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Modal Verbs Modal verbs (can, could, must, should, ought to, have to, may, might, will, would, shall) are auxiliary verbs that express ability, necessity, request, permission, advice, desire, probability, etc. Modal verbs express the speaker's attitude to the action indicated by the main verb.
Modal Verbs: 1) can't be used without a main verb, can't form gerunds, participles and infinitives 2) to, s 3) do not have the past tense form (except could/might/would) 4) do not have the future tense form. The future is expressed by the present tense forms of modal verbs with the help of the context and adverbs of time referring to the future. Examples: Can I go there tomorrow? – Yes, you can. He shouldn't call her today.
Modal Examples Uses Can (мочь, She can speak six languages. We can’t fix it Can I smoke here? Can you help me? Ability / Possibility Inability / Impossibility Permission Request обладать физической и умственной способностью) ~Be able to(быть в I shall be able to do it only tomorrow. состоянии что-то сделать) Could I borrow your dictionary? Could you say it again more slowly? We could try to fix it ourselves. My grandfather could play golf very well. Permission. Request Suggestion Ability
May (разрешать) May I have another cup of coffee? China may become a major economic power. Permission Possibility ~To be allowed He was allowed to come in Moscow Passiv Voice to be permitted (позволять) Might He might be sleeping now. (Он, возможно, спит сейчас). Present possibility He might have been sleeping at three o'clock yesterday. (Он, возможно, спал в три часа вчера) Possibility in the past
Must (моральный долг, личная значимость) ~Have to(о силе обстоятельств) We must say good-bye now. We mustn’t talk at the lessons. My mum’s come’s late today, so I have to cook. Obligation (лично для меня важно) Prohibition The plan is to arrive at 9 o’clock ~To be to (запланированное действие) Ought to You ought to see a doctor Advise Should You should watch this film, it is very interest. Advise
Will John will always be late! I'll do that for you if you like I can’t see any taxis so I’ll walk. Would When I lived in Italy, we would often eat in the Habits(обычно, часто restaurant next to my flat. Habits Offer Instant decisions повторяющееся действия в прошлом) ~Used to I asked him to do it, but he wouldn’t Reluctance(нежелание выполнять какое-то действие)
Possibility Present/Future 1)He must be at home. The light is on. ~100% 2)He can win the race. Last year he was the first. ~90% 3)Tom may/could be studying in his room. ~50 % 4)He might want some more food. ~40% Past 1)He must have been injured yesterday. 2)She could have broken her leg skiing from the mountain. (Likely she hadn’t) 3)You might have met me. (My bag’s were very heavy упрек) 4)He isn’t polite. He didn’t say