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Meteorology Climate & Weather Regents Earth Science Ms. Moynihan 3/10/14 Meteorology Climate & Weather Regents Earth Science Ms. Moynihan 3/10/14

Bridge 1) What is climate? 2) What is weather? Bridge 1) What is climate? 2) What is weather?

Bridge What is climate? The average weather conditions at a particular place over a Bridge What is climate? The average weather conditions at a particular place over a long period of time (> 30 years). 2) What is weather? Weather is the day-to-day conditions of a particular place. 1)

Enduring Understanding Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the Sun drives convection within Enduring Understanding Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the Sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents.

Essential Question How do land forms affect climate? Essential Question How do land forms affect climate?

Climate is the condition of the atmosphere near the earth's surface at a certain Climate is the condition of the atmosphere near the earth's surface at a certain place on earth. Ø It is the long-term weather of that area (at least 30 years). Ø Two of the most important factors in determining an area's climate are air temperature and precipitation. Ø The climate of a region will determine what plants will grow there, and what animals will inhabit it. Ø http: //www. blueplanetbiomes. org/climate. htm

Atmosphere I. Atmosphere l Layer of gases that surround the earth. l Forms a Atmosphere I. Atmosphere l Layer of gases that surround the earth. l Forms a protective boundary between Earth and space and provides conditions that are suitable for life.

A. Composition of Earth’s Atmosphere l l Nitrogen - 78% Oxygen - 21% Water A. Composition of Earth’s Atmosphere l l Nitrogen - 78% Oxygen - 21% Water vapor - . 02 to 4% Other gases - < 1%

Earth’s Atmospheric Layers Earth’s Atmospheric Layers

II. Layers of the Atmosphere Troposphere – lowest layer, where we live Stratosphere – II. Layers of the Atmosphere Troposphere – lowest layer, where we live Stratosphere – 12 km to 50 km Mesosphere – 50 km to 80 km Thermosphere – 80 km into space Ionosphere is a region in thermosphere

Bell Work 3/11/14 Put climate factors into categories: Mountains Amount of sun at North Bell Work 3/11/14 Put climate factors into categories: Mountains Amount of sun at North Pole Green house gasses Oceans Acid Rain Amount of sun at South Poles Flatlands Amount of sun at Equator El Nino Deforestation of Rain Forests

Bell Work 3/11/14 Put these climate factors into categories: Human Impact Landforms Insolation Occurs Bell Work 3/11/14 Put these climate factors into categories: Human Impact Landforms Insolation Occurs in nature

Enduring Understanding Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the Sun drives convection within Enduring Understanding Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the Sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents.

Enduring Understanding Changes have occurred to the Earth over time and those changes have Enduring Understanding Changes have occurred to the Earth over time and those changes have impacted Earth and will continue to impact Earth.

Essential Question What are the main factors that influence climate and how do they Essential Question What are the main factors that influence climate and how do they do so?

Group Work 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Research your question. Determine how your Group Work 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Research your question. Determine how your topic will impact our Earth? Name your topic category: _____ With your group decide how you will compile your information on your poster. Draw/sketch/write words on your poster. Present your poster to the class. Describe how your topic impacts our Earth. Ask a question based on your topic.

Rubrics 4 3 2 1 1) Research Thorough research Missing some depth Not much Rubrics 4 3 2 1 1) Research Thorough research Missing some depth Not much research done Obviously did not research 2) Group Dynamics Group worked great together Faced some challenges Group not cohesive Not much communication at all No effort put into poster 3) Poster Well organized, information Missing some complete information or somewhat disorganized Missing main point, very disorganized 4) Presentation Communicated ideas clearly, everyone participated Presentation not clear, or one student not participating Presentation not clear Presentation not and one student not understandable and/or participating some students not participating. 5) Topic Impact on Earth Topic impact clearly stated 6) Formulated thoughtful question Topic impact not clear Unsure of topic impact Formulated a weak Good question Question Topic impact not mentioned Did not come up with a question

Period 2 Groups Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Ricky Serena Lauren Domonique Honesty Period 2 Groups Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Ricky Serena Lauren Domonique Honesty Birnela Alannah Jonathan Isis Mitchell Nelsie Ben Group 5 Group 6 Momo Cherish Nia Malcolm Carolyn Brandon Gabe Ceyonna Dalton Group 4 Claire Zharia Shantaijia Christian

Period 4 Lab Groups Group 1 Miriah Helena Jorge Group 2 Dawtaya Imoni James Period 4 Lab Groups Group 1 Miriah Helena Jorge Group 2 Dawtaya Imoni James Group 3 Yamilet Tyshay Luis Group 4 Izzy Andrew Tyrell Group 5 Shaquasia Jeilene Jose Group 6 Rarity Thomas Marquan Katrina

Period 6 Groups Group 1 Samantha Cameron Jeffery Group 2 Jameya Emma BJ Alexis Period 6 Groups Group 1 Samantha Cameron Jeffery Group 2 Jameya Emma BJ Alexis Group 4 Cristian X’zaya Nate Group 5 Amanda Tazmara Zach Group 3 Tafai Alyssa Karina

Summary What question did your group come up with? Summary What question did your group come up with?

