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Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition Chapter 2 Strategic Uses of Information Systems Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition Chapter 2 Strategic Uses of Information Systems

Objectives • Explain what business strategy and strategic moves are • Illustrate how information Objectives • Explain what business strategy and strategic moves are • Illustrate how information systems can give businesses a competitive advantage • Identify basic initiatives for gaining a competitive advantage • Explain what makes an information system a strategic information system Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 2

Objectives (continued) • Identify fundamental requirements for developing strategic information systems • Explain circumstances Objectives (continued) • Identify fundamental requirements for developing strategic information systems • Explain circumstances and initiatives that make one IT strategy succeed another fail Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 3

Strategy and Strategic Moves • Strategy: framework, or approach, to obtaining an advantageous position Strategy and Strategic Moves • Strategy: framework, or approach, to obtaining an advantageous position • Business strategy: a plan to help an organization outperform its competitors – Often done by creating new opportunities, not beating rivals • Information system may be built to solve a problem or to seize an opportunity Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 4

Strategy and Strategic Moves (continued) • Strategic information system (SIS): an information system that Strategy and Strategic Moves (continued) • Strategic information system (SIS): an information system that helps seize opportunities • Strategic advantage: using strategy to maximize company strengths • Competitive advantage: having maximized an organization’s strengths to beat its rivals • Using the Web strategically can be advantageous – Simply extending business to the Web is no longer a strategic advantage Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 5

Achieving a Competitive Advantage • Competitive advantage is achieved when a forprofit company increases Achieving a Competitive Advantage • Competitive advantage is achieved when a forprofit company increases its profits significantly, usually through increased market share • Many initiatives can be used to gain competitive advantage • Strategic moves often combine two or more initiatives • The essence of strategy is innovation Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 6

Achieving a Competitive Advantage (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 7 Achieving a Competitive Advantage (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 7

Achieving a Competitive Advantage (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 8 Achieving a Competitive Advantage (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 8

Initiative #1: Reduce Costs • Customers want to pay as little as possible for Initiative #1: Reduce Costs • Customers want to pay as little as possible for products or services • Reduce costs to lower price • Automation greatly reduces manufacturing costs • Web can automate customer service activities • Companies that are first to adopt advanced systems that reduce labor enjoy competitive advantage until their rivals do likewise Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 9

Initiative #2: Raise Barriers to Market Entrants • Less competition is better for company Initiative #2: Raise Barriers to Market Entrants • Less competition is better for company • Gain competitive advantage by making it difficult or impossible for others to produce the same product or service • To lower competition, raise barriers to entrants – Obtain legal protection of intellectual property (copyrights and patents on inventions, techniques, and services) – Examples: Amazon’s one-click, Priceline’s reverse auction Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 10

Initiative #2: Raise Barriers to Market Entrants (continued) • Build unmatchable information systems – Initiative #2: Raise Barriers to Market Entrants (continued) • Build unmatchable information systems – Rivals must do likewise or license your technology – Example: State Street Corp. ’s pension fund management ISs Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 11

Initiative #3: Establish High Switching Costs • Switching costs: expenses incurred when customer stops Initiative #3: Establish High Switching Costs • Switching costs: expenses incurred when customer stops buying from one company and starts buying from another – Explicit: charge customer for switching (early termination of contract) – Implicit: indirect costs over period of time, such as implementation of new product, staff retraining • High switching costs lock in customers – Example: proprietary software, such as ERP systems, that have custom modifications Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 12

Initiative #4: Create New Products or Services • Having a unique product or service Initiative #4: Create New Products or Services • Having a unique product or service gives competitive advantage for a period of time • First mover: organization that is first to offer a new product or service – Usually results in superior brand name, better technology, more experience, or critical mass • Critical mass: body of clients that is large enough to attract other clients • Examples: e. Bay, Apple’s i. Phone Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 13

Initiative #4: Create New Products or Services (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 14 Initiative #4: Create New Products or Services (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 14

Initiative #4: Create New Products or Services (continued) • Being a first mover is Initiative #4: Create New Products or Services (continued) • Being a first mover is not a guarantee of longterm success – Netscape – Infoseek • Must continue to improve and innovate to maintain competitive advantage Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 15

Initiative #5: Differentiate Products or Services • Product differentiation: persuading customers that your product Initiative #5: Differentiate Products or Services • Product differentiation: persuading customers that your product is better than competitors’ – Usually achieved through advertising and customer experience – Exemplified by brand name success – Promotes brand name • Example: Skype, You. Tube Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 16

