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me elco ck W do rad gs!!! B ldo ul B 200 6 -20 07 MRS. CONTRERAS Language Arts 9 th Grade – Eng I IGCSE Honors Room C 209
Weekly Forecast 3/12/07 – 3/16/07 • • • Monday – in class home learning (reading) Tuesday – in class home learning (reading) Wednesday – Tolstoy's "What Men Live By" pg 976 & "How Much does a Man Need" pg 958. Thursday – Introduction to Bram Stoker's "Dracula" (1897). Chpts 1 -6. Using Pronouns Correctly (case, appositives, questions & subordinate clauses, antecedent agreement (number, gender, person)) Friday – Teacher Planning Day
Home Learning By Monday, 3/19: • Read "Dracula" Chapters 7 -17. • Answer assigned questions (E-mail to Marianne at [email protected] com by 3/27). • Study for test (Renaissance-Tolstoy & grammar) on 3/28. Have a great week!
Class Response… Thursday 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Explain how the text depicts the conflict between scientific Western cultures and the spiritual Eastern ones. Explain what turning point in the story is exemplified by the following quote: "We thought her dying whilst she slept, And sleeping when she died" List examples of dramatic irony found in the text. What is revealed about the Count's character while he speaks to Jonathan of Transylvania's history? What are the Count's strengths and weaknesses? An episodic novel is one made up of loosely connected incidents rather than an integrated plot. The first four chapters are from Jonathan's journal writings, but Chapter V consists of letters and diary entries from other characters. Why does Stoker switch narrators at this juncture?
What Men Live By By: Leo Tolstoy By: Michelle Gonzalez Period. 6 3 -13 -07
Leo Tolstoy was born on 1828 at Yasnya Polyana, in Tula Province. His parents died when he was young and was raised by his relatives. He studied law, but was dissatisfied by it, then he went to St. Petersburg and Moscow to study something different. He got venereal disease in 1847. In the 1850 s Tolstoy began his literary career, publishing Childhood (1852), Boyhood (1854), and Youth (1857). In 1857, he went to France, Switzerland, and Germany to learn more about society and how he could reform it. He then went back to his home town, where he started a school for peasant children. He thought that in order to change the world for the better, you had to study. He believed that education was power. He wrote many textbooks and magazines about education. He married a woman called Sonya Andreyevna Behrs and they had 13 children together. Tolstoy died of pneumonia on November 20, 1910.
Part 1 • • • There is a shoemaker named Simon and he is very poor. He has a wife and children and they live in a peasant’s hut. All the money he earned went straight for food. Simon had been wanting to buy sheep-skin coat for the winter. He was saving money to buy one and decided to go and get one after he got some money that was owed to him. He was unable to get the money that was owed to him or get the coat. Instead, he bought vodka and that happily kept him warm through the cold. Simon starts complaining how one can work all day and get paid so little. Simon had reached a shrine and there he sees a man leaning against it. At first he thought he was dead but then realized the naked man was alive. Simon was scared to go to the man and see what was wrong with him because he thought the man would hurt him. He then, starts hurrying away from the man as though he had not seen him. Simon then comes to his senses and realizes that what he was doing was wrong. Finally, he decided to go up to the man.
Part 2 • • • Simon approaches the stranger and realized that he didn’t have any bruises and looked fit and perfectly well. He gives the young man his coat and boots to warm him up because he was so cold. Soon, they started walking to Simon’s home and the young man tells him that he isn’t from this part of town or that anyone has ill-treated him. He says that God is punishing him.
Part 3 • • • Matrena (Simon’s wife) had prepared everything at home earlier than usual and was waiting for her husband to come home with the new coat. She sees Simon and a stranger walking with him and doesn’t see a new coat. She notices that Simon is drunk and wasted the money buying alcohol. She is very disappointed and cannot believe what she is seeing. Simon sits down with the stranger and asks Matrena to feed them warm food. Matrena tells him that she will not feed him or the stranger because he didn’t go buy the coat and came home drunk. Matrena starts arguing and telling him that she should of never married a drunk. Simon is trying to explain to her what happened but he cannot get a word in. Matrena asks for her jacket back and while she is about to leave to work out her anger, she wonders about the stranger.
Part 4 • • • Matrena starts wondering about the stranger and asks why he is naked. Simon replies by telling her how he found him. She started feeling bad about the stranger and decided to feed them both the last of the bread that was supposed to be for tomorrows supper. Matrena starts questioning the stranger as Simon did. She asks, “Where are you from? How did you come to be on the road? ” The stranger replies to her as he did to Simon. He tells her that he isn’t from this part of town and that God is punishing him. Matrena gives the stranger a shirt and some trousers and tells him that he can lay wherever he wishes. When she and her husband were laying down she tells him, “We give; but why does nobody give us anything? ”(Applebee 982).
Part 5 • • In the morning when Simon woke up he went to the see the stranger called Michael. Simon told Michael, that if he wanted to have food in his belly he had to work. Simon taught Michael how to be a shoemaker and Michael mastered everything. Within three days he was able to make shoes without a problem. He did all his work and ate little. Michael didn’t smile or laughed or conversed much. The only time he ever smiled was when Matrena gave him super for the first time.
