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Mapping of burnt areas at global level: current possibilities offered by optical Earth Observation Mapping of burnt areas at global level: current possibilities offered by optical Earth Observation Systems J-M. Grégoire 1 & P. A. Brivio 1 2 Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit - Space Applications Institute - Joint Research Centre 2 Telerilevamento - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano January 31 st 2001 Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Why looking at burnt areas at global level ? Þ Just because we are Why looking at burnt areas at global level ? Þ Just because we are all a little bit fire-bug ? Þ Because it’s one of the 4 elements ? Þ Or because it’s a scientific issue ? Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

It’s a scientific issue for at least 3 reasons Þ Fire is a global It’s a scientific issue for at least 3 reasons Þ Fire is a global scale phenomena Þ It has a direct impact on the vegetation cover type and condition, with consequences in terms of: - changes or maintenance of the vegetation cover - soil erosion - degradation, or maintenance, of the biodiversity Þ It has a direct impact on the chemistry of the lower troposphere, with 3 major consequences: - the emission of large quantities of green house gases and of aerosols - the modification of the radiative transfer at the biosphere-atmosphere interface - the acidification of precipitations Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Vegetation fires A global scale phenomena There is at any time a fire burning Vegetation fires A global scale phenomena There is at any time a fire burning somewhere at the surface of the Earth Dwyer et al. , 1999, J. of Biogeography Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Burning has a direct impact on the vegetation cover type and condition Frequent burning Burning has a direct impact on the vegetation cover type and condition Frequent burning is favouring the fire resistant species Palm savanna - Ivory Coast Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Burning has a direct impact on the vegetation cover type and condition Frequent burning Burning has a direct impact on the vegetation cover type and condition Frequent burning is shaping the structure of the vegetation cover Gallery forest - Ivory Coast Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Burning has a direct impact on soil erosion Slash and burn agriculture - Vietnam/Laos Burning has a direct impact on soil erosion Slash and burn agriculture - Vietnam/Laos border Soil is totally unprotected against the heavy storms at the beginning of the rainy season Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Burning has a direct impact on the vegetation cover type and condition, with deep Burning has a direct impact on the vegetation cover type and condition, with deep impact on the biodiversity Maintenance of a given habitat Destruction of the habitat Suriname Bolivia (Amazon Basin) Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Vegetation fires have a direct impact on the chemistry of the lower troposphere Importance Vegetation fires have a direct impact on the chemistry of the lower troposphere Importance of biomass burning as “ anthropogenic emissions source of greenhouse gases and aerosols” (Kyoto Protocol) Species All human sources Biomass burning Global savannas fires (Tg/yr) % ---------------------------------------------------------CO 2 33700 a 13500 40 6070 18 CO 1600 a 680 43 240 15 CH 4 275 a 43 16 9 3 Aerosols 390 e 90 23 37 9 e Black carbon 90 60 67 3 3 ---------------------------------------------------------a: Houghton et al. , 1995 e: Scholes & Andreae, 2000 Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

What is a vegetation fire ? What are we looking at ? Space Applications What is a vegetation fire ? What are we looking at ? Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Fire on the ground A narrow fire front running through the savanna Tropical woodland Fire on the ground A narrow fire front running through the savanna Tropical woodland - Northern Australia Wet savanna - Cote d’Ivoire Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Fire as seen from low altitude air survey A fire front + a burnt Fire as seen from low altitude air survey A fire front + a burnt area + a smoke plume Tropical woodland - Central African Republic Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Fire as seen from low resolution satellite imagery Northern Australia - June 1 st Fire as seen from low resolution satellite imagery Northern Australia - June 1 st 1999 - 550 km x 550 km NOAA-AVHRR 4 pm SPOT-VEGETATION 10. 30 am Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

