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Manipulator Mechanical Design Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department Manipulator Mechanical Design Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Overview • Mechanism (Mechanical Structure) – Physical Structural elements that create movable skeleton (human Overview • Mechanism (Mechanical Structure) – Physical Structural elements that create movable skeleton (human body – skeleton / joints / ligaments) – Beams – Links – Shafts – Slides – Bearing • Actuation – The elements that cause the mechanism to move (human body – muscles & tendons) – Electric – Hydraulic – Pneumatic • Sensors – The elements that precise the environment (Human body – vision small sound touch) – Position – Force – Location / Altitude – Pressure Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Manipulator Mechanical Design • Particular structure of a manipulator influences kinematic and dynamic analysis Manipulator Mechanical Design • Particular structure of a manipulator influences kinematic and dynamic analysis • The tasks that a manipulator can perform will also very greatly with a particular design (load capacity, workspace, speed, repeatability) Equations • ROBOT Task The elements of a robotic system fall roughly into four categories – The manipulator mechanism & proprioceptive sensors – The end-effector or end of the arm tooling – External sensors (e. g. vision system) or effectors (e. g. part feeders) – The Controller Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Manipulator Mechanical Design - Task Requirements Robot Universally Programmable Machines • • Robot Task Manipulator Mechanical Design - Task Requirements Robot Universally Programmable Machines • • Robot Task Specific General Definition for Robot - "A re-programmable, multifunctional mechanical manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. "- From the Robot Institute of America, 1979 Task Specific Design Criteria – Number of degrees of freedom – Workspace – Load capacity – Speed – Repeatability accuracy Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Task Requirements - Number of DOF • The number of DOF in a manipulator Task Requirements - Number of DOF • The number of DOF in a manipulator should match the number of DOF required by the task. Robot DOF Task DOF Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Task Requirements • Not all the tasks required 6 DOF for example: – End Task Requirements • Not all the tasks required 6 DOF for example: – End effector with an axis of symmetry - Orientation around the axis of symmetry is a free variable, – Placing of components on a circuit board - 4 DOF • Dividing the total number of DOF between a robot and an active positioning platform Video Clip Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Task Requirements • • Workspace (Work volume, Work envelope) – Placing the target (object) Task Requirements • • Workspace (Work volume, Work envelope) – Placing the target (object) in the work space of the manipulator – Singularities – Collisions Load Capacity – Size of the structural members – power transmission system – Actuators Speed – Robotic solution compete on economic solution – Process limitations - Painting, Welding – Maximum end effector speed versus cycle time Repeatability & Accuracy – Matching robot accuracy to the task (painting - spray spot 8 +/-2 “) – Accuracy function of design and manufacturing (Tolerances) Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Task Requirements – Work Envelope / Workspace • Work Envelope (Definition) – The space Task Requirements – Work Envelope / Workspace • Work Envelope (Definition) – The space in which a robot can operate is its work envelope, which encloses its workspace. • Workspace (Definition) - Positions and orientations of the end effector that the robot can achieve to accomplish a task. Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Task Requirements – Work Envelope / Workspace • Limited accessibility / movement constrains due Task Requirements – Work Envelope / Workspace • Limited accessibility / movement constrains due to – limited joint travel range – link lengths – angles between axes – Combination of the above • Joint range for better performance – Revolute Joint – middle of the – Prismatic Join – Unlimited • Workspace margins for tool change Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Task Requirements – Load Capacity • • Load Rating – Static structural deflections – Task Requirements – Load Capacity • • Load Rating – Static structural deflections – Steady state error – Natural frequency – Damping – Control parameter – Load Capacity Factors – Gravity – Link Inertia – Wrist torque • Task 1 - Pick & Place – Transition From one location to the other • Load Capacity • Speed • Acceleration – Interaction with the environment – Placement • Stiffness (Drive Stiffness) • High precision • Task 2 – Arc Welding – Low speed – Slow controlled path (no jitter) Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Task Requirements – Kinematic Skeleton • Joints – Prismatic • Simple transformation • Uncoupled Task Requirements – Kinematic Skeleton • Joints – Prismatic • Simple transformation • Uncoupled dynamics • Simple control • Uncoupled dynamics – Revolute • Harder to control • Compact efficient structure for a given work volume • Easier to design and build • Easy overlapping workspace with other robotic systems • Robot Configuration – Requirements – E. g. - a requirement for a very precise vertical straight-line motion may dictate the choice of a simple prismatic vertical axis rather than two or three revolute joints requiring coordinated control. – Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration • Joints & DOF – For a serial kinematic linkages, the number Kinematic Configuration • Joints & DOF – For a serial kinematic linkages, the number of joints equal the required number of DOF • Overall Structure – Positioning structure (link twist 0 or +/- 90 Deg, 0 off sets) – Orientation structure • Wrist – The last n-3 joints orient the end effector – The rotation axes intersect at one point. Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Cartesian • Joints – Joint 1 - Prismatic – Joint 2 Kinematic Configuration - Cartesian • Joints – Joint 1 - Prismatic – Joint 2 - Prismatic – Joint 3 - Prismatic • Inverse Kinematics - Trivial • Structure – Stiff Structure -> Big Robot – Decoupled Joints - No singularities • Disadvantage – All feeder and fixtures must lie “inside” the robot Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Cartesian Gantry Video Clip Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE Kinematic Configuration - Cartesian Gantry Video Clip Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Articulated • Joints – Joint 1 - Revolute -Shoulder – Joint Kinematic Configuration - Articulated • Joints – Joint 1 - Revolute -Shoulder – Joint 2 - Revolute - Shoulder – Joint 3 - Revolute - Elbow • Workspace – Minimal intrusion – Reaching into confine spaces – Cost effective for small workspace • Examples – PUMA – MOTOMAN Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Articulated Video Clip Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 Kinematic Configuration - Articulated Video Clip Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - SCARA • Joints – Joint 1 - Revolute – Joint 2 Kinematic Configuration - SCARA • Joints – Joint 1 - Revolute – Joint 2 - Revolute – Joint 3 - Revolute – Joint 4 - Prismatic – Joint 1, 2, 3 - In plane • Structure – Joint 1, 2, 3, do not support weight (manipulator or weight) – Link 0 (base) can house the actuators of joint 1 and 2 • Speed – High speed (10 m/s), 10 times faster then the most articulated industrial robots • Example - SCARA (Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm ) Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - SCARA Video Clip Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 Kinematic Configuration - SCARA Video Clip Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Spherical • Joints – Joint 1 - Revolute (Intersect with 2) Kinematic Configuration - Spherical • Joints – Joint 1 - Revolute (Intersect with 2) – Joint 2 - Revolute (Intersect with 1) – Joint 3 - Prismatic • Structure – The elbow joint is replaced with prismatic joint – Telescope Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Spherical Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Kinematic Configuration - Spherical Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Cylindrical • Joints – Joint 1 - Revolute – Joint 2 Kinematic Configuration - Cylindrical • Joints – Joint 1 - Revolute – Joint 2 - Prismatic – Joint 3 - Prismatic Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Cylindrical Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Kinematic Configuration - Cylindrical Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Wrist • Joints – Three (or two) joints with orthogonal axes Kinematic Configuration - Wrist • Joints – Three (or two) joints with orthogonal axes • Workspace – Theoretically - Any orientation could be achieved (Assuming no joint limits) – Practically - Severe joint angle limitations • Kinematics – Closed form kinematic equations Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Wrist • • • Three intersecting orthogonal Axes Bevel Gears Wrist Kinematic Configuration - Wrist • • • Three intersecting orthogonal Axes Bevel Gears Wrist Limited Rotations Three Roll Wrist (Cincinatti Milacron) Three intersecting non-orthogonal Axes Continues joint rotations (no limits) Sets of orientations which are impossible to reach Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Wrist • 5 DOF Welding robot (2 DOF wrist) - Symmetric Kinematic Configuration - Wrist • 5 DOF Welding robot (2 DOF wrist) - Symmetric tool • The tool axis orientations is mounted orthogonal to axis 5 in order to reach all possible Video Clip Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Kinematic Configuration - Wrist • • Non intersecting axes wrist A closed form inverse Kinematic Configuration - Wrist • • Non intersecting axes wrist A closed form inverse kinematic solution may not exist • Special Cases (Existing Solution) – Articulated configuration Joint axes 2, 3, 4 are parallel – Cartesian configuration Joint axes 4, 5, 6 do not intersect Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Robot Topology - Serial / Close Chain Manipulators Kinematic Chain - Joint / Link Robot Topology - Serial / Close Chain Manipulators Kinematic Chain - Joint / Link - Definition Kinematic Chain consists of nearly rigid links (members) which are connected with joints (kinematics pair) allowing relative motion of the neighboring links. Closed Loop Chain - Every link in the kinematic chain is connected to any other link by at least two distinct paths Open Loop Chain - Every link in the kinematic chain is connected to any other link by one and only one distinct path Parallel (Close Loop) Robot Serial (Open Loop) Robot Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Close Chain Manipulators Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department Close Chain Manipulators Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Close Chain Manipulators Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department Close Chain Manipulators Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Close Chain Manipulators - DOF • DOF of close chain manipulator – Grubler’s formula Close Chain Manipulators - DOF • DOF of close chain manipulator – Grubler’s formula – – • - The total number of DOF in the mechanism - The number of links (including the base and the platform) - Total number of joints - The number of DOF associated with the i’th joint Example – Stewart Platform Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Redundant Manipulators • Task Definition - Position (3 DOF ) and orient the end Redundant Manipulators • Task Definition - Position (3 DOF ) and orient the end effector (3 DOF ) in is a 3 D space (6 DOF) • No. of DOF (6 DOF) = No. of DOF of the task (6 DOF) – Limited number of multiple solutions • No. of DOF (e. g. 7 DOF) > No. of DOF of the task (6 DOF) – Number of solution: (adding more equations) – Self Motion - The robot can be moved without moving the end effector from the goal Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Redundant Manipulators – Mitsubishi PA 10 • Redundancy & Self Motion Instructor: Jacob Rosen Redundant Manipulators – Mitsubishi PA 10 • Redundancy & Self Motion Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Actuation Actuator Electric AC Brushed Hydraulic Pneumatic DC Brushless Step Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Actuation Actuator Electric AC Brushed Hydraulic Pneumatic DC Brushless Step Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Actuation – Power to Weight Ratio Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 Actuation – Power to Weight Ratio Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Actuation Schemes • Direct Drive Actuator • Link (Load) Non Direct Drive Actuator Transmission Actuation Schemes • Direct Drive Actuator • Link (Load) Non Direct Drive Actuator Transmission (Reduction) Link (Load) Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Reduction & Transmission Systems Transmission Gears Cable Belt Chain Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic Reduction & Transmission Systems Transmission Gears Cable Belt Chain Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA Screw