Part 6 • • Together, Simon and Michael worked year long. People were starting to recognize Michael, calling him the best shoemaker. One winter, as they were working, a gentleman came by their hut and ordered for Simon to make him the best boot. The gentleman was a big guy and the hut was too small for him. He told Simon that he wanted a boot make out of the German leather that he had brought. He said that the boot better last a whole year without any damages or he’ll send Simon to jail. If the boot does last a whole year, than he will pay Simon money for it. Michael also promises the gentleman that the boot will be done and he also starts laughing at him.
Part 7 • • • Simon tells Michael that they have to be careful because the guy was serious business. He orders Michael to cut out the boots while he finishes sewing the boot. While Michael is cutting the leather, Matrena realizes that he is cutting it wrong and was also sewing it wrong, but she doesn’t think nothing of it. Michael had made slippers instead of boots, and when Simon realizes what he has done he goes mad. Then, they hear a knock on the door and it is the servant that was with the gentlemen. He tells Simon that the mistress has sent him to tell him that the gentlemen died in the carriage and she needed them to make slippers out of the leather instead of boots. Michael gives the slippers he made out of the leather and gave them to the servant right away.
Part 8 • • • Michael and Simon had been working now for 6 years. Michael is still the same, he doesn’t talk much or smile. (He’s only smiled twice). One day, one of Simon’s kids runs towards Michael and tells him that there is a woman and 2 girls walking towards the hut. For the first time, Michael looks out the window and stares. The woman and the little girls enter the hut. The woman tells Simon that she wants boots for the two little girls for the spring. While Simon was setting the price and talking to the woman, Michael was staring at the two girls. One of the little girls was crippled and Simon asked about it. The woman tells him that her mother crushed her leg. Concluding that the woman wasn’t the mother of the two girls. The mother says how she is fond of the two girls. She also mentions that she once had a child too but God took him and she wasn’t fond of him either way.
Part 9 • • • The woman starts to tell the story of the two little girls. She tells them that 6 years ago their parents died, one after the other. They were neighbors at the time. The girls mother gave birth to them by themselves and died at home after the birth. One day, the woman goes over the house and finds the lady dead, crushing the child’s leg. She takes the twins to her house and was able to breast feed them because she also had a baby that was 8 weeks old. Her own son died before he was two and was left with the two little girls. She tells them how they are the joy of her life. After telling the story, the hut was suddenly lighted up from the corner where Michael sat. Michael was sitting, his hands folded on his knees, and was gazing upwards smiling.
Part 10 • • • As soon as the woman left, Michael got up and said that he had to go and said farewell to Simon. Before he could leave Simon wanted to know why he only smiled three times and why his face shined. Michael tells him “Light shines from me because I have been punished, but now God has pardoned me. And I smiled three times, because God sent me to learn three truths, and I have learnt them. ” (Applebee 989). He learned the three truths when Matrena pitied him, when the rich man ordered the boots, and when he saw the two little girls.
Continuation… • • Michael tells Simon that he got punished because he disobeyed God ( He is an angel from heaven). Michael was suppose to take the soul of the lady that gave birth to the twins. But, when he was going to take her soul he didn’t because the lady tells him not too. Michael goes to God and tells him that he didn’t take her soul and let her live. God sends him back to go get her soul and tells him to learn the three truths and when he learns them he can come back to heaven. The three truths were: What dwells in men, What is not given to men, and What men live by. When Michael went back to Earth, he took the lady’s soul and that’s when she crushed to baby’s leg.
Part 11 • • • The angel (Michael) started to explain his whole story. He tells them how he was alone and naked and had never known human needs. When he was left on Earth he didn’t know what to do. He found the shrine and thought he would find shelter there but it was closed. So then he stayed there just to keep the cold wind from hitting him. He sees a man talking to himself about how he’s supposed to feed and clothe his family. Michael tells how the man frowned at him and left but then returned. He had seen death in his face but now sees God in him. When Michael entered the house the woman (Matrena) had death in her as well but then had God in her. Michael learned the first truth, what dwell in men is love. That’s when he smiled for the first time.
Continuation… • • When a year passes, a man came by to have boots made for him. Michael saw the Angle of death and smiled because the man was making plans for a year when he was going to die that night. There he learned ‘what is not given to man’ and that is, his own needs. On the sixth year of him working with Simon, a woman and two girls came by. Michael recognized the two girls and was familiar with the story. He realized that, without the girls mother and father the two girls were still able to be loved by a stranger and that’s when he smiled and learns the third truths, ‘what men live by’.
Part 12 • • • The angle tells them that “all men live not by care for themselves, but for love. ” (Applebee 992) He says that the mother couldn’t have known what the twins needed in life and what the rich man really needed. He remained alive on Earth because love was present. The twins remained alive because the stranger showed them love and cared for them. All men live because love exists in man. He says that God wants men to be united. He explains what God wants. “ He who has love, in is God, and God is in him, for God is love. ” (Applebee 992) When the angel was done explaining everything to the family he sang a praise to God and the roof of the hut opened, and fire rose from Earth to heaven. The angel left to be in heaven with God again.
