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MODAL VERBS 2 MODALNI GLAGOLI 2
HAVE TO AND MUST je modalni glagol koji ima samo jedan oblik – sadašnji. Jedno značenje ovog glagola je obligation (obaveza) – koja postoji po mišljenju govornika: I haven’t spoken to Sue for ages. I must phone her. (Smatram da mi je to obaveza) Mark is a really nice person. You must meet him. (Preporučujem to, mislim da je neophodno) Ukoliko želimo da iskažemo obavezu u nekom drugom vremenu, umesto must, moramo upotrebiti have to It was very late. I had to go home. If the pain gets worse, you’ll have to see the doctor.
HAVE TO – OBAVEZA HAVE TO takođe znači obavezu, koja proizilazi iz opštih pravila. Nije u pitanju mišljenje govornika. You can’t turn right here. You have to turn left. George can’t come out with us this evening. He has to work late. Uporedi: I must phone Sue. (an opinion) I have to work from 9. 00 to 5. 00 every day. (a fact)
MUST AND MUSTN’T MUST/HAVE TO = it is necessary to do something (morati) MUSTN’T = it is necessary not to do something You must keep it a secret. You mustn’t tell anyone. MUSTN’T ≠ ne moraš MUSTN’T = ne smeš DON’T HAVE TO = it is not necessary to do something I don’t have to work tomorrow. DON’T HAVE TO = ne moraš
MUST, MUSTN’T, NEEDN’T You must do something = it is necessary that you do it We haven’t got much time. We must hurry. (Moramo da požurimo) You mustn’t do something = it is necessary that you don’t do it. The baby is sleeping. We mustn’t make noise. (Ne smemo praviti buku) You needn’t do something = it isn’t necessary that you do it. We’ve got plenty of time. We needn’t hurry. (Ne moramo žuriti).
Umesto needn’t, možemo koristiti don’t/doesn’t need to. We needn’t hurry. We don’t need to hurry. NEEDN’T HAVE (DONE) = it wasn’t necessary to do something. He needn’t have taken the umbrella = He took the umbrella, but this was not necessary. Everything’s OK. You needn’t worry. (Ne treba da brineš) Everything was OK. You needn’t have worried. (Nije trebalo da brineš)
SHOULD 1 You should do something = it’s a good thing or the right thing to do SHOULD ima značenje preporuke. Koristi se za predloge, savete, preporuke. You look tired. You should go to bed. The government should do more to reduce crime. Sa should često koristimo I think / I don’t think / Do you think. . . ? I think the government should do more to reduce crime. Do you think I should apply for another job?
You shouldn’t do something = it isn’t a good thing to do You shouldn’t believe everything you read in the newspapers. (Ne bi trebalo) Should nema istu jačinu kao must/have to: You should apologize. (= it’s a good thing to do. ) You must apologize. (=it’s necessary to do so. ) Should takođe koristimo kad očekujemo da se nešto desi: She’s been studying hard for the exam, so she should pass.
SHOULD HAVE DONE You should have done something = it was the right thing to do, but you didn’t do it (Trebalo je) You missed a great party last night. You should have come. You shouldn’t have done something = you did it, but it was the wrong thing to do (Nije trebalo) I’m feeling sick. I shouldn’t have eaten so much. Uporedi: You look tired. You should go to bed now. You went to bed late last night. You should have gone to bed earlier.
OUGHT TO Umesto should, može se upotrebiti ought to, sa istim značenjem: Do you think I ought to apply for this job? She’s been studying hard for the exam, so she ought to pass. Jack ought not to stay up late. It was a great party last night. You ought to have come.
SHOULD 2 Should se posebno koristi posle nekih glagola, kao što su: Demand – zahtevati Insist – insistirati Propose – predložiti Recommend – preporučiti Suggest – predložiti They insisted that we should have dinner with them. I demanded that he should apologize.
If. . . should. . . Može se reći ‘If something should happen. . . ’ If Tom should phone while I’m out, tell him I’ll call him back. (Ako bi Tom nazvao, reci mu da ću ga nazvati kasnije. ) I should/I shouldn’t koristimo da bismo nekome dali savet. I shouldn’t stay up too late. You’ll be tired tomorrow. I shouldn’t stay up= I advise you not to stay up
WOULD/WOULDN’T koristimo kad zamišljamo neku situaciju ili aktivnost: It would be nice to buy a new car, but we can’t afford it. (Bilo bi lepo da kupimo nov auto, ali nemamo novca. ) I would love to live by the sea. (Volela bih da živim kraj mora. ) WOULD HAVE DONE koristimo kad zamišljamo situacije ili aktivnosti u prošlosti (koje se nisu dogodile): They helped us a lot. I don’t know what we would have done without their help.
Uporedi: I would phone Sue, but I haven’t got her number. (now) I would have phoned Sue, but I didn’t have her number. (past) I’m not going to invite them to the party. They wouldn’t come anyway. (Neću ih pozvati na žurku. Ionako neće doći. ) I didn’t invite them to the party. They wouldn’t have come anyway. (Nisam ih pozvala na žurku. Ionako ne bi došli. )
Would se koristi u rečenicama sa if: I would phone Sue if I had her number. (Nazvala bih Sju kad bih imala njen broj. ) I would have phoned Sue if I’d had her number. (Nazvala bih Sju da sam imala njen broj. ) Would koristimo i za aktivnosti koje su se redovno dešavale u prošlosti: In summer, if the weather was fine, we would get up early and go for a swim. (Ustajali bismo rano i išli na plivanje. )
CAN/COULD/WOULD YOU. . . ? Mnogi modalni glagoli koriste se za molbe, zahteve, pozive, itd. Zahtevi: Can/could you wait a moment, please? Can you do me a favour? Will you do me a favour? Would you please be quiet? Molbe: Can I have these postcards, please? Could I use your phone? May i come in?
Ponude i pozivi: Can I get you a cup of coffee? Can I help you? Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to come to dinner tomorrow evening?