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MANAGEMENT OF HISTORIC CENTRES THE EXAMPLE OF BRUGES MANAGEMENT OF HISTORIC CENTRES THE EXAMPLE OF BRUGES

BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY” BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY”

BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY” BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY”

BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY” BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY”

BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY” BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY”

BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY” BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY”

BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY” ? ? ? BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY” ? ? ?

BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY” ? ? ? BRUGGE “MEDIEVAL CITY” ? ? ?

BRUGGE “FLEMISH PRIMITIVE PAINTERS” BRUGGE “FLEMISH PRIMITIVE PAINTERS”

BRUGGE “FLEMISH PRIMITIVE PAINTERS” BRUGGE “FLEMISH PRIMITIVE PAINTERS”

SOME FACTS SURFACE l l Greater Brugge + historic city centre, suburbs & villages SOME FACTS SURFACE l l Greater Brugge + historic city centre, suburbs & villages and harbourvillage of Zeebrugge: 13. 100 ha Historic city centre : 430 ha POPULATION l greater Brugge : l 116. 783 inhabitants l 4. 038 non-Belgian (3. 45%) l centre of the city: l 19. 545 inhabitants (16. 7%) l 1. 744 non-Belgian (43. 2%) To compare : Ghent = 9% of total population non-Belgian

SOME FACTS FINANCES l l l Total city budget : 203. 615. 143 € SOME FACTS FINANCES l l l Total city budget : 203. 615. 143 € Total cost of city staff : 92. 515. 847 € (45%) Total budget for maintenance & restoration of buildings = ± 6, 8 million € (3%) Total budget for tourism : ± 2 million euro The total budget for cultural events is also very substantial ECONOMY l Harbour of Zeebrugge: § 26. 000 jobs l Tourism: § 5. 000 jobs § 272 million euro/year

SOME FACTS TOURISM Numbers l l More than 4 million visitors each year 1. SOME FACTS TOURISM Numbers l l More than 4 million visitors each year 1. 532. 078 tourist staying overnight (+10% compared to 2009) § United Kingdom (400. 000 – 29, 9%) § Belgium (194. 000 – 14, 55%) § Netherlands (184. 000 – 13, 8%) § France (171. 000 – 12, 8%) § Germany (5, 8%) l tourist attractions: § boat tours: 954. 060 people/year § city museums: 860. 445 people/year Ø threat for the preservation of the city

SOME FACTS Hotels: l 111 hotels l 7711 beds l 30% **** l 45% SOME FACTS Hotels: l 111 hotels l 7711 beds l 30% **** l 45% *** l not enough rooms in budget class l 1 camping B &B’s: l Only in a private dwellings l ± 180 rooms l Number tripled between 2003 and 2011 Holiday homes: • 89 holiday homes or flats

SHORT HISTORY 9 th century l Bryggia/Bruggia’ l centre of the city: Burg, Market, SHORT HISTORY 9 th century l Bryggia/Bruggia’ l centre of the city: Burg, Market, Oude Burg 1127 l first fortifications 1200 -1500 l one of the economic capitals of Europe l bigger than London l About 40. 000 inhabitants in the city centre l growing importance of harbour 16 th century l fortifications with 9 gates (4 survive) l artistic and cultural growth

16 th, 17 th and 18 th century : period of decline l l 16 th, 17 th and 18 th century : period of decline l l l silting of the canal to the sea leads to economic disintegration. Bruges remains a modest commercial city with a diminishing maritime vocation Slowly impoverishing city

SHORT HISTORY 19 th century Bruges finds itself a future in: l economic revival SHORT HISTORY 19 th century Bruges finds itself a future in: l economic revival of the harbour: § new plans to connect Bruges to the sea § creation of the harbour of Zeebrugge (inaugurated in 1907) l tourism § tourists since 1816 (Waterloo) § romanticism of the ruinous city l restoration and neogothic movement § restoration grants since 1877 § new construction inspired on the gothic principles

SHORT HISTORY SHORT HISTORY

SHORT HISTORY 20 th century l l l no devastations in both world wars SHORT HISTORY 20 th century l l l no devastations in both world wars economic growth in the harbour but further decline of the city centre impoverished inner city population new build villas in the suburbs slums 1965: Marcus Gerards Foundation l private initiative : concern for the decline of the city centre l first restorations of deteriorated historic houses

