which domestic and commercial CD players adhere. When you create a music CD on a computer it is burnt in the CD-A format. All music purchased from a music store on CD is in the CD-A format. This is the standard Audio CD format and is used by all manufacturers of hi-fi and CD’s.
Audio File Formats l MIDI l (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) format is for instrumental music. l MIDI files cannot be recorded and must be synthesized on a computer with special hardware and software.
Audio File Formats l WMA l l A proprietary compressed audio file format used by Microsoft. It was initially a competitor to the MP 3 format Stands for (Windows Media Audio) Can be played using Windows Media Player Supports streaming.
Audio File Formats l MP 3 l The MPEG Layer-3 format is the most popular format for downloading and storing music. l By eliminating portions of the audio file that are essentially inaudible, mp 3 files are compressed to roughly one-tenth the size of an equivalent PCM file while maintaining good audio quality. l MP 3 was developed as a way of compressing the file sizes of traditional audio formats (WAV/AIFF) for easier and faster Internet distribution. It is in effect full quality music compressed to be as small as possible.
How MP 3 Files Work Source
How MP 3 Files Work v The MP 3 format is a compression system for music. The goal of using MP 3 is to compress a CDquality song by a factor of 10 to 14 without noticeably affecting the CD-quality sound. With MP 3, a 32 -megabyte song on a CD compresses down to about 3 MB. v To make a good compression algorithm for sound, a technique called perceptual noise shaping is used. It's "perceptual" partly because the MP 3 format uses characteristics of the human ear to design the compression algorithm. For example: • There are certain sounds that the human ear cannot hear. • There are certain sounds that the human ear
How MP 3 Files Work v In order to decrease the size of the file significantly, MP 3 encoders have to lose audio information. This is called a lossy format. v Many music sites and blogs urge people to use a bit rate of 160 Kbps or higher if they want the MP 3 file to have the same sound quality as a CD. v This format has opened possibilities for anyone to manage music files easily.
Audio File Formats l WAV is the native audio format developed by Microsoft and IBM for the Windows computer system. l It stands for Windows Audio Version (WAV). l It is an uncompressed audio format. This means that it is much larger in file size than MP 3 but can support the highest possible audio recording quality. l Requires around 10 MB per minute of music.
WAV (Wave) The standard format for sound files on Windows PCs.
How WAV Files Work v WAVE or WAV, short for Waveform Audio File Format is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs. v It is an application of the RIFF bitstream format method for storing data in “chunks. ” v The most common WAV format contains uncompressed audio in the linear pulse code modulation (LPCM) format, similar to CDs. v Uncompressed WAV files are quite large in size, so, as file sharing over the Internet has become popular, the WAV format has declined in popularity.
Recording sound files Sounds can be recorded or captured from a variety of sources. Ø For example, record your voice using a microphone that is connected to the computer’s sound card. Ø Or, connect a device such as a CD player, MP 3 player, or tape player to the sound card Line-in jack to record CD audio or other pre-recorded material.
Importing sound files
Importing sound files n Similar to adding graphic objects into animations, sound objects are usually imported into the animation file. n Most animation programs require or recommend that each sound object be inserted on its own layer.
Essential Elements of Multimedia Titles Audio File Formats v CDA – Find “Rip” menu in Windows Media Player. v MIDI – Try http: //www. mididb. com/ to sample files. Video File Formats v MPEG – Try sample files at http: //www. vbrick. net/video/samples/#. v WMV – Streaming video format for MS Windows v MP 3 – Commonly used format v MOV – Quick Time format – Samples at http: //www. vbrick. net/video/samples/# v WMA – Similar to MP 3, but formatted for Windows
) Add video
Multimedia Elements l Videos provide actual events for viewing instead of reading about or listening to them. l Sources for videos include web sites and stock film companies. l Videos, like sounds, are recorded and played as analog signals, which must be digitized to be used in multimedia titles.
The Video Format The file format of the video determines: l Which programs can open and play it. l How much space it occupies on a disk. l How fast it travels over an Internet connection.