Vocabulary • • 1. Fret- to feel or express worry, annoyance, discontent, or the like. 2. Meddle- to involve oneself in a matter without right or invitation. 3. Smote- to strike or hit hard 4. Sash- a long band or scarf worn over one shoulder or around the waist, as by military officers as a part of the uniform or by women and children for ornament. 5. Rogue- a dishonest, knavish person; scoundrel. 6. Vagabond- wandering from place to place without any settled home; nomadic 7. Kvas- A Russian drink, similar to beer, made from fermented grains. 8. Lintel- a horizontal architectural member supporting the weight above an opening, as a window or a door.
Vocabulary continued… • • 9. Mallet- a hammer like tool with a head commonly of wood but occasionally of rawhide, plastic, etc. , used for driving any tool with a wooden handle, as a chisel, or for striking a surface. 10. Vamps- The upper part of a boot or shoe covering the instep and sometimes extending over the toe. 11. Rebuke- to express sharp, stern disapproval of; reprove; reprimand. 12. Prospered- To be fortunate or successful, especially in terms of one's finances; thrive. 13. Stench- an offensive smell or odor; stink. 14. Nankeen- a sturdy cotton cloth. 15. Shrine- a place at which devotion is paid to God or a holy person.
Themes • 1. Love- Matrena shows love towards Simon by still marrying him after her mother telling her that he was a drunk and will always be. Also, when Michael shows his love towards God. • 2. Forgiveness- Michael throughout the whole story if trying to get God to forgive him. • 3. Religion- Michael is an angel of God and while on Earth, he is trying to find the meaning of life by obeying God and finding the three truths. • 4. Friendship- Simon and Michael over the years develop a friendship in which they work together and trust each other.
Characterization • • • Simon- he is a shoemaker and is very poor. He cares a lot about his family but usually makes mistake by drinking a lot. He is a kind person who is willing to help anybody. Matrena- She is the wife of Simon. She sometimes dislikes Simon because of his drinking. She is also a kind woman because she feeds the stranger and lets him in her house. Michael- he is an angel sent back to Earth because he disobeyed God. He’s not very sociable and he respects Simon and Matrena. He is an angel from heaven who is trying to get forgiveness from God by learning his three truths. The gentleman- he is a very big guy and bossy. He takes life for granted and make plans without preparing for the worst. The woman and the two little girls- the woman is very caring, especially towards the two little girls who aren’t even hers; she has a lot of love for them.
Outline I. In "What Men Live By", Tolstoy uses religious acts and truth to reveal the meaning of life. II. The main character in his short story, Michael, disobeys God and is sent back down to Earth to learn his lesson and truth. A. Michael has to learn his three lessons: What dwells in men, What is not given to man, and What men live by. B. Tolstoy believes that learning truth, will lead you to goodness. III. In "What Men Live By", Tolstoy shows Michael having faith and love for God. A. Michael stays with the Simon family for over six years to find the three lessons God says he needs to learn. 1. He believes that God will lead him to his lessons. 2. He is willing to obey God and stay on Earth until God forgives him. B. Tolstoy believes that in God you find love and meaning of life. 1. The meaning of life for him was to "live for God and the soul". 2. Tolstoy followed the teachings of God and portrayed them in his stories. VI. Conclusion.
Critiques • “The Theology of Leo Tolstoy” by James Townsend. In this critique, it talks about Leo’s religious views towards the Bible, supernatural, God, and Christ. • “The true Beauty of Nature” by Julia Schwartz. Here, it talks about how Leo tries to find the meaning of life through his works. • “Tolstoy's Teachings” by Aylmer Maude. In this critique it talks about Tolstoy's religious and philosophical works. • “Religious Tragedy of Tolstoy” by Fedor Stepun. He talks about “the effects of religious conversion on Tolstoy's personal life”. • “Lev Tolstoi: Overview” by Christopher R. Pike. He talks about how Tolstoy’s experiences are expressed in his novels and short stories. • “Count Leo Tolstoi” by F. W. Farrar. He believes that “Tolstoy exaggerated the degree to which the Christian world has misinterpreted its own fundamental tenets. ”
Bloom Taxonomy • 1. What does Simon find leaning next to the shrine? • 2. Describe Matrena’s reaction when Simon comes home without the coat and with a stranger. • 3. Do you think when Michael let the lady live instead of taking her soul was the right thing to do?
Bloom Taxonomy • 4. Why did Simon only smile those three times? • 5. What would of happened if Michael hadn’t seen the angel of death behind the gentleman? • 6. Explain why God wanted Michael to learn those three lessons?
Works Cited 1. "What Men Live By. " Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 2 Mar 2007, 06: 55 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 4 Mar 2007
Works Cited 4. Farrar, F. W. . "Count Leo Tolstoi. " 2, October, 1888. 8 Mar 2007
How Much Land Does A Man Need? By Leo Tolstoy Gustavo Gutierrez Period 6 Mrs. Contreras
Leo Tolstoy: Biography n n n Born September 9, 1828 in Yanaya Polyana, Tula, Russia. He was born into a wealthy family but his parents died when he was a child and he was raised by his older brothers and relatives. He studied languages and law at Kazan University but dropped out and educated himself. In 1851 he joined the military and by 1852 he had completed his first novel “Childhood”. In 1854 and 1857 he completed his next 2 novels “Boyhood” and “Youth”, these were all part of an autobiographical series of novels. While in the military he served as an artillery commander in the Crimean War. In 1862 he married Sofia Andreevna Bers; he had 13 children with her but 4 died as babies.