Bell Work 3/12/14 Explain how greenhouse gases are formed and how they impact global Bell Work 3/12/14 Explain how greenhouse gases are formed and how they impact global warming.

Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO 2) increase in the atmosphere due to Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO 2) increase in the atmosphere due to burning of fossil fuels, which includes emissions from cars & trucks. Increased CO 2 in the atmosphere causes the temperature of the earth to increase. This human impact negatively effects the environment by causing polar ice caps to melt at a faster rate, raising sea levels. It also negatively affects areas of the Earth where crops are grown. The climate may become too warm to grow food.

 Greenhouse Effect Pollution/burning of fossil fuels CO 2 in the atmosphere increases CO Greenhouse Effect Pollution/burning of fossil fuels CO 2 in the atmosphere increases CO 2 prevents radiation from re-radiating out of the atmosphere so temp of the earth increases. Polar ice caps melt at a faster rate, raising sea levels. Also, the climate in crop growing areas may become too warm to grow food.

Measuring Energy 7) How much energy is need to melt 100 g of ice? Measuring Energy 7) How much energy is need to melt 100 g of ice? 100 g x 80 Cal = 8, 000 calories g 8) How many calories of heat energy must be added to 10 g or iron to raise its temp 10 C?

ESRT p. 1 Properties of Water Heat energy gained during melting. . . 334 ESRT p. 1 Properties of Water Heat energy gained during melting. . . 334 J/g Heat energy released during freezing. . . 334 J/g Heat energy gained during vaporization. . . 2260 J/g Heat energy released during condensation. . . 2260 J/g Density at 3. 98°C. . . . 1. 0 g/m. L

Capillary Action Capillary Action

Vocabulary Capillary Action – is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow Vocabulary Capillary Action – is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, and in opposition to, external forces like gravity.

Permeability Permeability

Vocabulary 1) Permeability – a measure of the ability of a material (such as Vocabulary 1) Permeability – a measure of the ability of a material (such as rocks) to allow fluids to flow through it.

If you join sediment from A and D, what would happen to the permeability? If you join sediment from A and D, what would happen to the permeability? Why?

Which is more permeable? a. small particles or large particles b. frozen ground or Which is more permeable? a. small particles or large particles b. frozen ground or unfrozen ground

Porosity Porosity

Vocabulary 1) Porosity – a measure of the void or Vocabulary 1) Porosity – a measure of the void or "empty“ spaces in a material.

Total volume of empty space ÷ total volume of soil What materials would you Total volume of empty space ÷ total volume of soil What materials would you need to calculate the porosity of a sample of soil?

Runoff Runoff

Vocabulary Runoff – the water flow that occurs when the soil is infiltrated to Vocabulary Runoff – the water flow that occurs when the soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain, meltwater, or other sources flows over the land. ØThis is the primary agent in water erosion.

Which will result in greater runoff and stream discharge? a. an area that is Which will result in greater runoff and stream discharge? a. an area that is vegetated or an area that is barren b. an area that has a steep slope or an area that is flat c. ground that is frozen or ground that is unfrozen d. ground that is saturated or ground that unsaturated

Vocabulary 1) Humidity – the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. Vocabulary 1) Humidity – the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere.

Vocabulary 1) Arid – a climate having little or no rain; too dry to Vocabulary 1) Arid – a climate having little or no rain; too dry to support vegetation.

Vocabulary 1) Infiltration – water entering the upper parts of the Earth’s lithosphere under Vocabulary 1) Infiltration – water entering the upper parts of the Earth’s lithosphere under the influence of gravity.

Vocabulary 1) Elevation – the height above or below sea level. Vocabulary 1) Elevation – the height above or below sea level.

Bell Work 3/17/14 1. Put in order of Largest particle to smallest: silt cobbles Bell Work 3/17/14 1. Put in order of Largest particle to smallest: silt cobbles boulders clay

Bell Work – Ans. Put in order of largest particle to smallest: 1) Boulder Bell Work – Ans. Put in order of largest particle to smallest: 1) Boulder 2) Cobbles 3) Silt 4) Clay

Work Time Compelete Poster & present! Work Time Compelete Poster & present!