Initiative #5: Differentiate Products or Services (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 17 Initiative #5: Differentiate Products or Services (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 17

Initiative #5: Differentiate Products or Services (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 18 Initiative #5: Differentiate Products or Services (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 18

Initiative #6: Enhance Products or Services • Enhance existing products or services to increase Initiative #6: Enhance Products or Services • Enhance existing products or services to increase value to consumer • Many products and services have been enhanced by use of the Web – Examples: Charles Schwab, Progressive Groups Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 19

Initiative #6: Enhance Products or Services (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 20 Initiative #6: Enhance Products or Services (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 20

Initiative #7: Establish Alliances • Alliance: two companies combining services – Makes product more Initiative #7: Establish Alliances • Alliance: two companies combining services – Makes product more attractive – Reduces costs – Provides one-stop shopping • Affiliate program: linking to other companies and rewarding the linker for click-throughs Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 21

Initiative #7: Establish Alliances (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 22 Initiative #7: Establish Alliances (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 22

Initiative #8: Lock in Suppliers or Buyers • Accomplished by achieving bargaining power • Initiative #8: Lock in Suppliers or Buyers • Accomplished by achieving bargaining power • Bargaining power: leverage to influence buyers and suppliers – Achieved by being major competitor or eliminating competitors – Uses purchase volume as leverage over suppliers • Lock in buyers by making them fear high switching costs Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 23

Initiative #8: Lock in Suppliers or Buyers (continued) • Lock in clients by: – Initiative #8: Lock in Suppliers or Buyers (continued) • Lock in clients by: – Giving away a product to make it become a standard (Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, Adobe’s Acrobat Reader, Macromedia’s Flash player) – Creating a physical or software limitation on using technology (Apple Computer’s i. Tunes) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 24

Creating and Maintaining Strategic Information Systems • Many opportunities to accomplish competitive edge with Creating and Maintaining Strategic Information Systems • Many opportunities to accomplish competitive edge with information technology • Innovative software can establish a competitive advantage • Strategic information systems can be created from scratch or by modifying a previous system • To be an SIS, an information system must: – Serve an organization goal – Collaborate with other functional units of company Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 25

Creating an SIS • Top management must be involved throughout the process • Strategic Creating an SIS • Top management must be involved throughout the process • Strategic information system must be part of the overall organizational strategic plan • Management should ask questions to determine whether to develop a new SIS • Estimating the financial benefits of SIS is extremely difficult – Many fundamental business changes may be involved Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 26

Creating an SIS (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 27 Creating an SIS (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 27

Reengineering and Organizational Change • To implement SIS, organizations must rethink the way they Reengineering and Organizational Change • To implement SIS, organizations must rethink the way they operate • Reengineering: Eliminating and rebuilding operations from the ground up – Often involves new machinery and elimination of management layers – Frequently involves information technology – Goal is to achieve huge efficiency improvements • New SIS requires revamping business processes Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 28

Competitive Advantage as a Moving Target • Competitive advantage is often short-lived • Competitors Competitive Advantage as a Moving Target • Competitive advantage is often short-lived • Competitors soon imitate the leader, diminishing the advantage • SIS quickly becomes a standard business practice • Must continually modify and enhance technology to sustain competitive advantage Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 29

Jet. Blue: A Success Story • Jet. Blue: airline company that entered a formerly Jet. Blue: A Success Story • Jet. Blue: airline company that entered a formerly hurting market with great success – Ticketless travel – Automation with IT – Reduced costs – Improved service Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 30

Jet. Blue: A Success Story (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 31 Jet. Blue: A Success Story (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 31

Massive Automation • Jet. Blue developed Open Skies software to automate ticket handling – Massive Automation • Jet. Blue developed Open Skies software to automate ticket handling – Avoids travel agents and their fees – Uses reservation agents who work from home using Vo. IP – Encourages Internet flight booking by customers • Maintenance information system used to log airplane parts and time cycles for replacement Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 32

Massive Automation (continued) • Flight planning to maximize occupied seats is automated • Operational Massive Automation (continued) • Flight planning to maximize occupied seats is automated • Operational data is updated flight by flight and available to management at all times • Training management system eliminates need for paper records, allows tracking of employee training Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 33