Leo Tolstoy: Biography (Cont. ) n n n His best works, “War And Peace” and “Anna Karenina”, were published in 1869 and 1877. He left his estate in November 1910 to lead the life of a wandering ascetic and caught pneumonia when he took a train. He died November 20, 1910 and was buried at Yasnaya Polyana, which was later made into a Tolstoy Memorial Museum. He was 82 years old.
Author Influence n Leo Tolstoy was a well-known communist. A reason for writing this short story may have been to show the negative influence of capitalism.
Vocabulary n n n n n Piqued-irritated, angry Disparaged-belittled, put down Twain-two Tilling-ploughing land to prepare it for planting Steward-person in charge of the household affairs of a large estate Fodder-food for livestock Freehold-land held for life with the right to pass it down to one’s heirs Arable-fit for plowing and planting Fallow-ploughed but left unplanted during a growing season Steppes-grass covered plains
Vocabulary (cont. ) n n n Kumiss-an intoxicating beverage made from mare’s or camel’s milk Flax-a plant grown for its seed and for its fine fibers The Volga-the longest river in Russia Samara-city in Southeastern Russia, on the Volga Bashkirs-group of people in Southwestern Russia of Asiatic origin Spade-a tool for digging, having an iron blade adapted for pressing into the ground with the foot and a long handle commonly with a grip or crosspiece at the top, and with the blade usually narrower and flatter than that of a shovel. n Hillock-a small hill
Plot Summary: Part 1 n n 2 sisters, the elder married to a tradesman, the younger to a peasant, are having tea together and the elder one starts to talk about how her lifestyle has many advantages. This irritates her younger sister and she starts telling her what advantages being a peasant has. She says that she wouldn’t trade her lifestyle for that of her sister’s because she says the peasants “may live roughly, but at least we are free from anxiety” (Tolstoy 959). Her husband, Pakhom, overhears this conversation and believes every word, he says “the only trouble is that we haven’t land enough. If I had plenty of land, I shouldn’t fear the devil himself !” (Tolstoy 959). This causes the devil to think “All right we shall have a tussle. I’ll give you land enough; and by means of that land I will get you into my power. ” (Tolstoy 959).
Plot Summary: Part 2 n n Pakhom worked on the estate of a landowner who had about 300 acres. The landowner hired a steward to take care of her household affairs and this steward would constantly fine Pakhom for things that he did wrong. When the landowner decided to sell her land a nearby innkeeper was bargaining to buy the land but all the peasants that worked there didn’t want him to buy the land because they knew they would be fined more. They decided to buy the land themselves and they did so individually. Pakhom got enough money to buy 40 acres. He was now a landowner and farmed on his own land.
Plot Summary: Part 3 n n Pakhom was very happy with his new lifestyle but then the neighboring farmers started to trespass onto his land. This continued on for some time even after Pakhom asked very nicely if they would stop. Their cows and horses would graze on his crops and soon enough there would be no crops left. Pakhom then complained to the district court but he knew that the other peasants must be taught a lesson. After some of the other peasants got fined for this offense they held a grudge against Pakhom. One peasant even cut down 5 of Pakhom’s trees for the bark. Pakhom concluded that it must’ve been his neighbor Simon. He took Simon to court but because of lack of evidence Simon was acquitted. This led to a quarreling between Pakhom and the judges and his neighbors.
Plot Summary: Part 3 (cont. ) n n n A rumor began that many people were moving away and this made Pakhom very happy because he felt cramped in his current situation. One day a peasant came by and was allowed to stay the night. He told Pakhom that he had come from beyond the Volga and that many people were settling there and every man was awarded 25 acres of very good land. Pakhom decided that he would sell his homestead and move there but he first decided to go check out the area for himself. When he got there he discovered that it was just as the man had told him. He returned home and sold all of his belongings and his homestead and moved to the area past the Volga.
Plot Summary: Part 4 n n n When he got there he applied for the commune and after he entertained the elders of the commune he was given 125 acres and use of the communal pasture. He was much better off then he was before and had much more land. After some time he thought that not even this would be enough and decided that if he had some freehold land with a homestead on it he would be comfortable. It was very difficult to acquire land but Pakhom was able to find a man who was willing to sell him 1300 acres for 1500 rubles. He was very close to sealing the deal when he came across a man who began to tell Pakhom of the land of the Bashkirs, where he bought 13000 acres for only 1000 rubles. The man said “all one need to do is make friends with the chiefs” (Tolstoy 964).
Plot Summary: Part 5 n n Pakhom asked how to get to this land after the tradesman told him and left, he began to prepare for the trip. He went off with his man and tea, wine, and other presents to give the chiefs. After 7 days the arrived at the land of the Bashkirs. As soon as they saw Pakhom they gathered round, after an interpreter was found they learned his intentions. He was led inside a tent and served tea and mutton. He then gave them many presents. After the Bashkirs talked amongst themselves they decided to repay for his gifts by giving him whatever he pleases. He told them that he wanted some of their land. They said that he may have as much land as he pleases he need only to point it out. The Bashkirs then began to dispute over whether they should be acting when not in the presence of their chief.
