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Minimalist’s Linux Cluster Changyoung Choi, Jeonghyun Kim, Seyong Kim Department of Physics Sejong University Minimalist’s Linux Cluster Changyoung Choi, Jeonghyun Kim, Seyong Kim Department of Physics Sejong University

Reported in Lattice’ 99 Reported in Lattice’ 99

1. Usual Linux cluster • Easy to build, use and maintain • Off-The-Shelf everything! 1. Usual Linux cluster • Easy to build, use and maintain • Off-The-Shelf everything! – Ordinary PC’s – Ordinary network components – Free OS (Linux) – Free parallel programming environment (MPI)

Room for improvement • Occupies too much space • Consumes too much power • Room for improvement • Occupies too much space • Consumes too much power • Not all the components in an ordinary PC is necessary for computation – Possible further reduction in cost! – Possible reduction in power consumption • Supporting full bisection bandwidth is costly!

Conditions • No custom-made hardwares – If it takes too long to develop -> Conditions • No custom-made hardwares – If it takes too long to develop -> no advantage – If there is, should be recyclable • • Should be efficient enough Should be do-able with small manpower

2. Construction(hardware) • Node – ATX size standard mother board – Intel Pentium IV-2. 2. Construction(hardware) • Node – ATX size standard mother board – Intel Pentium IV-2. 4 GHz – 512 Mbytes DDR SDRAM – 100 Mbps ethernet card (3+1) – 180 W power • Cage for ATX size mother board • 1 front end server

CPU Intel P-4, 2. 4 GHz 236, 500(=$1 98)x 36 motherboard ASUS P 4 CPU Intel P-4, 2. 4 GHz 236, 500(=$1 98)x 36 motherboard ASUS P 4 PE memory NIC 512 MB PC 2700 DDR 3+1 realtek power Sun ATX 180 W cable 203, 500(=$1 70)x 36 112, 200(=$9 3. 5)x 36 53, 000(=$44 )x 36 25, 300(=$21 )x 36 10, 000(=$8)x 36

cabinet 2000 x 910 x 750 880, 000(= $733) cabinet accessory 365, 200(= $304) cabinet 2000 x 910 x 750 880, 000(= $733) cabinet accessory 365, 200(= $304) Cost per node $534. 5 Total cost $534. 5 x 36+$1037 = $20, 279 Price Includes Tax

Software • WOW Linux 7. 1 (equiv. Red. Hat 7. 1) • Linux Terminal Software • WOW Linux 7. 1 (equiv. Red. Hat 7. 1) • Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) – Remote booting (DHCP + TFTP) – Diskless node system • 2 -D mesh network configuration – Script developed in-house • MPI programming environment – MPICH/LAM

Setup • Front end wait • F-end send DHCP info • send kernel using Setup • Front end wait • F-end send DHCP info • send kernel using TFTP service • send client file system by NFS • Node 1 power-up • NIC listens to DHCP server • IP setup complete and download kernel • setup file system on memory and copy NFS mounted file system to memory

Setup(continued) • Node 1 wait • Node 1 send DHCP info • Node 1 Setup(continued) • Node 1 wait • Node 1 send DHCP info • Node 1 send kernel image • Node 1 act as a pipe line between front end and node 2 for NFS • Node 2 power-up • NIC listens to node 1 DHCP server • IP setup complete and download kernel from node 1 • setup file system on memory and copy NFS mounted file system to memory

Parallel boot Parallel boot

3. Performance • 1 -D ring full QCD code – Not suitable for 2 3. Performance • 1 -D ring full QCD code – Not suitable for 2 -D mesh structure • 8^3 x 512 lattice

8^3 x 32 lattice tested on 1 -node 1187 sec, CG = 181. 2 8^3 x 32 lattice tested on 1 -node 1187 sec, CG = 181. 2 -> 369 MFLOPS 8^3 x 512 lattice tested 5522 sec, CG = 391. 4 -> 1. 24 GFLOPS on 4 -node 8^3 x 512 lattice tested 3029 sec, CG = 390. 9 -> 2. 25 GFLOPS on 8 -node

4. Discussion • recyclable – cabinet takes standard motherboard size -> replacing node is 4. Discussion • recyclable – cabinet takes standard motherboard size -> replacing node is enough for a upgrade • occupies smaller foot-print, consumes less power • need to fine-tune • need to modify the code for 1 -D ring to 2 -D mesh