Essential Question How do Temperature and atmospheric pressure vary in the atmosphere surrounding the Essential Question How do Temperature and atmospheric pressure vary in the atmosphere surrounding the Earth?

ESRT Selected Properties of Earth’s Atmosphere p. 14 ESRT Selected Properties of Earth’s Atmosphere p. 14

ESRT Review Selected Properties of Earth’s Atmosphere p. 14 ESRT Review Selected Properties of Earth’s Atmosphere p. 14

Work Time Lab # 29 Structure of the Atmosphere Work Time Lab # 29 Structure of the Atmosphere

Ques. # 2 The temperature in the troposphere decreases with increasing altitude, however the Ques. # 2 The temperature in the troposphere decreases with increasing altitude, however the temperature in the stratosphere increases as you go higher up in altitude.

Bell Work 3/18/14 Complete bell work handout Factors that Affect Climate Bell Work 3/18/14 Complete bell work handout Factors that Affect Climate

Factors that Affect Climate 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Human Impact Landforms – shape Factors that Affect Climate 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Human Impact Landforms – shape of the land Insolation – distance from the sea, distance from the equator Natural Occurring Phenomenon – El Nino Direction of prevailing winds

Factors that Affect Climate Excel file – Climate Affects Exercise Factors that Affect Climate Excel file – Climate Affects Exercise

HW – Regents Questions 1) A 9) D 2) B 10) D 11) 3) HW – Regents Questions 1) A 9) D 2) B 10) D 11) 3) D 12) 4) B 13) 5) D 14) 6) B 15) 7) 80 cal/g x 100 g = 8000 Cal 8) skip

Planetary Wind & Moisture Belts in the Troposphere Planetary Wind & Moisture Belts in the Troposphere

A. Troposphere 1. Lowest layer of earth’s atmosphere. 2. Contains atmosphere’s water vapor and A. Troposphere 1. Lowest layer of earth’s atmosphere. 2. Contains atmosphere’s water vapor and suspended particles important in the formation of clouds and precipitation. 3. Most weather takes place here in the troposphere. 4. Weather – condition of the atmosphere in a particular place at a particular time. 5. Temperature generally decrease as altitude increases (about 6. 5 o. C per km).

B. Stratosphere 6. Above the troposphere from 12 km to 50 km. 7. Temperature B. Stratosphere 6. Above the troposphere from 12 km to 50 km. 7. Temperature remains nearly the same up to 20 km. 8. Above that, temperature increases as altitude increases. 9. The upper stratosphere is warmer because of the presence of the ozone layer.

Ozone Layer 10. Highly reactive gas molecules of O 3 11. Ozone absorbs UV Ozone Layer 10. Highly reactive gas molecules of O 3 11. Ozone absorbs UV radiation in sunlight and filters most of it out before the UV radiation reaches the earth’s surface. 12. The energy absorbed from UV radiation is converted into thermal energy warming the upper stratosphere. 13. The presence of ozone is extremely important because UV rays can be harmful.

Earth’s Atmospheric Layers–Another View Earth’s Atmospheric Layers–Another View

C. Mesosphere 14. Located above the stratosphere, 50 km to 80 km. 15. Temperature C. Mesosphere 14. Located above the stratosphere, 50 km to 80 km. 15. Temperature decreases as altitude increases (it gets colder the higher up you go). 16. At the top of this layer, temps reach -90 C.

D. Thermosphere 17. From 80 km out into space. 18. The thin air of D. Thermosphere 17. From 80 km out into space. 18. The thin air of this layer gradually merges with space. 19. Temperature increases rapidly with altitude. 20. Temperature ranges from -90 C to over 1000 C. 21. High temp – due to thermosphere absorbing solar radiation, the molecules move very fast. 22. Auroras & meteors occur here.

Bell Work 3/19/14 1. What is the orographic effect? Orographic effect- how mountain ranges Bell Work 3/19/14 1. What is the orographic effect? Orographic effect- how mountain ranges affect climate. i. e. What is the climate like on the west side (windward side) and east side (leeward side) of a mountain range?

The leeward sides of the Adirondacks & Catskills receive much less precipitation The windward The leeward sides of the Adirondacks & Catskills receive much less precipitation The windward sides of the Adirondacks & Catskills receive a great deal more precipitation

3. How does the Orographic Effect affect climate? cool, moist Windward Side: ______ warm, 3. How does the Orographic Effect affect climate? cool, moist Windward Side: ______ warm, dry Leeward Side: _______

Water Vapor Psychrometer – An instrument that consists of 2 thermometers, a wet one Water Vapor Psychrometer – An instrument that consists of 2 thermometers, a wet one & a dry one, that helps us determine moisture in the air.