Plot Summary: Part 6 n n n As they were arguing their chief walked in. Pakhom went and gave the chief the best dressing gown and 5 lbs of tea. He then took a seat and the rest of the Bashkirs filled him in on what had occurred. They decided to sell him land, which would even be made out in a deed, for the price of 1000 rubles a day. The condition was that he could have as much land as he could walk in a day. Pakhom was very surprised and pleased at this because he could acquire a lot of land in a day. The only downside was that he must get back to his starting point or his money would be lost and as he walks he must mark his way with a spade. Other than that he may mark as large an area as he pleases. It was settled the next day Pakhom would have from sunrise to sunset to mark out his land.
Plot Summary: Part 7 n n The night before Pakhom had a dream in which he saw the chief laughing but it wasn’t the chief anymore because he became a different person and he eventually ended up being the Devil himself and he saw a man lying dead on the ground with no shirt and only trousers and that man was him. As he awoke he woke everyone else up and called the Bashkirs and then they all went out to their destination.
Plot Summary: Part 8 n n They arrived at the steppe and went onto a hillock. The chief went and placed his hat on the ground and said “This will be the mark. Start from here, and return here again. All the land you go round shall be yours. ” (Tolstoy 968). Pakhom took off towards the east and after 1000 yards he stopped and dug a hole and piled the dirt as high as he could. After some more time passed he dug another hole and concluded that he was 3 miles removed from the hillock. He proceeded to remove his under-coat and his boots and told himself that another 3 miles and he would turn. As he went straight on the people on the hillock looked like ants and he decided that he had gone far enough and he turned to the left. At noon he had a rest and ate and drank he continued on as he thought “an hour to suffer, a life-time to live” (Tolstoy 970).
Plot Summary: Part 8 (cont. ) n n He went on a long way in his current direction and was about to turn to the left once more when he saw a patch of land that had flax and decided to circle that as well. He then realized that he had made the sides to long and he had to cut the 3 rd side short in order to make his goal, so he dug a hole and ran straight for the hillock.
Plot Summary: Part 9 n n n He was heading straight for the hillock but it was very difficult for Pakhom to walk. He was very hot and his feet were cut up and his legs began to fail. He was still distant from his goal and the sun was very close to setting. He continued to walk and then began to go quicker and was eventually running. He threw off his coat, boots, flask, and cap and kept only the spade as support. His heart was beating at an alarming paced and he was afraid he might die but did not cease running. The sun was about to set and he was getting closer and he could hear the Bashkirs shouting. Then the sun set and he was close but not there but they continued shouting because from the hillock the sun did not appear to have set.
Plot Summary: Part 9 (cont. ) n n n He continued to run and reached the top of the hillock and saw the cap on the ground, the chief sat next to it and Pakhom fell forward and touched the cap. The chief exclaimed that he was a “fine fellow” and Pakhom’s servant came running at Pakhom and tried to lift him but saw blood running down his mouth. Pakhom was dead. His servant picked up the spade and dug a grave for Pakhom and buried him. “Six feet from his head to heels was all he needed. ” (Tolstoy 971).
Themes Greed n Contentment n Envy n Materialism n
Critics n n Anonymous says in “Analysis of Leo Tolstoy and his work “How Much Land Does A Man Need? ”” that the story is Tolstoy’s way of saying that “reaching for too much may result in a loss of everything. ”. Anonymous says that “How Much Land Does A Man Need? ” is a reflection of the greed for Americans during westward expansion, and that the sisters represent America and Europe, the elder is Europe (rich, established) and the younger is America (poor, hardworking). Anonymous says that the presence of the devil in the story is a reflection of Tolstoy’s Christian beliefs. Anonymous writes that the story is a “little gem, a warning against greed and materialism. ”.
Questions n n n Why did Pakhom take his neighbor Simon to the district court? Why do you think that Pakhom would be happy if his neighbors had moved away? Where did Pakhom go to acquire 13000 acres of land for only 1000 rubles? What did Pakhom have to do in order to obtain land from the Bashkirs? Why was Pakhom so far behind in his run for the land?
Works Cited n n n Http: //imdb. com/name/nm 0866243/bio. http: //www. dictionary. com http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Main_Page Applebee, Arthur N. The Language of Literature. Evanston, Illinois: Mc. Dougal Littell, 2003 "Analysis of Leo Tolstoy and his work "How Much Land Does A Man Need? "". Planet Papers. 12 March 2007
Nicole Ajuria Introduction-Ch. 6
Introduction (cont. ) • Describing the amusement of the reader when reading “Dracula” over and over again. • Recognitions and praises the book has received in the past. • Ideology and perception that has been created of the character “Dracula” (“He is tall red-lipped and pale. He sleeps by day and moves around my night. Has sharp canine incisors. He is immortal, so long as he can drink the blood of the living”). • The book falls into the genre of Gothic literature. • Gives forms of Gothic literature such as: “the castle of otranto”, and “Mysteries of Udolpho”. • It also compares the books to that of Bram Stoker’s “Dracula”. • The three vampire books that preceded “Dracula” which were “The Vampyre”, “Varney the Vampire”, and “Carmilla”. (Carmilla can be said to have had a direct influence on Stoker when he came to write “Dracula”. )
Introduction (cont. ) • It later goes on to describe all the books written about Bram Stoker. • And a short and concise discussion of the life of Bram Stoker. • Dracula has created a very psycho sensual character throughout his book. During the book we notice how he converts Lucy Westenra, who was a very sweet and innocent nineteen year old, into a “shameless slut”. • It afterwards recounts all the past movies that have been made in order to recreate Bram Stokers “Dracula”.