Away from Tradition • Jet. Blue used innovative technique for routing airplanes – Does Away from Tradition • Jet. Blue used innovative technique for routing airplanes – Does not use hub-and-spokes method, only point to point – Take most profitable route between cities • Keeping flight manuals on laptop computers allows for paperless cockpits – Saves preflight time associated with calculating weight of plane (annual savings of ~4800 hours) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 34

Away from Tradition (continued) • Uses biometrics for authentication and authorization • Implemented a Away from Tradition (continued) • Uses biometrics for authentication and authorization • Implemented a paperless frequent flier program Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 35

Enhanced Service • Technology helps Jet. Blue offer better service – Leather seats – Enhanced Service • Technology helps Jet. Blue offer better service – Leather seats – Real-time in-flight television – On-schedule departures and arrivals – Fewest mishandled bags in the industry – Rapid check-in times and fast baggage retrieval – Better security Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 36

Impressive Performance • Most important metric in airline industry is cost per available seat-mile Impressive Performance • Most important metric in airline industry is cost per available seat-mile (CASM) – Measures how much it costs to fly a passenger one mile • Jet. Blue had lowest or second-lowest CASM for its first three years of operations – Less than 7 cents (industry average is 11 cents) • Jet. Blue fills 78% of its seats, while competitors fill only 71% Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 37

Late Mover Advantage • Late mover: enters the market later than other competitors – Late Mover Advantage • Late mover: enters the market later than other competitors – Can be viewed as advantage – Implements latest available technologies – Not burdened with legacy systems • Jet. Blue used 40% beta software Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 38

Ford on the Web: A Failure Story • Some strategic moves end up being Ford on the Web: A Failure Story • Some strategic moves end up being colossal failures • May fail because of lack of attention to details • Unable to predict customer or business partner response • Ford’s great failed initiative was undertaken by Jacque Nasser, CEO of Ford Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 39

The Ideas • Nasser was eager to push Ford to the Web; his ideas The Ideas • Nasser was eager to push Ford to the Web; his ideas included: – Install devices in vehicles to enable drivers and passengers to access Web – Establish Web site to market parts to auto manufacturers via auctions to encourage price competition among parts suppliers – Push vehicle sales to Web and bypass dealers and their fees Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 40

Hitting the Wall • Customers not very interested in Web access in vehicles in Hitting the Wall • Customers not very interested in Web access in vehicles in 2000 • Other car companies learned to use online part auctioning • State franchising laws did not allow car companies to bypass dealers – Online sales initiative failed Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 41

The Retreat • Ford abandoned plan to sell directly to consumers online • Web The Retreat • Ford abandoned plan to sell directly to consumers online • Web site used to select proper model only, but consumers must still utilize a dealer • Web site sold cars, but not enough to save Nasser’s job Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 42

The Bleeding Edge • Ford case shows that being a first mover is risky The Bleeding Edge • Ford case shows that being a first mover is risky • Pioneers sometimes get burned even with careful planning • Bleeding edge: failure occurring because of company trying to be on leading edge – No prior experience from which to learn – Implementation costs are greater than anticipated – Technology ends up losing money for company Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 43

The Bleeding Edge (continued) • Due to bleeding edge, companies often wait before implementing The Bleeding Edge (continued) • Due to bleeding edge, companies often wait before implementing newer technologies • Microsoft’s approach is to seize an existing idea, improve it, and promote it with marketing power – Also known as competing by emulating and improving Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 44

Summary • Some information systems have become strategic tools as a result of strategic Summary • Some information systems have become strategic tools as a result of strategic planning; others have evolved into strategic tools • Strategic information systems help companies gain strategic advantage • Company achieves strategic advantage by using strategy to maximize its strength, resulting in a competitive advantage Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 45

Summary (continued) • Various initiatives for establishing strategic advantage: – Cost reduction, raising barriers Summary (continued) • Various initiatives for establishing strategic advantage: – Cost reduction, raising barriers to competitors, establishing high switching costs, new products, differentiating products, enhancing products, alliances, and locking suppliers • Creating standards often establishes strategic advantage in software industry Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 46

Summary (continued) • Reengineering: the process of redesigning a business process from scratch to Summary (continued) • Reengineering: the process of redesigning a business process from scratch to significantly reduce costs • Strategic advances from information systems are short-lived; new opportunities must always be sought • Must keep systems on the leading edge to maintain strategic advantage • Bleeding edge is the undesirable result of a failed innovation effort Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 47