Bell Work 3/20/14 1) If the dry bulb temp is 20 C and the Bell Work 3/20/14 1) If the dry bulb temp is 20 C and the wet bulb is 25 C what is the dew point temperature? 2) What is the relative humidity?

Phases of Water Poem To see you change has been Very amazing to me. Phases of Water Poem To see you change has been Very amazing to me. As you change phases I want to learn more about you. From a solid your molecules stay Clear but vibrate Your definite shape and volume Has me in a daze Like ice you’re cold and have me amazed!

Cont’ To liquid your molecules spread Out like birds when they fly away. When Cont’ To liquid your molecules spread Out like birds when they fly away. When you’re in anything you take its shape. As water you’re big & beautiful like an ocean or a lake! Last, you’re a gas and you’re molecules expand, With no definite shape like water vapor You’re gone to the eyes of man!

Bell Work – per 4 1) 2) Which layer of the atmosphere is where Bell Work – per 4 1) 2) Which layer of the atmosphere is where almost all of the weather occurs? Which layer of the atmosphere is where all living things are?

Work Time Lab # 30 Video: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Qbca. Cxu. A 1 Work Time Lab # 30 Video: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Qbca. Cxu. A 1 LI&list=UUrh 1 EZmf 6 f. Lmp. Kqs. Dy. Wg 4 HA&index=4 eo

Vernal Equinox An equinox occurs twice a year, around 20 March (vernal equinox) and Vernal Equinox An equinox occurs twice a year, around 20 March (vernal equinox) and 22 September (autumnal equinox) when daytime and night are approximately equal. The word is derived from the Latin aequus (equal) and nox (night).

Why Equinox? The Earth's 23. 5º axial tilt creates the changing seasons. That tilt Why Equinox? The Earth's 23. 5º axial tilt creates the changing seasons. That tilt means that one of the hemispheres receives more sunlight most of the year. But at equinox - neither the northern nor southern hemispheres receive more sunlight.

Bell Work 1) 2) 3) 3/24/14 What is relative humidity? What do we use Bell Work 1) 2) 3) 3/24/14 What is relative humidity? What do we use to measure atmospheric pressure? What do we use to measure wind speed?

Bell Work 1) 3/24/14 Relative humidity – the amount of water vapor present in Bell Work 1) 3/24/14 Relative humidity – the amount of water vapor present in air expressed as a percentage of what could be there (100% humidity).

Bell Work 2) Atmospheric pressure is measured using a barometer. 3/24/14 Bell Work 2) Atmospheric pressure is measured using a barometer. 3/24/14

Bell Work 3) Wind speed is measured using an anemometer. 3/27/14 Bell Work 3) Wind speed is measured using an anemometer. 3/27/14

Bell Work 3) Wind speed is measured using an anemometer. 3/24/14 Bell Work 3) Wind speed is measured using an anemometer. 3/24/14

Essential Question How do we measure moisture in the air? Essential Question How do we measure moisture in the air?

ESRT p. 12 1) o. C 28 -24 = 4 Dewpoint = 22 o. ESRT p. 12 1) o. C 28 -24 = 4 Dewpoint = 22 o. C 3) Relative Humidity = 71 % 4) What is a psychrometer? An instrument used to measure the humidity (moisture) in the air. 2)

HW - Weather Page __126_ paragraph __2_ 1. Most of the weather changes take HW - Weather Page __126_ paragraph __2_ 1. Most of the weather changes take place in the _________. The part of the atmosphere immediately ______ the Earth’s ________. l 2. ESRT p. __13_ (word file)

HW - Weather 11) p. 128 para 2 19) p. 131 Fig. 7 -6 HW - Weather 11) p. 128 para 2 19) p. 131 Fig. 7 -6 13) p. 129 para 3 20) p. 132 Fig. 7 -5, 7 -6 14) p. 129 para 3 21) p. 131 Fig. 7 -4 15) p. 129 para 4 22) p. 131 para 2 17) p. 129 para 5 23) p. 131 para 3 18) p. 131 para 2 24) p. 132 para 2

Bell Work 3/25/14 The air in a room has a dry‐bulb o. F and Bell Work 3/25/14 The air in a room has a dry‐bulb o. F and a temperature of 80 wet‐bulb temperature of 65 o. F. The atmospheric pressure is 14. 7 psia. Determine: 1. The relative humidity. 2. The dew‐point temperature.