PRESERVATION MANAGEMENT 20 th century : development of preservation management plan for the historic PRESERVATION MANAGEMENT 20 th century : development of preservation management plan for the historic city centre l l l 1970 : new political constellation with the elections of a new city council aware of the problems of the historic city willing to establish a number of actions to preserve the historic centre from further decay economic properous time with financial means to enhance actions for the first time : alderman responsible for the preservation of the city centre

PRESERVATION MANAGEMENT 1971 - Department of Historical Monuments and Urban Renewal new city department PRESERVATION MANAGEMENT 1971 - Department of Historical Monuments and Urban Renewal new city department in charge of the historic city (1 st in Belgium) with l a team of architects, architectural historians and building controlers, technicians, … l responsible for l the inventory and research of the city centre historic buildings l restoration programs on historic buildings § control of grants for restoration on non-listed buildings § control of building projects on listed buildings l guidance of building projects and all alterations in the city centre l communication to the public : “Architectural Heritage Days”

PRESERVATION MANAGEMENT 1972 - Structural Masterplan : a future for the historic city (1 PRESERVATION MANAGEMENT 1972 - Structural Masterplan : a future for the historic city (1 st in Belgium) Unique city: l small-scale city (430 hectares, +/- 20. 000 inhabitants) l original medieval street pattern l historic buildings & canals Goals: l preservation of the typical character of the city centre : maintain historic fabric and building substance l vitality and appeal of the city centre must be guaranteed to attract more city inhabitants l maintain and enhance small business functions in the inner city l high quality contemporary building must be encouraged l management of traffic in the city

PRESERVATION MANAGEMENT 1976– City restoration grant l l l Applicable on the non-listed buildings PRESERVATION MANAGEMENT 1976– City restoration grant l l l Applicable on the non-listed buildings 50% of the restoration costs on facades on the street 30% of the restoration costs on historic structures in the houses 30% of the restoration costs and back facades Max. grant is 18. 500€ 1979 – City grant for improvement of dwelling quality l l l Ø applicable on all small houses and dwellings improvement of sanitary comfort and sewage systems repare of roofs and gutters exclusion of damp out of building walls 40% of the costs are refunded Of great importance to the improvement of dwelling quality

PRESERVATION MANAGEMENT Traffic plans & new lay-out of public spaces l l l 1979 PRESERVATION MANAGEMENT Traffic plans & new lay-out of public spaces l l l 1979 : traffic management plan avoiding through traffic Building of underground parking space Pedestrianisation of streets and places Small building projects for parking facilities for inhabitants Sanitation of the sewage system enhancing improvement of the waterquality in the canals Management of green spaces and parks l Preservation of existing public parks and improvement of the landscape quality and variety of plants l Active policy on buying private grounds to turn them into public parks and playgrounds

21 st century : UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY 1998 : Beguinage becomes UNESCO WHP 21 st century : UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY 1998 : Beguinage becomes UNESCO WHP

21 st century : UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY 1999 : Belfry becomes UNESCO WHP 21 st century : UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY 1999 : Belfry becomes UNESCO WHP

21 st century : UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY l l BELFRY BEGUINAGE 2000 : 21 st century : UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY l l BELFRY BEGUINAGE 2000 : historic city centre becomes UNESCO WHP 2009 : Procession of The Holy Blood Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

21 st century : UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY l Criterion (ii): The Historic Town 21 st century : UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY l Criterion (ii): The Historic Town of Brugge is testimony, over a long period, of a considerable exchange of influences on the development of architecture, particularly in brick Gothic, as well as favouring innovative artistic influences in the development of medieval painting, being the birthplace of the school of the Flemish Primitives. l Criterion (iv): The Historic Town of Brugge is an outstanding example of an architectural ensemble, illustrating significant stages in the commercial and cultural fields in medieval Europe, of which the public, social, and religious institutions are a living testimony. l Criterion (vi): The Town of Brugge was birthplace of the Flemish Primitives and a centre of patronage and development of painting in the Middle Ages with artists such as Jan van Eyck and Hans Memling.