Video File Formats l AVI (audio video interleave) l Developed by Microsoft in 1992. l The original video format for Windows. l Has become so widespread that many people consider it de facto standard for storing video and audio information on a personal computer. l AVI combines audio and video into a single file in a standard container to allow simultaneous playback.
Video File Formats l MOV (movie), also known as Quick. Time l Created by Apple Computer l MOV is a container format and can contain video, animation, graphics, 3 D and virtual reality (VR) content or text
Video File Formats l MPEG l l The standard for compression and storage of motion video MPEG is not actually a format but short for Moving Picture Experts Group, a working group that develops video and audio encoding standards.
Video File Formats l RM (Real. Media) l Created by Real. Networks. l Typically stores a movie clip. l Used for streaming content over the Internet. l Generally supported by many different platforms.
Video File Formats l WMV (Windows media video) l Streaming video technologies developed by Microsoft l Allows compression of large video files yet retains considerable high quality.
Multimedia Elements Stock clips of animation, sound, and video are: l Accessible on CD’s, slideshow application or web sites. l Made available by vendors or individuals. l Available in several formats such as MPEG 1, Quicktime or Streaming Quicktime.
Essential Elements of Multimedia Titles Video v Web. Cam v Open software. v Capture video and narration. v Automatic save. v Insert in presentation. v Digital video v Record, download, and insert in presentation. v Adding video and music to Power. Point: Cal. Poly Site
) Add narration
Essential Elements of Multimedia Titles Podcasting v A podcast is an audio file you create in. mp 3 format. v Use Audacity as a recorder for the 30 -second narration. v Export the file as. mp 3. v Insert in the presentation. v Alternative – Use the Windows sound recorder.
) Add links and build effects
Interactive Multimedia Titles Today Originally Originators of the presentations controlled what happened next = Linear presentations User interact with presentations and control the flow and direction of the information. = Non-linear presentations
Interactive Multimedia Titles (Continued) Users use navigational or action buttons on screen or web sites to determine: • what content is delivered • when it is delivered • how it is delivered Navigational Menu Back to beginning slide (home) Back to previous slide Forward to next slide
Interactive Multimedia Titles Interactivity can be enacted via: mouse clicks mouse roll over voice activation keyboard touch screens (Continued)
Interactive Multimedia Titles In this example, the user can continue on with this presentation or click on either the Component A link or Component B link and go in that alternate direction. (Continued)
Interactive Multimedia Titles (Continued) Continuing on with the original presentation without selecting a link, users will see this slide. OR If users click on the Component A link, this will be the next slide. OR If users click on the Component B link, this is the next slide. These images are used as links to a video clip.
Interactive Multimedia Titles (Continued) As users continue with the presentation, additional links can be encountered which offer more choices and information. This example provides links to two Word documents that support the lesson. User will click on the Word icon to view this information.
) Plan your oral presentation
Practicing Presenting Multimedia Titles Know Content Use of proper English/grammar Avoid filler words Speak clearly Make eye contact with audience Use appropriate speed of speech Include an opening and closing Stay within allotted time
Essential Standard 3. 03 1. Evolution of Virtual Reality 2. Common Types 3. Interface Devices 4. Interface Systems 5. Design of Virtual Worlds
3. 03 Explore Virtual Reality Design and Use Clearning goal: The learner will be able to explain the concept of virtual reality.
Essential Standard 3. 03 Evolution of Virtual Reality
Virtual Reality is a simulated environment. involves computergenerated graphics. is 3 -dimensional. is extremely interactive. involves the use of human senses. exists in many different forms.
History of Virtual Reality 1927 -29 – Link trainers; attempt to duplicate airplane cockpit. Mid 1940’s-1990 s – Flight simulators. 1970 s-Flight simulators operated in real time. 1979 -Head-mounted displays used. Early 1980 s-Pilots navigated through detailed virtual worlds.