Bell Work 3/25/14 1 – look up Celsius temp 2 – subtract 26 o. Bell Work 3/25/14 1 – look up Celsius temp 2 – subtract 26 o. C - 18 o. C = 8 o. C 3. – look it up on chart Determine: 1. The relative humidity = 45% o. C 2. The dew‐point temp. = 13

Ocean Terms Surface Currents - The upper 400 m of the ocean. Makes up Ocean Terms Surface Currents - The upper 400 m of the ocean. Makes up 10% of the ocean waters. Continental Shoreline – The shore along the edge of a continent. i. e. The East coast, the eastern seaboard, the California coast. Coastal Location – any city or town along the ocean. Inland – NOT by the ocean, far away from the ocean. Rochester is inland. West Wind Currents – A cool ocean current that flows completely around the Earth. a. k. a. Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC).

Lab # 31 Lab # 31

Discovery Education l l Air Pressure Video Weather Smart: Heat, Wind, and Pressure Youtube. Discovery Education l l Air Pressure Video Weather Smart: Heat, Wind, and Pressure Youtube. com http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=jm. Q 8 FWn. M 0 f. A Bill Nye – Atmospheric Pressure (5: 34) http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Qe. Ap 3 Cu. Gjk 8 Bill Nye – Pressure (23: 09) http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Ojq. Ndk 3 dnng

Bell Work 3/25/14 1) 2) 3) If the wet bulb temp is 24 and Bell Work 3/25/14 1) 2) 3) If the wet bulb temp is 24 and the dry bulb temp is 28, what is the dewpoint temperature? What is the relative humidity? What is a psychrometer?

Ocean Terms Surface Currents - The upper 400 m of the ocean. Makes up Ocean Terms Surface Currents - The upper 400 m of the ocean. Makes up 10% of the ocean waters. Continental Shoreline – The shore along the edge of a continent. i. e. The East coast, the eastern seaboard, the California coast. Coastal Location – any city or town along the ocean. Inland – NOT by the ocean, far away from the ocean. Rochester is inland. West Wind Currents – A cool ocean current that flows completely around the Earth. a. k. a. Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC).

Classroom Measurement Meters Length 8. 5 m Width 8. 5 m Height 2. 5 Classroom Measurement Meters Length 8. 5 m Width 8. 5 m Height 2. 5 m Volume: 180. 6 m 3

p. 128 Ques. # 2 p. 128 Ques. # 2

Planetary Wind & Moisture Belts in the Troposphere Planetary Wind & Moisture Belts in the Troposphere

Lab # 30 Wet bulb: __15 o. C Dry bulb: ___24 o. C Max Lab # 30 Wet bulb: __15 o. C Dry bulb: ___24 o. C Max Water vapor at present temp: 25 g/m 3 (look up on p. 1 graph using 24 C) Volume of classroom: 123. 8 m 3 x _25 g/m 3 = 3, 095 g # of liters the classroom air can hold at present temp: 5251/1000 = 3. 1 liters

Lab # 30 Data: Dry bulb: _24 o. C Difference 24 -15 = 9 Lab # 30 Data: Dry bulb: _24 o. C Difference 24 -15 = 9 o. C Look up Relative Humidity: _36_ % Amount of Water Vapor in our classroom = % humidity(decimal) x max liters= liters present 0. 36 x 3. 1 liters = 1. 1 liters Conclusions 1. Max amount of water room can hold? 100% humidity x 3. 1 liters – 1 x 3. 1 = 3. 1 liters

Lab # 30 Conclusions 1. Max amount of water room can hold? 100% humidity Lab # 30 Conclusions 1. Max amount of water room can hold? 100% humidity x 5. 2 liters – 1 x 5. 2 = 3. 1 liters 2. What is the actual amount: 1. 1 liters 3. a) 26 g/m 3 b) 20 g/m 3 c) 6 grams d) The water in a window A/C unit drips outside. 4. a) 29 o. C @ 50 % 31 x. 5 = 15. 5 g/m 3 b) 15 o. C @100% 14 x 1. 0 = 14 g/m 3 Why? Air at a higer temp. can hold more water!

Lab # 30 Wet bulb: __15 o. C Dry bulb: ___22 o. C Max Lab # 30 Wet bulb: __15 o. C Dry bulb: ___22 o. C Max Water vapor at present temp: 22. 5 g/m 3 (look up on p. 1 graph using 24 C) Volume of classroom: 180. 6 m 3 180. 6 m 3 x _22. 5 g/m 3 = 4, 064 g # of liters the classroom air can hold at present temp: 4064/1000 = 4. 1 liters

Lab # 30 Data: Dry bulb: _22 o. C Difference 22 -15 = 7 Lab # 30 Data: Dry bulb: _22 o. C Difference 22 -15 = 7 o. C Look up Relative Humidity: _46_ % Amount of Water Vapor in our classroom = % humidity(decimal) x max liters= liters present 0. 46 x 4. 1 liters = 1. 9 liters Conclusions 1. Max amount of water room can hold? 100% humidity x 4. 1 liters = 1. 0 x 4. 1 = 4. 1 liters