Introduction • He later continues to wonder how Stoker would have reacted towards the movies that were meant to recreate his literary work. • “He thought he was writing a ‘shillingshocker’”. • Stoker never thought himself capable of writing such an intriguing work of fiction.
Chapter 1 Analysis (cont. ) • This chapter is part of a diary kept by Jonathan Harker. • In it he is embarking from his home in England to Eastern Europe. It is his first professional assignment as a solicitor. • He is planning on traveling to the castle of Count Dracula, a Transylvanian nobleman, to enclose a real estate deal to sell Count Dracula a home in London. • He is planning on making notes all along the way so he can show them to his fiancée Mina Murray upon his return to England.
Chapter 1 Analysis (cont. ) • On his first entry he portrays the way he sees the picturesque country and the striking food he tastes along the way. • He says that he wants to bring some of the recipes back home to Mina. • Later on, Harker reaches Bistritz and checks into a hotel that Count Dracula had recommended to him. • The Innkeeper hands Harker a letter that Dracula had written for him. • The letter is welcoming Harker and informing him that he should take the next day’s coach to the Borgo Pass, where a carriage will meet up with Harker and take him the rest of the way to the castle.
Chapter 1 Analysis (cont. ) • While Harker is preparing to leave the next morning the innkeepers wife gives him a grave warning. • She tells him that it is the eve of St. Georges Day when “all evil things in the world have full sway”. • She then hands him a crucifix and puts it around Harker’s neck. • Although he doesn’t have the same religion he still accepts the crucifix. • After meeting up with the innkeepers wife he becomes uneasy because he notices the peasants gather and mutter “queer words” at him. And with his dictionary he comes to realize that they were calling him a were-wolf and a vampire. • As Harker leaves in his carriage all the peasants make a cross with their hands symbolizing that they want to repel an “evil eye”. • On the way to the Borgo pass he sees a beautiful countryside.
Chapter 1 Analysis • When he arrives at the Borgo Pass he notices that there's no carriage awaiting him like the letter from Count Dracula had indicated him. But just as the driver leaves he notices a small carriage approach him. • While he’s in the carriage Harker feels like the horses are covering the same ground over again and becomes skeptical. • Harker talks about several stops that the driver makes along the way until he finally arrives at the Castle, already feeling a sense of fearfulness and skepticism. (“so strange and uncanny that a dreadful fear came upon me. ”)
Chapter 1 Vocabulary • Caleche: a carriage with a collapsible top • Polyglot: a book printed with many versions or languages. • Idolatrous: to worship an idol. • Alacrity: to go about with an eagerness. • Goitre: a disease causing the thyroid glands to enlarge.
Chapter 2 Analysis (cont. ) • When he arrives at Count Dracula’s castle he stands outside for a moment until Count Dracula appears and welcomes him. • When he and the count shake hands Harker is amazed at the strength that Dracula has but also notes that the cold hands seem more like that of a dead man than a live one. • As the count and Harker sit along the fire place and eat Harker begins to observe the counts every feature and notices his pointed ears, pale skin and sharp teeth and Harker’s nervousness overcomes him. • The next day when he wakes up Harker finds another note from Dracula in which Dracula excuses himself for the day. • since he is alone for the day Harker has himself a hearty meal and then decides to do explore the castle himself. • He finds very luxurious furniture yet notes that there are no mirrors to be found anywhere.
Chapter 2 Analysis (cont. ) • • On that same evening Dracula and Harker meet up to have a conversation for count to find out more about the estate in England. They begin to talk about the pervasiveness of the evil spirits in Transylvania. The characteristics that the count portrays about himself make Harker very uneasy during their conversation. The next morning the count interrupts Harker while he is shaving and Harker cuts himself. When he goes to look at himself in the mirror he realizes that Count Dracula has no reflection in the mirror. Harker is also surprised at the reaction that the count took on upon seeing the blood on him neck, grabs his throat and only backs away at the moment he touches the string of the crucifix that Harker had around his neck. Afterwards Dracula's throws the shaving mirror out the window and while Harker is eating he realizes that he has never seen the count eat and so he begins to explore the castle only to find locked doors after locked doors and realizes he is a prisoner in Count Dracula’s castle.
Chapter 2 Vocabulary • Voluptuousness: to bring about sexuality. • Myriad: to have an innumerable amount of something. • Prosaic: rational. • Aquiline: to be an eagle-like figure.
Chapter 3 Analysis (cont. ) • • • That night Harker asks Dracula questions concerning the history of Transylvania. Dracula speaks highly of his people. In the next few days Dracula tells Harker to write to his fiancée and employer in telling them that his stay in Transylvania will be pushed back a month. The night when count was leaving the castle he warns Harker never to fall asleep anywhere other than his own room. When Harker is assured that the count has left the castle he hangs his crucifix on his bed and begins to explore the castle. Then he peers out the window and notices that the Count is crawling up the walls with his bare hands and in panic wonders what kind of creature the Count may be. One evening soon after that Harker is able to force a door open and falls asleep in that room. Harker is then visited by three beautiful women with red lips and sharp teeth but he doesn’t know whether it was in a dream or in reality. As the women approach him he is overcome by a “wicked, burning desire”. Just one of the women bend over his neck Dracula walks in and tells the woman to leave. Then Dracula says “when I am done with him you shall kiss him at your will”. He then tells the women that he will give them a bag with a “half-smothered” child.
