Скачать презентацию Mediterranean Greece People enter Balkan Peninsula around Скачать презентацию Mediterranean Greece People enter Balkan Peninsula around

6d608b7567327f70fd52af6db0b534a0.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 19

Mediterranean Greece • People enter Balkan Peninsula around 2000 B. C. • Two major Mediterranean Greece • People enter Balkan Peninsula around 2000 B. C. • Two major city-states were Athens and Sparta • Democracy—a government in which the people rule • Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle • Greece conquered by Alexander the Great in 338 B. C. Continued. . . NEXT

The Roman Empire • Rome rules Italian Peninsula by 275 B. C. • Republic—elected The Roman Empire • Rome rules Italian Peninsula by 275 B. C. • Republic—elected representatives rule in citizens’ name • Ruled by Caesars • Created roads, aqueducts, and architecture • Christianity religion by A. D. 400 • Holy Roman Empire • In A. D. 395 empire splits into eastern, western halves Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic NEXT

Italy • Without strong central government, Italy divides into small states • Renaissance—renewed interest Italy • Without strong central government, Italy divides into small states • Renaissance—renewed interest in learning, arts from 1300 s to 1500 s – Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Donetello • In 1347, Bubonic plague reaches Italy • After WWII and Benito Mussolini, Italy became republic, but had many governments NEXT

Centuries of Art • Ruins (like the Parthenon) remain in Greece, Italy • Spain Centuries of Art • Ruins (like the Parthenon) remain in Greece, Italy • Spain has Roman aqueducts—carry water long distances - Spain also has Muslim mosques NEXT

Spain • North African Muslims conquer Iberian Peninsula in 700 s - retaken by Spain • North African Muslims conquer Iberian Peninsula in 700 s - retaken by Catholic rulers, Ferdinand Isabella, by 1492 • Spain, Portugal launch Age of Exploration, colonize Americas • Christians start Crusades in 1096 to regain Palestine from Muslims • After dictator Francisco Franco, Spain sets up constitutional government Agriculture to Industry • Mediterranean nations less industrialized • Economy once based on fish, crops, now moving towards manufacturing

Western Europe France, Germany and Benelux countries—Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg Creation • Rome conquered Western Europe France, Germany and Benelux countries—Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg Creation • Rome conquered France and the Germanic tribes • Germanic king Charlemagne unites Germany in late 700 s - after his death Germany divides into small kingdoms The Reformation • In 1517, Martin Luther’s critical 95 statements starts the Reformation - Christians break from church, formed Protestant churches Continued. . . NEXT

 • Feudalism—Middle Ages system where lords own most of the land • Nationalism • Feudalism—Middle Ages system where lords own most of the land • Nationalism - people should be loyal to their nation • 1789 French Revolution deposes king, forms republic • Napoleon Bonaparte takes power, tries to conquer Europe, is defeated and exiled Continued. . . NEXT

Nationalism • European nation-states become rivals - Germany unifies in 1871 • In 1800 Nationalism • European nation-states become rivals - Germany unifies in 1871 • In 1800 s, industrialized nations seek colonies for materials, markets Modern Conflicts • Competition for colonies cause WWI - Allied Powers (France); Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary) • Allies win WWI; harsh terms forced on Germany lead to WWII Continued. . . NEXT

 • In WWII, Nazi Germany’s Adolf Hitler tries to conquer Europe - Holocaust—mass • In WWII, Nazi Germany’s Adolf Hitler tries to conquer Europe - Holocaust—mass murder of European Jews, others - Allies defeat Germany in 1945 • After WWII, Germany split into non-Communist West, Communist East divided by Berlin Wall - two Germanys reunite in 1990 as a democracy - The Cold War continues for years between the U. S. A. and the U. S. S. R. NEXT

Economics Agriculture to High-Tech • Agriculture important to Belgium, France, Netherlands • Coal, iron Economics Agriculture to High-Tech • Agriculture important to Belgium, France, Netherlands • Coal, iron made France, Germany, Netherlands industrial leaders • Switzerland’s neutrality makes it a banking center • German cars; Swiss watches; French clothes, food; Dutch flowers Economic Problems • Germany experiences cultural, economic difficulties after reuniting NEXT