Lab # 30 Conclusions 1. Max amount of water room can hold? 100% humidity Lab # 30 Conclusions 1. Max amount of water room can hold? 100% humidity x 5. 2 liters – 1 x 5. 2 = 4. 1 liters 2. What is the actual amount: 1. 9 liters 3. a) 26 g/m 3 b) 20 g/m 3 c) 6 grams d) The water in a window A/C unit drips outside. 4. a) 29 o. C @ 50 % 31 x. 5 = 15. 5 g/m 3 b) 15 o. C @100% 14 x 1. 0 = 14 g/m 3 Why? Air at a higer temp. can hold more water!

Bell Work 3/25/14 1) 2) 3) If the wet bulb temp is 24 and Bell Work 3/25/14 1) 2) 3) If the wet bulb temp is 24 and the dry bulb temp is 28, what is the dewpoint temperature? What is the relative humidity? What is a psychrometer?

Essential Question How do changes in temperature and air pressure influence weather? Essential Question How do changes in temperature and air pressure influence weather?

Window A/C Unit Window A/C Unit

Bell Work 3/26/14 Use the Review book (p. 218, 222) to cite where you Bell Work 3/26/14 Use the Review book (p. 218, 222) to cite where you found the answer!) 1) What causes wind? 2) What causes weather?

Summary – Ticket out the Door 1) What is the topic you are going Summary – Ticket out the Door 1) What is the topic you are going to explain to the class? 2) What other question did this bring up?

Bell Work 1. What Bell Work 1. What

HW – Additional Terms Other terms to know: Latitude – how far away from HW – Additional Terms Other terms to know: Latitude – how far away from the equator you are. Saturated – full with water or liquid, not able to absorb any more. Infiltration – process by which water on the ground enters soil. Icecaps – ice mass that covers less than 50, 000 km 3 Prevailing winds – winds that blow mainly form a single direction. Divergence – going in different directions.

Project Rubrics Measure 1) Creativity 2) organization 3) Information 4) Presenters Learned 5) Class Project Rubrics Measure 1) Creativity 2) organization 3) Information 4) Presenters Learned 5) Class Learned 3 2 1

Work Time Complete Posters Work Time Complete Posters

Bell Work 1. What instrument measures air pressure? 2. What instrument measures air speed? Bell Work 1. What instrument measures air pressure? 2. What instrument measures air speed? 3. O 3 is normally in which layer of the atmosphere?

Weather l Wind is caused by a difference in air pressure from place to Weather l Wind is caused by a difference in air pressure from place to place. l Wind causes weather! Ø Wind is the movement of air all around us - air has currents! Convection currents!

Start Period 4 Start Period 4

Bell Work 1. Share one question from yesterday – from warm up activity. Bell Work 1. Share one question from yesterday – from warm up activity.

Work Time Poster Presentations Work Time Poster Presentations

Fronts PP - WL Guided notes w/ Air Masses, Weather & Fronts PP Fronts PP - WL Guided notes w/ Air Masses, Weather & Fronts PP

Earth’s Surface Layers Earth’s Surface Layers

Lithosphere Lithosphere

Earth’s Surface Layers Core – Mantle-Crust Lithosphere – Upper part of mantle + crust Earth’s Surface Layers Core – Mantle-Crust Lithosphere – Upper part of mantle + crust - cool rigid rock

Barometer Barometer

24. 5 Weather Patterns III. Weather A. Air Mass l Large body of air 24. 5 Weather Patterns III. Weather A. Air Mass l Large body of air with uniform physical properties (temp & moisture content) l Air mass forms when a large body of air stays over a region of the earth’s surface or over an ocean.

B. Types of Air Masses Maritime air mass – forms over water Continental air B. Types of Air Masses Maritime air mass – forms over water Continental air mass – forms over land Polar air mass – forms north of the 50 o north latitude or south of the 50 o south latitude Tropical air mass – forms in the tropics

Bell Work 1. What causes wind? 2. What direction does wind blow? A) high Bell Work 1. What causes wind? 2. What direction does wind blow? A) high pressure to low pressure Or B) Low pressure to high pressure

1) Change in Air Pressure causes Wind 2) Wind blows from high (pressure) to 1) Change in Air Pressure causes Wind 2) Wind blows from high (pressure) to low (pressure) Low Pressure * Lower pressure * Higher temp * Cloudy, precipitation * Warmer High Pressure * Higher pressure * Lower temp * Clear, dry air * Cooler