Types of Gears Super Gears Bevel Gears Helical Gears Hypoid Gears Rack & Pinion Types of Gears Super Gears Bevel Gears Helical Gears Hypoid Gears Rack & Pinion Gears Worm Gears Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Gearbox / Gearhead Harmonic Drive Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B Gearbox / Gearhead Harmonic Drive Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Reduction & Transmission Systems Input Transmission (Reduction) Output Limiting Factors Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Reduction & Transmission Systems Input Transmission (Reduction) Output Limiting Factors Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Sensors – Human Body Equilibrioception vestibular sense (balance Inner Ear) Proprioception, kinesthetic sense body Sensors – Human Body Equilibrioception vestibular sense (balance Inner Ear) Proprioception, kinesthetic sense body awareness (Muscle Tendon Joints) Sensors Sight Hearing Smell Taste Touch Human Body Env. Sensors Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Sensors – Robot Kinematics (Position) Sensors Mobile Robot Arm (Cell) Sensors Env. Unstructured Force/Torque Sensors – Robot Kinematics (Position) Sensors Mobile Robot Arm (Cell) Sensors Env. Unstructured Force/Torque Tactile Ranging Vision Sound Env. Structured Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Manipulator Design • • Requirements – Task – Load – Time (speed / cycle-time) Manipulator Design • • Requirements – Task – Load – Time (speed / cycle-time) – Environment – Cost Design – No. of DOF – Workspace – Kinematics configuration – Dynamics properties – Actuation – Sensors – Accuracy – Reputability • Analysis – Kinematics – Link length optimization – Singularities – Dynamics – Actuation optimization – Trajectory Analysis – Modal Analysis – Cost Analysis – Control – Low level (servo) – High level (sensor fusion) Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

Gearbox / Gearhead Super Gearbox Planetary Gearbox Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE Gearbox / Gearhead Super Gearbox Planetary Gearbox Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

DC Motors – Operational Principles • Magnetic Force applied on a frame (loop) conducting DC Motors – Operational Principles • Magnetic Force applied on a frame (loop) conducting current and placed in a magnetic field Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

DC Motors – Operational Principles • Magnetic Force applied on a conductor placed in DC Motors – Operational Principles • Magnetic Force applied on a conductor placed in a magnetic field Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

 • When Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department • When Instructor: Jacob Rosen Advanced Robotic - MAE 263 B - Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering - UCLA

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