Great Music and Art Music • Famed German and Austrian composers - Germany: Johann Great Music and Art Music • Famed German and Austrian composers - Germany: Johann Sebastian Bach, Ludwig van Beethoven - Austria: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Painting • Dutch painters, Rembrandt • Major French painters - Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir NEXT

Northern Countries • Nordic countries—Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden • United Kingdom Conquers • Northern Countries • Nordic countries—Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden • United Kingdom Conquers • Romans conquer Britain’s Celts by A. D. 80, then the Vikings, then William the Conquer in 1066 Dreams of Empire • Denmark, Sweden, Norway become kingdoms in 900 s - no Nordic country becomes a major empire • England controls British Isles (Wales, Ireland, Scotland) • British Empire grows due to island’s safety; never invaded after 1066 • By 1800 s, Britain has colonies in Americas, Asia, Africa, Oceania Continued. . . NEXT

Government • Parliament—representative lawmaking body; members elected, appointed • Britain has monarchy and parliament Government • Parliament—representative lawmaking body; members elected, appointed • Britain has monarchy and parliament • Nordic countries develop representative governments Industrial Revolution • As Britain industrializes, colonies supply materials, buy goods Continued. . . NEXT

Since 1900 • After WWII, British colonies gain independence, turmoil The Irish Question • Since 1900 • After WWII, British colonies gain independence, turmoil The Irish Question • English take Irish land - many Irish in poverty, starve in 1840 s potato famine • Irish seek independence, Britain splits country in 1921 - Catholic - Republic of Ireland - independent - Protestant - Northern Ireland - still part of U. K. - religious conflict in Northern Ireland leads to anti. British violence NEXT

Cultural Similarities and Modern Art Similar Religions • Most of region is Protestant; except Cultural Similarities and Modern Art Similar Religions • Most of region is Protestant; except Ireland Modern Culture and Literature • Literature - England: William Shakespeare, Charlotte Brontë - Irish author James Joyce Social Welfare • Nordic countries, Britain have national health insurance programs Leisure • Many winter Olympic skiing sports • British have horseback riding, fox hunting - developed rugby and cricket NEXT

Eastern Europe • Located between Asia and Europe - migration creates diversity • Area Eastern Europe • Located between Asia and Europe - migration creates diversity • Area includes: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia • Cultural crossroads—place where various cultures cross paths - people move through the region, world powers try to control it Empires and Kingdoms • Controlled by Rome then held by Byzantine Empire, then Ottoman Empire in 1300 s, 1400 s • Austria becomes great power in 1400 s, takes Hungary from Ottomans - in late 1700 s, Austria, Prussia, Russia divide up. . Continued. Poland NEXT

War after War • Balkan nations break from Ottoman Empire in 1908 - Greece, War after War • Balkan nations break from Ottoman Empire in 1908 - Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia defeat Ottomans in 1912 - Balkanization—a region breaks up into small, hostile units • Slavic Serbia wants to free Austria-Hungarian Slavs - Serb assassin kills Austrian noble, starts WWI • After WWI, Austria and Hungary split - Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia gain independence • Germany takes Poland in 1939, starts WWII - Soviets capture, dominate Eastern European nations - they become Communist USSR’s satellite nations • When USSR breaks up the satellite nations divide up • Yugoslavia splits violently Continued. . . • Czechoslovakia splits in two NEXT

Industry - Economy • Communism, government owns and controls factories - inefficiency brings shortages Industry - Economy • Communism, government owns and controls factories - inefficiency brings shortages • After 1989 - market economy—meeting demands - factories are privately owned, inflation, unemployment Problems • Old equipment, lack of materials, few educated workers Culture • Music - Frédéric Chopin (Polish) • Numerous languages make regional unification difficult • Religions include Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox - Protestant, Islam minority NEXT

Conflict • Fierce loyalty to ethnic groups leads to violence - many Serbs hate Conflict • Fierce loyalty to ethnic groups leads to violence - many Serbs hate Croats for WWII collaboration with Nazis • Discrimination against minority groups - anti-Semitism—discrimination against Jewish people - discrimination against nomadic Romany (Gypsy) people Democracy • Eastern Europeans must overcome old hatreds Continued. . . NEXT