Atmospheric Circulation l http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=WXu. GYSM 2 D 8 k (23 Atmospheric Circulation l http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=WXu. GYSM 2 D 8 k (23 min. )

Bell Work 1. What is adiabatic cooling? 2. Share 2 facts from video 1 Bell Work 1. What is adiabatic cooling? 2. Share 2 facts from video 1 3. Go over T/F on video quiz

Discovery Ed – Video (15) l Go over T/F Quiz l Weather Smart – Discovery Ed – Video (15) l Go over T/F Quiz l Weather Smart – Heat, Wind & Pressure Full Video [15: 00] l Exploring Weather The Atmosphere in Motion Full Video 11, 913 Views[21: 00]

Bell Work Happy April! 4/1 1. What is a front? 2. What typically forms Bell Work Happy April! 4/1 1. What is a front? 2. What typically forms at fronts? 3. What type of heat transfer occurs to move tropical air masses toward the poles and polar air masses toward the

Bell Work Answers 1. 2. 3. A front is the boundary that forms when Bell Work Answers 1. 2. 3. A front is the boundary that forms when 2 unlike air masses meet. Clouds and precipitation often form at fronts. Convection currents cause warm air near the equator (tropical air masses) to move toward the poles and cold air at the poles (polar air masses) to move toward the equator.

Weather Smart – Heat, Wind & Pressure Back page Questions # 1) How does Weather Smart – Heat, Wind & Pressure Back page Questions # 1) How does wind start – uneven heating of the surface of the Earth by solar radiation. 2) The North & South Pole are always cold. 3) Warm air rises at the equator & cold air sinks at the North & South poles and the wind mixes the air. 4) The windiest time of day is the afternoon.

5) If we didn’t have air we wouldn’t be able to live. 6) Around 5) If we didn’t have air we wouldn’t be able to live. 6) Around low pressure you find cloudy, warm weather with more precipitation. 7) A strong wind makes you feel colder b/c the movement of air increases the body’s heat loss due to convection. 8) The warmest temps - near the equator. 9) The jet stream makes weather move around the world. 10) Differences in air pressure moves air.

Bell Work 1. What is an occluded front? 2. Which front travels faster a Bell Work 1. What is an occluded front? 2. Which front travels faster a cold front or a warm front?

A. Air Pressure l The atmosphere has weight (and exerts pressure) because of Earth’s A. Air Pressure l The atmosphere has weight (and exerts pressure) because of Earth’s gravity l Air pressure is the force exerted by the weight of a column of air. l Air Pressure at sea level = 1 atmosphere = 101, 325 N/m 2 Or 760 mm of mercury.

Air Pressure Temperature effects air pressure: 1. Temperature Pressure (low) b/c warm air is Air Pressure Temperature effects air pressure: 1. Temperature Pressure (low) b/c warm air is less dense 2. Temperature Pressure (high) b/c cold air is more dense

Air Pressure l As altitude increases, air pressure and density decrease. l Air pressure Air Pressure l As altitude increases, air pressure and density decrease. l Air pressure is measured using a barometer. As air pressure increases the column of mercury in the barometer goes up. l

“Column” of Air Pressure “Column” of Air Pressure

High Pressure-Low Pressure Symbols High Pressure-Low Pressure Symbols

Work Time Complete Lab # 31 & # 32 Work Time Complete Lab # 31 & # 32

Common Weather Symbols Common Weather Symbols

Summary / Closure Summary How does the weather from high and low pressure systems Summary / Closure Summary How does the weather from high and low pressure systems change the surface of the Earth? Closure Which fact about weather was most surprising or interesting to you and why?

A. Cold Front l l When a cold air mass overtakes a warm air A. Cold Front l l When a cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass Cold air (denser) remains close to the ground and moves under the warm air mass Cold fronts usually move quickly and are steep, lifting the warm air mass rapidly Produces cumulus clouds, strong winds, and severe thunderstorms

B. Warm Front l l When a warm air mass overtakes a cold air B. Warm Front l l When a warm air mass overtakes a cold air mass Advancing warm air mass rises up over the cold air mass Warm fronts usually move gradually and are gentle slopes Produces stratus clouds, steady rain, and occasionally heavy showers

C. Stationary Fronts l When 2 unlike air masses form a boundary, but neither C. Stationary Fronts l When 2 unlike air masses form a boundary, but neither is moving l Often result in clouds and steady rain or snow for several days

Occluded Fronts l When a warm air mass is caught between two cooler air Occluded Fronts l When a warm air mass is caught between two cooler air masses l The colder air masses force the warmer air mass to rise l Generally accompanied by cloudy skies and precipitation