Movie and Game Industry Uses 1970 s Star Wars movie used computer generated graphics. 1980’s v Data glove was invented to produce music by linking hand gestures to a music synthesizer. v Mattel™ adapted it into the Power Glove for Nintendo.
Some of today’s uses Architect Education Entertainment Medicine Military Training
Development of Virtual Reality Basic elements of Virtual Reality have existed since 1980. Virtual Reality environments require: v High-performance v Specialized computers. software and additional hardware.
Virtual Reality through 3 D Graphics Virtual Reality is the use of technology to immerse a user into an artificial environment. In virtual reality interaction occurs when the user moves around and manipulates simulated objects. Most virtual reality programs concentrate on high-quality graphics, often using 3 D technology. Virtual Reality requires graphics with high frame rates for smooth motion, and high resolution for realistic detail.
3 D Graphics The most common way to see 3 D Graphics animation is in multimedia used in video games. A 3 D environment can make players feel as if they are part of the action, rather than mere observers, therefore creating a virtual reality.
Essential Standard 3. 03 Interface Devices
Interface Devices Head-mounted display (HMD) Facial sensor/body suit
Interface Devices Wand Data glove
Head-Mounted Display (HMD) Device on top of helmet signals head movements. A computer continually updates the simulation to reflect new perspectives. Its viewing screen adds depth to flat pictures. Blocks out surrounding environment. Is popular with the entertainment industry.
Data Glove Programs the computer to change modes in response to gestures made with data gloves. Some use fiber optic cables. Some use strain sensors over joints. Facial sensor/body suit Sensors read facial expressions/body movements and transfer information to animations.
Wand Is simplest of interface devices. Most have on/off buttons. Some have knobs, dials, or joy sticks. Biologists use wands like scalpels to slice tissue samples from virtual brains. Wands operate with six degrees of freedom. By pointing a wand at an object, its position and orientation can be changed in any of six directions forward or backward, up or down, or left or right
Essential Standard 3. 03 Interface Systems
Interface Systems Three common systems: HMD – Head-mounted Display BOOM – Binocular Omni Orientation Monitor CAVE – Automatic Virtual Environment
BOOM (Binocular Omni Orientation Monitor) Is similar to HMD – but no helmet. Viewing box suspended from rotating arm. Uses handles on box sides to move image around. Buttons on handles allow user to interact with object. Can also hook up data gloves.
CAVE One of the newest, most "immersive" virtual environments. 10 x 9 -foot darkened cubicle. Is like climbing into the computer’s screen. Display enables user to experience the. sensation of being "inside" the data.
Advantages of CAVE Only need special glasses and wand instead of clunky equipment. Has a large field of view of data that is projected in stereoscopic images onto the walls and floor of the CAVE. Multiple users can be in CAVE at same time. Sound can be added to images.
Shared Virtual Environments • In this illustration, three networked users at different locations (anywhere in the world) meet in the same virtual world by using a BOOM device, a CAVE system, and a Head-mounted Display. • All users see the same virtual environment from their respective points of view. • Each user is presented as a virtual human (avatar) to the other participants. • The users can see each other, communicate with each other, and interact with the virtual world as a team.
Virtual Reality in the Real World o Examples of virtual worlds: Alice Whyville Second Life/Teen Second Life Farmville Petville Active Worlds PBS Virtual Worlds
Essential Standard 3. 03 Common Types
Types of Virtual Realities Desktop Immersion 3 -D Illustrators Does not require additional equipment. Requires additional equipment. Is the most effective of Virtual Reality technologies. Eyes, ears, or other body senses are isolated from real environment and fed information that is generated by the computer. Telepresence This technique is used in the movie industry to create animations by using body sensors to record human motions and transfer them to animated subjects.
Desktop Virtual Reality o Desktop o Whyville o Active Worlds
Immersion Virtual Reality o Immersion o Body. Viz VR video o i-Glasses video o Virtual Reality at Duke University o Inertial Motion Capture
Immersion Virtual Reality o Telepresence o Video – Making of Avatar o Life. Size Conferencing
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