Chapter 3 Vocabulary • Ribald: to be indecent. • Languorous: to be lazy or to not have the want or energy to do something. • Culverin: a certain type of canon. • Boyar: a Romanian noble during the time of the Romanian aristocracy.
Chapter 4 Analysis (cont. ) • • The next morning Harker woke up and was insure of whether the past night had been a dream or real. Later on Dracula told Harker to write three letters to his fiancée and employer dating then June 12, 19, and 29 even though it was just May 19 telling them that he was safely on his way home. Afterwards a group of gypsies came to the castle and Harker, planning on escaping, asked them to give Mina a letter. He then gives the letter to one of the gypsies but later on that evening Count Dracula shows up with the same letter in his hand says that it is an outrage to his hospitality and friendship, and burns the letter. Weeks pass and Harker is still a prisoner to Count Dracula. That night the gypsies come and unload some wooden boxes. One day, after having discovered that his clothes had been taken Harker sees Count Dracula crawling up the walls wearing his clothes. While he was crawling up the wall Dracula was carrying a bundle similar to the one that the three women had eaten before.
Chapter 4 Analysis (cont. ) • Later on that same day a woman came screaming to the front gates of the mansion and was begging for her child, then a pack of wolves show up and devour her. • Seeing this Harker decides to scale a part of the castle wall so that he can reach the counts room during the day, he manages to do this and when he goes into the counts room all he finds is a heap of gold. • He then discovers a secret passage way in one of the walls of the room and follows it, inside he finds 50 boxes filled with dirt and so he starts opening them and finding the same things but suddenly in one of them he finds Count Dracula, he was lying in it as if asleep and Harker, terrified at the site, runs away.
Chapter 4 Analysis • On June 29 th Count Dracula tells Harker that he can leave the next day but Harker refuses the proposal and demands that he can leave that very instant. • Count Dracula admits Harker to leave and opens the door for him but the moment Harker takes a step outside there is a pack of wolves waiting for him. • That same night Harker overhears the count speaking saying, “tonight is mine, tomorrow night is yours”, and when he flings open the door he finds out that the count was saying this to the three women. • At hearing this he shuts himself in his room and prays.
Chapter 4 Vocabulary • Portmanteau: a bag or suitcase that is able to hold things inside. • Garb: a piece of clothing. • Fain: to agree to willingly. • Profanation: to make something vulgar.
Chapter 5 Analysis (cont. ) • This chapter is made up of several letters and diary entries. • In England Mina Murray and her best friend Lucy Westenra exchanged letters talking about all their romances. • Mina is an assistant school mistress and all she really wants is to make her husband happy. • She tells Lucy that her fiancee, Harker, has written that he is on his way home. • Lucy later writes back talking about all the marriage proposals she has received. • She had received marriage proposals from John Seward and Quincy Morris but in reality, she explains, her heart totally belonged to a man named Arthur Holmwood who’s proposal she ended up accepting. • The women’s letters are then followed by a letter written by Dr. Seward explaining the unhapiness he feels towards Lucy’s rejection. • He then goes on to write about a new patient he has called Renfield.
Chapter 5 Analysis • After this letter comes a letter from Quincey Morris congratulating Arthur Holmwood.
Chapter 5 Vocabulary • Sanguine: to be or act cheerful. • Trod: a certain type of walk.
Chapter 6 Analysis (cont. ) • In this journal entry Mina is talking about her visit to Whitby with Lucy, and how beautiful and picturesque it all was. • Then Mr. Swales speaks to the girls about the town and even laughs at some of its old legends. He goes on to explain that most of the graves in the cementary are emty because they were “lost at sea”. • After he is gone Mina goes on to tell Lucy that she hasen’t heard from her fiancee in over a month.
Chapter 6 Analysis (cont. ) • Then John Seward continues to talk about his strange case with Renfield. • He says that the patient has the habit of eating living creatures. • He explains that he likes to see the animals devour one another and then eat the last one believing that he is consuming the most. Dr. Seward then classify’s him as a “zoophagous” which is a person who is like a life eating maniac and wants to absorb as many lives as he possibly can.
Chapter 6 Analysis • Afterwards there is a diary entry with Mina expressing her anxiety because her boyfriend has not written to her and because Lucy has started to sleep-walk. • She thinks that Lucy is in perfectly healthy conditions but she is having an “odd concentration” that Mina doesn’t understand at all. • One day while Mina was walking down the street she encounters Dr. Swales who tells her that he senses that his death is coming near. • He then explains to Mina that he is not afraid of death, and that it is “all that we can rightly depend on”.
Chapter 6 Vocabulary • Rapture: an ecstasy • Zoophagous: to be a carnivorous being to like eating flesh. • Clegs: breezes. • Opiate: a drug that makes you sleepy.
