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Microwave Remote Sensing Chris Allen (callen@eecs. ku. edu) Course website URL people. eecs. ku. Microwave Remote Sensing Chris Allen ([email protected] ku. edu) Course website URL people. eecs. ku. edu/~callen/823/EECS 823. htm 1

Outline Syllabus Instructor information, course description, prerequisites Textbook, reference books, grading, course outline Preliminary Outline Syllabus Instructor information, course description, prerequisites Textbook, reference books, grading, course outline Preliminary schedule Introductions What to expect First assignment Microwave remote sensing background Microwave remote sensing compared to optical remote sensing Overview of radar Microwave scattering properties Radiometry principles and example 2

Syllabus Prof. Chris Allen Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering from KU 1984 10 years Syllabus Prof. Chris Allen Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering from KU 1984 10 years industry experience Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, NM Allied. Signal, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO Phone: 785 -864 -8801 Email: [email protected] ku. edu Office: 3024 Eaton Hall Office hours: Tuesdays and Thursdays 10: 00 to 10: 45 am Course description Description and analysis of basic microwave remote sensing systems including radars and radiometers as well as the scattering and emission properties of natural targets. Topics covered include plane wave propagation, antennas, radiometers, atmospheric effects, radars, calibrated systems, and remote sensing applications. 3

Prerequisites Syllabus Introductory course on electromagnetics (e. g. , EECS 420 or 720) Introductory Prerequisites Syllabus Introductory course on electromagnetics (e. g. , EECS 420 or 720) Introductory course on RF transmission systems (e. g. , EECS 622) Textbook Microwave Radar and Radiometric Remote Sensing by F. T. Ulaby, D. G. Long University of Michigan Press, 2013, ISBN 0472119354 1116 pages This is a new textbook that contains what was previously available in the Volume I of the Microwave Remote Sensing series. 4

Reference books Syllabus Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, Volume I: Microwave remote sensing Reference books Syllabus Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, Volume I: Microwave remote sensing fundamentals and radiometry by F. Ulaby, R. Moore, A. Fung Artech House, 1981, ISBN 0890061904 Unfortunately this textbook is out of print and is only available in the used book market. Nice-quality, affordable copies were available through the KU bookstore but no longer. 5

Syllabus Reference books Microwave Remote Sensing, Vol. II by F. Ulaby, R. Moore, A. Syllabus Reference books Microwave Remote Sensing, Vol. II by F. Ulaby, R. Moore, A. Fung Artech House, 1986, ISBN 0890061920 Microwave Remote Sensing, Vol. III by F. Ulaby, R. Moore, A. Fung Artech House, 1986, ISBN 0890061920 6

Grades and course policies The following factors will be used to arrive at the Grades and course policies The following factors will be used to arrive at the final course grade: Homework, quizzes, and class participation 40 % Research project 20 % Final exam 40 % Grades will be assigned to the following scale: A B C D F 90 - 100 % 80 - 89 % 70 - 79 % 60 - 69 % < 60 % These are guaranteed maximum scales and may be revised downward at the instructor's discretion. Read the policies regarding homework, exams, ethics, and plagiarism. 7

Preliminary schedule Course Outline (subject to change) Introductory material 1 week Plane wave propagation, Preliminary schedule Course Outline (subject to change) Introductory material 1 week Plane wave propagation, reflection, refraction, and attenuation 1 week (overview, expectations, review of complex math) (conductive media, layered media, Riccati equation) Antenna systems in microwave remote sensing 2 weeks Passive microwave remote sensing and radiometry 2 weeks Microwave interaction with the atmosphere 2 weeks (antenna concepts, arrays) (brightness temperature and emissivity) (physical properties, precipitation effects) Radiometer systems (system noise, Dicke radiometer) Radar systems (range equation, Doppler effects, fading) Calibrated systems and scattering measurements 1 week 2 weeks 1 week (internal/external calibration, measurement precision) Scattering and emission from natural targets 2 weeks (surface scatter, volume scatter, the sea, ice, snow, vegetation) Microwave remote sensing applications (guest lecturers) 1 week (sea ice, oceans, vegetation, etc. ) 8

Preliminary schedule Fall 2016 Class Meeting Schedule August: 23, 25, 30 September: 1, 6, Preliminary schedule Fall 2016 Class Meeting Schedule August: 23, 25, 30 September: 1, 6, 8, 13, 15, 20, 22, 27, 29 October: 4, 6, (11 th is Fall Break), (13 th no class), 18, 20, 25, 27 November: 1, 3, 8, 10, 15, 17, 22, (24 th is Thanksgiving) December: 1, 6, 8 Final exam scheduled for Friday, December 16 10: 30 to 1: 00 p. m. 9

Introductions Name Major Specialty What you hope to get from of this experience (Not Introductions Name Major Specialty What you hope to get from of this experience (Not asking what grade you are aiming for ) 10

What to expect Course is being webcast, therefore … Most presentation material will be What to expect Course is being webcast, therefore … Most presentation material will be in Power. Point format Presentations will be recorded and archived (for duration of semester) Student interaction is encouraged Remote students must activate microphone before speaking Please disable microphone when finished Homework assignments will be posted on website Electronic homework submission logistics to be worked out We may have guest lecturers later in the semester To break the monotony, we’ll try to take a couple of 2 -minute breaks during each session (roughly every 15 to 20 min) 11