21 st century : CULTURAL CAPITAL OF EUROPE 2002 l l Financial support for 21 st century : CULTURAL CAPITAL OF EUROPE 2002 l l Financial support for restoration of important public buildings Active policy to change the cultural image of the city by realising modern architecture l Concert hall l Pavillion by Toyo Ito l Bridges on the fortications Financial support for new constructions Financial support for cultural activities en exhibitions

21 st century : CULTURAL CAPITAL 21 st century : CULTURAL CAPITAL

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT 2006: New Structural Plan for Bruges Most goals of 1972 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT 2006: New Structural Plan for Bruges Most goals of 1972 have been achieved. Some problems remain or have shown up. l l l l Bruges must continue to be an agreeable city to live in. It is no longer intended to increase the number of inhabitants. Trade must remain in the typical commercial streets, leading from the old city gates. Protection of the dwelling quality by controling touristic development Concentration of tourism is encouraged in the so called “Golden Triangle” (Beguinage – Market – Zand). Selective accessibility to the city is to be increased. The area around the railway station should be the centre of new city development. Focus on interaction with the surrounding region.

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT 2006: New Structural Plan for Bruges Golden Triangle Beguinage – 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT 2006: New Structural Plan for Bruges Golden Triangle Beguinage – Market – Zand - railway station

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT 2006: New Structural Plan for Bruges TOURISME 1996 : stop 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT 2006: New Structural Plan for Bruges TOURISME 1996 : stop on new hotel developments 2002 : stop on holiday homes (since 2002) l 1995 : “S. O. S. for a bearable living style for Bruges’ residents” l keep inhabitants in the city centre; l a lively city for visitors and inhabitants; l a halt to the addition of more hotels (only expansion of existing hotels is possible);

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT 2006: New Structural Plan for Bruges Current city policy towards 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT 2006: New Structural Plan for Bruges Current city policy towards tourism l l l stimulating overnight tourism (less one-day-tourists) attracting people all year: / international marketing § publicity in Belgian stations, Paris, Charleroi Airport § joint promotions P&O, Charleroi Airport § try-out GPS-guides § City Film : ‘In Bruges’ events during fall/winter : § cultural exhibitions : Flemish Primitives, e. o. § Brugge, hartje winter’ Result : l +10% overnights each year l +20% in four years l still more & more tourists l restricted to certain area’s l tourism department: : no interaction with department of conservation and heritage

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Tourism 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Tourism

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture A unique historic city with medieval roots wanting 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture A unique historic city with medieval roots wanting to keep this image but also aiming to be a lively 21 st century city. Problematic discussions on new developments and contemporary architecture. The City Aesthetic Commission l aesthetical advise on alterations on existing buildings and proposed new buildings Vision : old versus new l maximum conservation of architectural heritage l an existing building can only be demolished if it has no historical or landscape value and if the replacing building adds an extra aesthetic value l new buildings and additions should be in a contemporary architectural style

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture Since 1993 : City Building Regulations are very 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture Since 1993 : City Building Regulations are very strict, and are applicable as well on restoration or renovation projects as on new buildings for example l building permits are obligatory for any change of function l permission is needed for alteration of the façade (plastering or the removal of the plastering), cleaning, … l only sloped roofs are permitted l advice has to be asked for colour changes (painting) l building materials are regulated l shop windows are strictly regulated l All expressions of advertisement are regulated l The use of the public domain needs a permit from the city council

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT Contemporary architecture

21 st CENTURY UNESCO MANAGEMENT l l l 2009 : Citizens-organisations wrote a letter 21 st CENTURY UNESCO MANAGEMENT l l l 2009 : Citizens-organisations wrote a letter of complaint to UNESCO, Paris They consider that the city authorities should not approve to new building and large scale developments in the city centre. They also consider a lack of conservation policy. March 2010 : visit of UNESCO-delegation to evaluate the complaints August 2010 : the UNESCO-report includes recommendations towards the city: § legal protection of the entire city § advisory board of experts § evaluation of the visual impact of new and high projects § …

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT UNESCO MANAGEMENT Rehabilitation project of the House of Casselberg and 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT UNESCO MANAGEMENT Rehabilitation project of the House of Casselberg and Seven Towers

21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT UNESCO MANAGEMENT 21 st CENTURY MANAGEMENT UNESCO MANAGEMENT