Themes • • • Promiscuity Sexuality Infidelity Evil sekeptisism
Bram Stoker • Born Abraham “Bram” Stoker in 1847 in Clontarf, Ireland. • He had an illness until the age of seven that kept him from doing things that average children did at that age. • As a teen he began to excel in sports and in math. • His literary abilities were developed very slowly but as an adolescent he still had written several short horror stories. • He began to take writing in a serious manner while he was working at Dublin Castle. •
Bram Stoker • At that time he published “Under the sunset” which were a group of dark and disturbing stories that were particularly aimed towards children/ • One of his college professors in Trinity college showed him some vampire legends. And so after he read these he developed “Dracula”, which was the literary work that defined his entire career. • In the beginning the critics were not kind towards the work “Dracula”, but after a while the book was loved by everyone. • But even thought the book was very loved and the income for it was great it still couldn’t raise Stoker and his family from poverty. • On April 20, 1912 Bram Stoker died of a stroke.
Criticism (cont. ) • "Dracula: Dead and Loving It" • Critic: Robert Alan Crick • This criticism talks about the moment in which Dracula enters Lucy’s bedroom while she is sleeping and he is later found peeking under her covers, he speaks about the sexuality portrayed at this moment.
Criticism • Overview: Dracula • Critic: Anonymous • This criticism speaks about the three proposals that were made to Lucy and her denial, and later her repentance for this which reveals promiscuity.
Criticism • Overview: novels for students • Critic: Anonymous • This criticism discusses the downfall of Lucy. It shows how her sexuality overtook her and was the cause of her painful death.
Criticism • Human sexuality • Critic: Haeberle, Erwin J. • In this article Erwin discusses human sexuality, it is relevant to the instances in which Lucy, Dracula, Harker, and all the other chracters in “Dracula” were involved in expressions of sexuality.
Criticism • Marriage • Critic: Peggy Reeves • This article talks about matrimony and the importance of it. Which relates to the importance of infidelity during the novel.
Criticism • Promiscuity • Critic: Reichard • This article talks about promiscuity and its origins. It was something that Lucy portrayed in her character when proposed by three men.
Criticism • Dracula as a Victorian Novel • Critic: Judith Weissman • In the criticism, Weissman sees Dracula as a Victorian novel, stating that the novel “is an extreme version of the stereotypically Victorian attitudes toward sexual roles”.
Outline • I. Thesis: Bram Stokers portrayal of sexuality in Dracula is the most vivid of all themes throughout the literary work and portrays that of female and male sexuality which also connects itself to that of factors concerning religion. • A. The drawing of blood from a being connects to similarities to sexuality. • B. The seduction of women to men and children.
Outline • II. Stokers portrayal of sexuality through several quotes in the novel. • • • A. Discussion on a quote presented in page 39. B. Discussion on a quote presented in page 40 C. Discussion on quote presented in page 60. • III. Stokers critics develop several ideas and connections to sexuality that are not exposed throughout the book. – – – A. Robert Alan Crick explains how sexuality is portrayed in the scence when Dracula enters Lucy’s bedroom. B. Carrol Fry explains how the sexuality found in Dracula gives it the appeal it needs to become so popular. C. Reichard gives a basic examples of what promiscuity is.
Outline • IV. sexuality is a factor that is found in the most unexpected occurrences throughout the book. – A. Harkers sexuality with the character throughout the novel. • 1. the weird sisters • 2. Mina Murray.
Gothic Literature • Originated in England • Is usually famous for its gloomy scenery and ways or creating fear in the reader. • Some features are: ghosts, haunted mansions, monsters, tyrants, demons, death, and magicians. • They gothic works usually take place in gloomy looking castles constructed with gothic architecture.
Blooms Taxonomy • Knowledge: Describe the reactions that the peasants had towards Harkers leaving to go to Castle Dracula. • Comprehension: In chapter 4 Harker is admitted to leave the castle but when he steps out he finds himself faced by wolves. Predict what would have happened if Harker would have been able to return to Mina.
Blooms Taxonomy • Application: How would you react to the situation that Harker is facing? Why? • Analysis: Compare Mina’s character to that of Lucy’s? How are they different? Same? • Synthesis: From the given facts do you think that Lucy’s promiscuity is something that she should be totally ashamed of or something that is a normal reaction of women?
Blooms Taxonomy • Evaluation: Explain why you think that Dracula told Harker to write three letters on different dates.
Citations • • • Big Screen Comedies of Mel Brooks, pp. 206 -23. Jefferson, N. C. : Mc. Farland & Company, Inc, 2002 Bram Stoker: Dracula, in Characters in Young Adult Literature, Gale Research, 1997. "Dracula, " in Novels for Students, Vol. 18, Gale, 2003. Sanday, Peggy Reeves (2002). Women at the center : life in a modern matriarchy. Cornell University Press Reichard, U. H. (2002). Monogamy—A variable relationship. Max Planck Research, 3, 62 -67. Weissman, Judith. “Dracula as a Victorian Novel. ” Midwest Quarterly 18, no. 4 (July 1977): 392 -405. "Victorian era. " Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 14 Mar 2007, 17: 53 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Mar 2007 Vampire. " Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 14 Mar 2007, 03: 11 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Mar 2007 "Human sexuality. " Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 10 Mar 2007, 17: 55 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Mar 2007