Course coverage areas 12 Course coverage areas 12

Course coverage areas Course will focus on • • electromagnetic propagation & scattering antennas Course coverage areas Course will focus on • • electromagnetic propagation & scattering antennas atmospheric effects radiometry and radiometers 13

Your first assignment Send me an email (from the account you check most often) Your first assignment Send me an email (from the account you check most often) To: [email protected] ku. edu Subject line: Your name – 823 Tell me a little about yourself Attach your ARTS form (or equivalent) ARTS: Academic Requirements Tracking System Its basically an unofficial academic record I use this to get a sense of what academic experiences you’ve had 14

Microwave remote sensing background Optical remote sensing has been around a long time • Microwave remote sensing background Optical remote sensing has been around a long time • • • Uses the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum Instrumentation includes the human eye, cameras, telescopes Has problems with clouds, rain, fog, snow, smoke, smog, etc. Cannot penetrate soil, vegetation, snowpack, ice Relies on ambient light sources (e. g. , sunlight) Microwave remote sensing is less than 100 years old • • • Uses the microwave and RF parts of the spectrum Instrumentation includes radars and radiometers Is largely immune to clouds, precipitation, smoke, etc. Penetrates sand, soil, rock, vegetation, dry snow, ice, etc. Does not rely on sunlight – radar provides its own illumination, radiometers use the target’s thermal emission Data from microwave sensors complement data from optical sensors 15

Microwave remote sensing background Whereas shorter wavelengths (e. g. , optical and infrared) provide Microwave remote sensing background Whereas shorter wavelengths (e. g. , optical and infrared) provide information on the upper layers of vegetation, the longer wavelengths of microwave and RF signals penetrate deeper into the canopy and substructure providing additional information. Visible wavelengths 400 to 700 nm Infrared wavelengths 700 nm to 1 mm Microwavelengths 1 mm to 30 cm Radio wavelengths > 30 cm 16

Microwave remote sensing background A brief overview of radar Radar – radio detection and Microwave remote sensing background A brief overview of radar Radar – radio detection and ranging Developed in the early 1900 s (pre-World War II) • 1904 Europeans demonstrated use for detecting ships in fog • 1922 U. S. Navy Research Laboratory (NRL) detected wooden ship on Potomac • River 1930 NRL engineers detected an aircraft with simple radar system World War II accelerated radar’s development • Radar had a significant impact militarily • Called “The Invention That Changed The World” in two books by Robert Buderi Radar’s has deep military roots • It continues to be important militarily • Growing number of civil applications • Objects often called ‘targets’ even civil applications 17

Microwave remote sensing background A brief overview of radar Uses electromagnetic (EM) waves Frequencies Microwave remote sensing background A brief overview of radar Uses electromagnetic (EM) waves Frequencies in the MHz, GHz, THz Shares spectrum with FM, TV, GPS, cell phones, wireless technologies, satellite communications Governed by Maxwell’s equations Signals propagate at the speed of light Antennas or optics used to launch/receive waves Related technologies use acoustic waves Ultrasound, seismics, sonar Microphones, accelerometers, hydrophones used as transducers 18

Microwave remote sensing background A brief overview of radar Active sensor Provides its own Microwave remote sensing background A brief overview of radar Active sensor Provides its own illumination Operates in day and night Largely immune to smoke, haze, fog, rain, snow, … Involves both a transmitter and a receiver Related technologies are purely passive Radio astronomy, radiometers Configurations Radar image of Venus Monostatic transmitter and receiver co-located Bistatic transmitter and receiver separated Multistatic multiple transmitters and/or receivers Passive exploits non-cooperative illuminator 19

Microwave remote sensing background A brief overview of radar Various classes of operation Pulsed Microwave remote sensing background A brief overview of radar Various classes of operation Pulsed vs. continuous wave (CW) Coherent vs. incoherent Measurement capabilities Detection, Ranging Position (range and direction), Radial velocity (Doppler) Target characteristics (radar cross section – RCS) Mapping, Change detection 20

Microwave remote sensing background Microwave scattering properties reveal target characteristics Backscattering from precipitation depends Microwave remote sensing background Microwave scattering properties reveal target characteristics Backscattering from precipitation depends strongly on particle diameter enabling a mapping of precipitation rates using radar data. 21

Microwave remote sensing background Radiometry principles Materials above 0 K emit electromagnetic radiation that Microwave remote sensing background Radiometry principles Materials above 0 K emit electromagnetic radiation that follows a well-defined pattern. This radiation can be measured at a variety of frequencies and polarizations. Analysis of the measured emission characteristics reveal properties about the scene. 22

Microwave remote sensing background Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument was Microwave remote sensing background Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument was launched aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Satellite on 4 May 2002. The AMSR-E is a twelve-channel, six-frequency, conicallyscanning, passive-microwave radiometer system. It measures horizontally and vertically polarized microwave radiation (brightness temperatures) ranging from 6. 9 GHz to 89. 0 GHz. Spatial resolution of the individual measurements varies from 5. 4 km at 89 GHz to 56 km at 6. 9 GHz. 23