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Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY http: //people. pppst. com/andrew-jackson. html
Essential Question: Jackson is often referred to as the first “modern” president. Explain why this is the case. Champion of the “Common Man”? OR “King” Andrew?
Voting Requirements in the Early 19 c
Voter Turnout: 1820 - 1860
Why Increased Democratization? 3 3 3 White male suffrage (? ) increased Party nominating committees (Replaced caucus): Put forth better “qualified” candidates Voters chose their state’s slate of Presidential electors : People felt they actually made a difference 3 Spoils system : More incentive to help and be involved 3 Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, etc. ) 3 Two-party system returned in the 1832 election : § Dem-Reps Natl. Reps. (1828) Whigs (1832) Republicans (1854) § Democrats (1828)
Democrats • After the War of 1812, the party's chief rival, the Federalist Party disbanded. Democratic-Republicans split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe, and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the Democratic Party
Democrats • Dominated American politics during the Second Party System, from 1832 to the mid-1850 s, with such leaders as presidents Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren, James K. Polk, and Senator Stephen Douglas, who usually bested the opposition Whig Party by narrow margins, as both parties worked hard to build grassroots organizations and maximize the turnout of voters.
The Donkey • When Andrew Jackson ran for president in 1828, his opponents tried to label him a "jackass" for his populist views and his slogan, "Let the people rule. " Jackson, however, picked up on their name calling and turned it to his own advantage by using the donkey on his campaign posters. During his presidency, the donkey was used to represent Jackson's stubbornness when he vetoed re-chartering the National Bank. • http: //www. bearkatdemocrats. com/partyhistory. htm • Thomas Nast will make it more widely know when he used the donkey in a political cartoon (although it is doubtful he had previous knowledge of the use of the donkey as a symbol of the Democratic Party
Jackson’s First Hermitage Residence From backwoods of Carolinas: Was known to fight and kill men in duels Less wealthy and educated than previous presidents: Opened White House for his inauguration party- chairs thrown out of window
First Known Painting of Jackson, 1815
General Jackson -Gained attention in Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 -Only President to serve in both American Revolution and War of 1812
• During the Seminole Wars The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between the Seminole — the collective name given to the amalgamation of various groups of native Americans and Black people who settled in Florida in the early 18 th century — and the United States Army. • The First Seminole War was from 1814 to 1819 (although sources differ), the Second Seminole War from 1835 to 1842, and the Third Seminole War from 1855 to 1858. • The first conflict arose out of tensions relating to General Jackson's attack and destruction of Fort Gadsden (AKA: Negro Fort) in Florida in 1816. Jackson also attacked the Spanish at Pensacola. Ultimately, the Spanish Crown ceded the colony to United States rule
The “Common Man’s” Presidential Candidate Nickname of “Old Hickory” because of his toughness
Jackson’s Opponents in 1824 Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy Adams [MA] William H. Crawford [GA] John C. Calhoun [SC]
The Corrupt Bargain • Election of 1824 ended the “Era of Good Feelings” • There was no clear winner in the electoral college, so the election went to the House of Representatives • Henry Clay threw his support towards J. Q. Adams- not uncommon, but when Adams made Clay his Sec. of State Jackson and his supporters were up in arms- this became known as the Corrupt Bargain
http: //bill. ballpaul. net/iaph/main. php? g 2_item. Id=426
Results of the 1824 Election A “Corrupt Bargain? ”
Election of 1828 • Possibly the “dirtiest” election • Considered first National Election • Moral Issues: Adams was said to have arranged prostitutes for a Russian Ambassadors / Jackson married his wife before she was divorced • Jackson: Common Man vs. Adams: “Educated Elite”
1828 Election Results
Rachel Jackson Final Divorce Decree
Jackson in Mourning for His Wife
SPOILS SYSTEM • Introduced the “Spoils System” • “To the victory belong the spoils” • Gave friends and supporters jobs in exchange for their help • Ensured loyalty to President • Increased party support = More democratic participation
The “Peggy Eaton Affair” • Petticoat Affair • Eventually led to Jackson asking for and receiving his Cabinet’s resignation • Prior to the mass resignations, he would consult other friends in what became known as Jackson’s “Kitchen Cabinet” • Led to the “promotion” of Martin Van Buren
The Center of Population in the Country Moves WEST
The New “Jackson Coalition” 3 The Planter Elite in the South 3 People on the Frontier 3 State Politicians – Spoils 3 Immigrants in the cities. system
Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man” 3 3 3 Intense distrust of Eastern “establishment, ” monopolies, & special privilege. His heart & soul was with the “plain folk. ” Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.