The use of satellite remote sensing see second part by P. A. Brivio file: The use of satellite remote sensing see second part by P. A. Brivio file: Insubria_Brivio. ppt Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Short-term perspectives Þ The Global Burnt Area 2000 initiative: GBA-2000 Mapping, from SPOT-VEGETATION S Short-term perspectives Þ The Global Burnt Area 2000 initiative: GBA-2000 Mapping, from SPOT-VEGETATION S 1 imagery, of the areas burnt globally during the year 2000 Þ The WORLD FIRE WEB Network A system for globally mapping vegetation fires in near real-time, using the NOAA-AVHRR satellite Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

GBA 2000: a network approach CSIRO(AU) - UTL(P) - NRI(UK) - CNR(I) - CCRS GBA 2000: a network approach CSIRO(AU) - UTL(P) - NRI(UK) - CNR(I) - CCRS (CA) - CRG (CA) - IFI (RU) - SAI (EU) 62. 5 N-112 W 57 N-104. 5 W (CCRS) 63 N - 81 W 44 N - 55 W (CRG) 68 N - 45 E 60 N - 60 E (IFI) 60 N - 118 E 48 N - 140 E (IFI) 44 N - 10 W 36 N - 0 (UTL) 55 N - 115 E 40 N - 135 E (UTL) 10 S - 125 E 18 S - 146 E (GVM) 18 N - 93 W 7 N - 77 W (NRI) 18 N - 18 W 0 - 52 E (CNR) 5 S - 75 W 20 S - 45 W (UTL) 17 S - 21 E 28 S - 29 E (NRI) 10 S - 22 E 28 S - 42 E (UTL) 11 S - 125 E 21 S - 135 E (CSIRO) GBA test-sites (white rectangles; indicative position), with corresponding geographical coordinates (Ul; LR corners) Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

The WORLD FIRE WEB Network 18 regional fire monitoring centres Year 2001 Space Applications The WORLD FIRE WEB Network 18 regional fire monitoring centres Year 2001 Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit

Some references Ahern F. , et al. , 2000, Forest fire monitoring and mapping: Some references Ahern F. , et al. , 2000, Forest fire monitoring and mapping: a component of Global Observation of Forest Cover. Publications of the European Commission, EUR 19588, Luxembourg, 253 pp. Barbosa P. M. , et al. , 1999, An assessment of vegetation fire in Africa (1981 -1991): burned areas, burned biomass and atmospheric emissions. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 13 , No. 04 , p. 933 -950. Brivio P. A. e J. -M. Grégoire, 1997, Gli incendi nella fascia tropicale del globo: aspetti metodologici nell'analisi dei dati da satellite. Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento, n. 11, pp. 17 -26. Dwyer E. , et al. , 1999, Characterization of the spatio-temporal patterns of global fire activity using satellite imagery for the period April 1992 to March 1993. J. of Biogeography, Vol 27, pp 57 – 69. Grégoire J-M. , et al. , 1999, Satellite monitoring of vegetation fires for EXPRESSO: Outline of activity and relative importance of the study area in the continental context and global context of biomass burning. J. Geophysical Res, Vol. 104 , D 23 , 30, 691 -30, 699. Grégoire J-M. , et al. , 2000, The SMOKO experiment: development and test of a multi-systems approach to burnt area mapping from optical, thermal and microwave satellite data. Publication of the European Commission, EUR 19596 EN, 74 pp. Stroppiana D. , et al. , The Global Fire Product: daily fire occurrence, from April 1992 to December 1993, derived from NOAA-AVHRR data. Int. J. of Remote Sensing, Vol. 21, No. 6/7, April 2000, 1279 -1288. Thank you to Luigi Boschetti CNR/Milan mapping burnt areas from geostationnary satellites Edward Dywer SARMAP mapping fires from AVHRR Marta Maggi CNR/Milan mapping burnt areas from AVHRR and VGT data Simon Pinnock JRC/Ispra responsible World Fire Web network Daniela Stroppiana JRC/Ispra mapping burnt areas from VGT data and all the friends around the world who contribute to the World Fire Web and Global Burnt Area networks Space Applications Institute (jmg/Publi/Varese_2001/Seminar_Insubria. ppt) Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit