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METHODSOF CALCULATION THE LABOR NORMS
I. Analytical method of calculation the labor norms II. Experimentally statistical method of calculation the labor norms III. Account ofthe labor norms implementation
I. ANALYTICAL METHOD It’s the main method of technical normalization, based on the studying andcritical analysis ofexistingsequenceofnormalized executiontechniques, organization andworking conditionsin the workplace, effective use ofequipmentin order to identifyreservesto reducelabor costs and increase labor productivity. Here, labor norms are technically valid. The labor norm can be determinedeither by direct observation and measurement ofthe length ofelements of the operation, or through labor standards. Analytical methodis divided i nto analyticallyresearch ed analytically calculated.
Analyticallyresearch ed meth od Analysis, design of compositionand sequence ofindividual elements of normalizedoperationare carried out bya direct study ofthe operationin the workplace using a chronometr y. Firstly, administrative and technical measures should be carried out to rationalize theorganizationof labor and production to reduce thetime expenditures. Machine time is calculated acoording to the productivity of the equipmentandoptimal modesof its work. The amount of preparatory-final time and time of service are establishedon the basis ofpicturesof working time. Time for restand personalneed s is determined according to the special physiological studiesor calculatedaccording to the standardsas a percent from an operativetime.
These dataprovide the basisfor determining theamount of timefor the operationin general. Advantage : it allows to carry out a research directly in the workplace, to identify and remove defects inthe organization of labor, maintenance of workplace , labor conditions. Disadvantage : highcomplexity, which limitsits scope of application.
Analytically calculated method Analysis and design ofcomposition andsequence ofnormalized operations, anddetermining the time expenditures performedunder the relevant technically valid standards , as well asaccording to the formulas of dependence of thetime from factor s that characterizethe amountof work performed under certainorganizational and technicalconditions. Allows to reducethe complexityof developing norms as there is noneed to studythe time requiredbyobservations. However, this methoddecreases slightlythe accuracy ofnormsfor the givenworkplace becausestandardsare developedfor a typicalorganizationaland technical conditionsof the work.
II. Experimentally statistical ( summary ) method Norms are setgeneral ly for the whole operationor work, withoutseparation intoelements. Normsfor the operationdeveloped onthe basis of experience of the setter, reporting dataof actualtime expenditures onsimilar operationsin the previous period , without partial analy sis , with nodesignmodes, methods and rational organizationof labor. This method is notscientific. Labor normsset by thismethod, fixthe actual condition of production, with allgaps, so this methodcan be usedin exceptional cases, if for some reason s you can not applyan analyticalmethod.
III. Account ofthe labor norms implementation Account of the labor normsimplementationfor each employee , section, workshop , forcompany as a wholeis required toperform the following tasks : to identifyemployeeswho successfullyperformnorms, and those ones who can n ’ t handle theestablished norms and define the reasons of this ; to identifyoutdated norms and preparematerials fortheir revision ; to analyze the achieved leveland the dynamics oflabor productivity growth, to assess an intensity of norms for sections , workshopsand company as a whole.
In practice, there are individual and by-operational account of labor norms. By-operational account carried outfor eachnormseparately. It allows toidentifyoutdatedand mistakenrules (too lowandtoo high), to determine the result of implementedorganizationalor technical actions. It is necessarytoperformon actualtime worked, excludingintra -shift downtime and time spentduring the shiftto performtimephasedworks. Individual account carried outon the calendartime. It allows todetermine a degree of fulfillmentthe norms ofindividual workersand groups ofworkers. Implementation ofthe established normsis taken into accountasa percentageofthe norm of production, andthe norm oftime.