The Reign of “King Mob”
Andrew Jackson as President
Indian Policy • For many years, Jackson had protested the practice of treating with Indian tribes as if they were foreign nations. Jackson did not hate Indians as a race. He was friendly with many individual Indians and had taken home an Indian orphan from the Creek campaign to raise in his household as a companion to his adopted son. But Jackson did believe that Indian civilization was lower than that of whites, and that for their own survival, tribes who were pressed by white settlement must assimilate as individuals or remove to the west out of harm's way.
Indian Removal 3 3 Jackson’s Goal? 1830 Indian Removal Act: Controversial / Supported in South / Wanted Cherokee land in GA 3 Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) 3 Worcester v. GA (1832): The Supreme Court upheld * “domestic dependent nation” the tribes' independence from state authority. 3 3 Legal victories pointed out no practical course of resistance for the tribe to take. Tacitly encouraged by Jackson, Georgia ignored the rulings. Jackson: J ohn Marshall (Chief Justice) “has made his decision, now let him enforce it!”
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
Trail of Tears (1838 -1839) Name given to forced removal of Indians from land East of Mississippi to Oklahoma Territory Between 15, 000 - 17, 000 Indians removed – 4, 000 killed (Close to 25 %)
Jackson’s Professed “Love” for Native Americans
The Webster-Hayne Debate Sen. Daniel Webster [MA] Sen. Robert Hayne [SC] The Webster–Hayne debate was a famous debate in the U. S. between Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Senator Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina that took place on January 19 -27, 1830 regarding protectionist tariffs.
1830 Webster : Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. Jackson : Our Federal Union—it must be preserved. Calhoun : The Union, next to our liberty, most dear.
Nullification Crisis • Jackson supports Tariff (Tax) in 1828: “Tariff of Abomination” and 1832 that angered Southerners: • South Carolina passed a law “nullifying” (ignoring tariff) and said law was invalid in South Carolina • Jackson issued a presidential proclamation to S. C. and Congress passed tariff • Caused rift between Jackson and V. P John C. Calhoun and would foreshadow what was to come- Calhoun will be first VP to resign • In late February both a Force Bill, authorizing the President to use military forces against South Carolina, and a new negotiated tariff satisfactory to South Carolina were passed by Congress. The South Carolina convention reconvened and repealed its Nullification Ordinance on March 11, 1833.
Jackson’s Use of Federal Power VETO More than all Presidents before him combined 1830 Maysville Road project in KY [state of his political rival, Henry Clay]- He stated using federal funds for a project entirely in KY project (Lexington to Ohio River) was unconstitutional
The National Bank Debate BANK WAR Nicholas Biddle President Jackson
nd B. U. S. Opposition to the 2 “Soft” (paper) $ 3 3 State bankers felt it restrained their banks from issuing bank notes freely. Supported rapid economic growth & speculation. “Hard” (specie) $ 3 3 3 Felt that coin was the only safe currency. Didn’t like any bank that issued bank notes. Suspicious of expansion & speculation.
The “Monster” Is Destroyed! 3 3 “Pet banks”? 1832 Jackson vetoed the nd extension of the 2 National Bank of the United States. 1836 The charter expired. 1841 The bank went bankrupt!
The Downfall of “Mother Bank”
An 1832 Cartoon: “King Andrew”? : Clay’s supporters called him this because of his vetoes
1832 Election Results Main Issue ?
WHIGS • Considered integral to the Second Party System and operating from 1833 to the mid-1850 s, the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism. This name was chosen to echo the American Whigs of 1776, who fought for independence and because "Whig" was then a widely recognized label of choice for people who identified as opposing tyranny. The Whig Party counted among its members such national political luminaries as Daniel Webster, William Henry Harrison, and their preeminent leader, Henry Clay of Kentucky. In addition to Harrison, the Whig Party also nominated war heroes generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. Abraham Lincoln was the chief Whig leader in frontier Illinois.
3 The Specie Circular (1836) “Wildcat banks”: Wildcat banking refers to the unusual practices of banks chartered under state law during the periods of non-federally regulated state banking between 1816 and 1863 in the United States, also known as the Free Banking Era. 3 Buy future federal land only with gold or silver. 3 Jackson’s goal?
Results of the Specie Circular $ Banknotes loose their value. $ Land sales plummeted. $ Credit not available. $ Businesses began to fail. $ Unemployment rose. The Panic of 1837!
The 1836 Election Results Martin Van Buren (Former Vice Pres. & Sec. of State) “Old Kinderhook” [O. K. ]
The Panic of 1837 Spreads Quickly!
Albany Regency • Albany Regency, name given, after 1820, to the leaders of the first political machine, which was developed in New York state by Martin Van Buren. The name derived from the charge that Van Buren's principal supporters, residing in Albany, managed the machine for him while he served in the U. S. Senate. During the Jacksonian period the Regency controlled the Democratic party in New York. • It was one of the first effective political machines, using the spoils system and rigid party discipline to maintain its control
Andrew Jackson in Retirement
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before his death) 1767 - 1845