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Monitoring of CBRN Mainstreaming Dr. Saurabh Dalal NDMA Monitoring of CBRN Mainstreaming Dr. Saurabh Dalal NDMA

ABC 1950 NBC 1980 CBRN/ E 2000 POLICY D R TE S SA I ABC 1950 NBC 1980 CBRN/ E 2000 POLICY D R TE S SA I S R ER T ISM OR CBRN DEFENCE CIVIL

UN resolution on CBRN threat UN Security Council Resolution 1540, adopted in 2004, UN resolution on CBRN threat UN Security Council Resolution 1540, adopted in 2004, "affirms that the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and their means of delivery constitutes a threat to international peace and security" and calls on signatory nations "to refrain from supporting by any means non-state actors from developing, acquiring, manufacturing, possessing" such materials and delivery systems. The resolution indicates the heightened threat perception about CBRN terrorism.

Scenarios Orphan Sources Scenarios Orphan Sources

Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi released the National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) on Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi released the National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) on 01. 06. 2016. The NDMP also focusses on roles and responsibilities which all stakeholders have to play in case of any CBRN eventuality. The need of Preparedness , Mitigation and Capacity Building for CBRN is adequately emphasised.

NDMA SECTOR SPECIFIC GUIDELINES AREA NODAL AGENCY / MINISTRY STAKEHOLDERS Chemical (Industrial) Disasters Ministry NDMA SECTOR SPECIFIC GUIDELINES AREA NODAL AGENCY / MINISTRY STAKEHOLDERS Chemical (Industrial) Disasters Ministry of Environment Forests & Climate Change (MOEFCC) Chemical (Terrorism) Disasters - MHA Mo. EFCC, DMI Bhopal, CPCB, DRDE, DGFASLI, NCDC Biological Mo. HFW (Medical Countermeasures for Biological Disasters) MHA (Bioterrorism) Mo. HFW, NCDC , DRDE Radiological / Nuclear and Nuclear Radiological Emergencies. - MHA / DAE –Dept. of Atomic Energy as nodal Dept. DAE, AERB , BARC

Why CBRN Mainstreaming ? Risk profile of CBRN agents is on increase globally both Why CBRN Mainstreaming ? Risk profile of CBRN agents is on increase globally both in civilian use and in Malicious activities due to ØIncreasing Technological and Scientific capability in peaceful and military uses. ØIncreasing availability of dual use CBRN agents. ØEasy convertibility of simple lab chem. to lethal one. ØEasy availability of Bio-agents.

Why it is difficult to mainstream CBRN? Though Sendai Frameworks’ targets and indicators apply Why it is difficult to mainstream CBRN? Though Sendai Frameworks’ targets and indicators apply as such to CBRN also. But for this…. v Details of CBRN hazards is to be known in public domain to develop a proper mainstreaming, Which is difficult because…. Ø Data on mortality & morbidity available only for the events occurred in civilian activities and not due to military usage and terrorism. Ø CBRN being strategic assets, details of their stock, storage & security are not revealed, making quantifiable threats difficult to estimate. and…

CBRN / WMD Fallacies • It can’t happen to us. • WMD materials are CBRN / WMD Fallacies • It can’t happen to us. • WMD materials are so deadly the victims will all die anyway. • There is nothing we can do. WMD – Weapons of Mass Destruction.

CBRN Threat Profile v/s Impact BIOLOGICAL AGENT NUCLEAR WEAPON IMPROVISED NUCLEAR DEVICE POTENTIAL IMPACT CBRN Threat Profile v/s Impact BIOLOGICAL AGENT NUCLEAR WEAPON IMPROVISED NUCLEAR DEVICE POTENTIAL IMPACT RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL RDD & RED CHEMICAL AGENT OR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL BLAST EVENT EXPLOSION PROBABILITY/LIKELIHOOD OF USAGED

L A IC G LO AR O DI CLE RA NU L L ICA L A IC G LO AR O DI CLE RA NU L L ICA M E CH Huge killing capacity but are hard to Acquire. O L IO B Easy to acquire and good killing capacity Both: Huge killing capacity Easy to acquire. RADIOLOGICALNUCLEAR CHEMICAL MILD SEVERE ENVIRONMENT SEVERE MILD PROPERTY SEVERE MODERATE MILD LIFE A IC G BIOLOGICAL

Comparative Mortality due to major CBRN incidences (19682016) worldwide. Type of Emergency No of Comparative Mortality due to major CBRN incidences (19682016) worldwide. Type of Emergency No of Incidences Mortalities Chemical 1373 45586 Biological (Epidemics) 1442 243106 Radiation Source (Related) 132 105 Nuclear 5 30 (Power Plant Related) NOTE: Does not include any military related CBRN usage Source: EMDAT/IAEA

Relative Cost of large scale CBRN operation/Sq. km Sr. No Operation with weapon Cost Relative Cost of large scale CBRN operation/Sq. km Sr. No Operation with weapon Cost 1 2 Conventional Nuclear 3 Chemical (Nerve Gas) Biological Maximum Lesser than Conventional Lesser than Nuclear 4 Least Bio-Weapon is called “Poor man’s Nuclear Bomb

CBRN Risk Reduction Measures • Standardization in safety approach. • Monitoring systems to detect CBRN Risk Reduction Measures • Standardization in safety approach. • Monitoring systems to detect far below threshold that can cause harm. • Security in accessibility. • Regulatory Aspects. • Awareness and Capacity Building

Monitoring indicators for mainstreaming of CBRN • Level of preparation for CBRN agents monitoring Monitoring indicators for mainstreaming of CBRN • Level of preparation for CBRN agents monitoring preferably on-line through instruments. • Level of medical preparedness & availability of antidotes, decorporation agents, triage procedures. • Level of capacity building for responders. • Awareness among the community and medical personnel. • Level of anti-proliferation measures (i. e. , regulations and strict enforcement and inspection). • Measures to prevent illegal trafficking through the Point of Entries. • Level of International Cooperation.

Initiatives by NDMA / GOI for CBRN DRR Measures Ø Mobile Radiation Detection System Initiatives by NDMA / GOI for CBRN DRR Measures Ø Mobile Radiation Detection System (MRDS) Ø POE (Point of Entry) being equipped with Rad. Monitors Ø CBRN Emergency Management Exercise at POE. Ø POE training through IHR – International Health regulations Division by Mo. HFW. Ø Construction of 4 CBRN Medical Centers and 21 District level Centers by Mo. HFW. Ø Establishing ERCs at DAE facilities and at NDRF. (RN) Ø Establishing SHOC at NCDC, New Delhi. (CB) Ø Capacity Building at all level. Ø Maintain database of trained CBRN experts. Ø SOP for of CBRN Medical management for Healthcare facilities.

Way Forward CBRN incidence can impact routine functions of any entity drastically, Therefore: a. Way Forward CBRN incidence can impact routine functions of any entity drastically, Therefore: a. Enhance specialized CB for community/NGOs. b. Introduce CBDM in syllabus with special thrust on CBRN. c. Develop robust ERCs with GIS based DSS for early warning and integrating it with IRS. d. CBRN inventory management & risk prioritization. e. Trained ERTs and MRTs for CBRN emergencies. f. Better Documentation / Research on past events. g. CBRN specialized waste management and Ø CBRN security management. Ø Encourage CBRN safety culture at all level.

Thanks Participate in Building Its all about dealing efficiently with Man, Material, Microorganisms and Thanks Participate in Building Its all about dealing efficiently with Man, Material, Microorganisms and Mind