Front Symbols Cold front symbol - “ice” l short lived down pour Warm front Front Symbols Cold front symbol - “ice” l short lived down pour Warm front symbol – “sunrise” l long-lived steady rain Stationary front symbol : Occluded front symbol:

Front Symbols l Symbols point in the direction they are moving l All fronts Front Symbols l Symbols point in the direction they are moving l All fronts bring precipitation

Weather Summary Warm air is ____dense therefore air will ____ causing low pressure. 2. Weather Summary Warm air is ____dense therefore air will ____ causing low pressure. 2. Wind is causes by differences in _________ and _______. 3. Is this a H or L pressure? There is not a cloud in the sky. A cool summer breeze is blowing the leaves on the trees gently. 1.

Weather Summary Warm air is _less_ dense therefore air will _rise_ causing low pressure. Weather Summary Warm air is _less_ dense therefore air will _rise_ causing low pressure. 2. Wind is causes by differences in _air pressure_ and _temperature_. 3. Is this a H or L pressure? There is not a cloud in the sky. A cool summer breeze is blowing the leaves on the trees gently. High Pressure 1.

Earth’s Hydrosphere the earth’s layer of water Earth’s Hydrosphere the earth’s layer of water

The Hydrosphere The Hydrosphere

Bell Work – in your notebook: High Pressure ( Temp ) . pressure low Bell Work – in your notebook: High Pressure ( Temp ) . pressure low pressure Temp ( )

Bell Work Low Pressure Higher T (warmer) L low pressure High Pressure H high Bell Work Low Pressure Higher T (warmer) L low pressure High Pressure H high pressure Lower Temp (colder)

Summary Low Pressure * Lower pressure * Higher temp * Cloudy, precipitation * Warmer Summary Low Pressure * Lower pressure * Higher temp * Cloudy, precipitation * Warmer High Pressure * Higher pressure * Lower temp * Clear, dry air * Cooler

Bell Work Use ESRT page 14 1. A high air pressure, dry climate belt Bell Work Use ESRT page 14 1. A high air pressure, dry climate belt is located at which Earth latitude? A) 30 o. N B) 15 o. N C) 0 o D) 60 o. N

HW – Due Friday! 4/11 HW: Answer questions in complete sentences! Earth Science Textbook HW – Due Friday! 4/11 HW: Answer questions in complete sentences! Earth Science Textbook Page # 377 # 1 -6 Page # 382 # 1 -4 Page 386 # 7 -13

Work Time – Tuesday 1) Weather Systems HW 2) Lab # 34 – Plotting Work Time – Tuesday 1) Weather Systems HW 2) Lab # 34 – Plotting Station Symbols – Isobars 3) Worksheet – weather using Prentice Hall review book

Weather Systems HW: Jan 2013 Exam 41. The data used to construct the isolines Weather Systems HW: Jan 2013 Exam 41. The data used to construct the isolines on this map were recorded in which units? (1) inches (3) feet (2) millibars (4) meters 42. Which map shows the most likely location of clouds associated with these pressure centers? (2) Low pressures centers have clouds!

Bell Work Low Pressure Higher T (warmer) L low pressure – Counter clockwise High Bell Work Low Pressure Higher T (warmer) L low pressure – Counter clockwise High Pressure H high pressure Lower Temp (colder) clockwise

HW Weather Systems l Doc 6104 – Practice questions HW Weather Systems l Doc 6104 – Practice questions

Data Table Jan 23, 2005 Isobars Data Table Jan 23, 2005 Isobars

201 Lab 34 - Isobars 241 266 199 249 195 135 171 096 073 201 Lab 34 - Isobars 241 266 199 249 195 135 171 096 073

Work Time – Period 4 Earthquake Chile Hurricane video Lab # 34 - Work Time – Period 4 Earthquake Chile Hurricane video Lab # 34 -

Work Time - Wednesday Use Prentice Hall Review Book Worksheet # 1 2) Worksheet Work Time - Wednesday Use Prentice Hall Review Book Worksheet # 1 2) Worksheet # 2 3) Work on HW 1)

Start Start

Bell Work 1. Review notes for quiz After Quiz: 2. Organize lab folder Bell Work 1. Review notes for quiz After Quiz: 2. Organize lab folder

Lab Folders Complete your ES Lab Check Sheet 1) 2) 3) 4) Put a Lab Folders Complete your ES Lab Check Sheet 1) 2) 3) 4) Put a check mark to left of number if completed Write in your grade Total up your minutes for page 2 & write in space Total up your minutes for page 3 – pencil in

Work Time - Friday Blow torch rock Inquiry Lab Work Time - Friday Blow torch rock Inquiry Lab

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