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MAJOR BELIEF SYSTEMS MAJOR BELIEF SYSTEMS

HINDUISM Origin/dates—Aryan invaders/1700 -1500 BCE (with later additions) Spread—primarily India and modern Pakistan HINDUISM Origin/dates—Aryan invaders/1700 -1500 BCE (with later additions) Spread—primarily India and modern Pakistan

HINDUISM Major Beliefs One ultimate reality—Brahma Reincarnation based on karma Dharma, duties, rules of HINDUISM Major Beliefs One ultimate reality—Brahma Reincarnation based on karma Dharma, duties, rules of conduct Vedas

HINDUISM Other important information: No “founder” or “date” of founding Tolerant of other religions HINDUISM Other important information: No “founder” or “date” of founding Tolerant of other religions Little in the way of formal beliefs Adaptable to meditation and ritual

BUDDHISM Origin/dates—India (Siddhartha Gautama)/~500 BCE Spread—Northern India, East Asia, SE Asia, Japan BUDDHISM Origin/dates—India (Siddhartha Gautama)/~500 BCE Spread—Northern India, East Asia, SE Asia, Japan

BUDDHISM Major Beliefs Four Noble Truths ▪ Universality of suffering ▪ Desire is the BUDDHISM Major Beliefs Four Noble Truths ▪ Universality of suffering ▪ Desire is the cause of suffering ▪ Nirvana as the cessation of desire ▪ Eightfold Path as the guide

BUDDHISM Other important information: Strong monastic tradition Spread via travelling monks Mahayana and Theraveda BUDDHISM Other important information: Strong monastic tradition Spread via travelling monks Mahayana and Theraveda sects Zen Buddhism…. enlightenment through meditation

CONFUCIANISM Origin/dates—China (Kong Fu Zi)/~500 BCE Spread—China (partly due to work of Mencius) CONFUCIANISM Origin/dates—China (Kong Fu Zi)/~500 BCE Spread—China (partly due to work of Mencius)

CONFUCIANISM Major Beliefs Li, Ren, Xiao Junzi Five relationships ▪ Ruler/subject ▪ Father/son ▪ CONFUCIANISM Major Beliefs Li, Ren, Xiao Junzi Five relationships ▪ Ruler/subject ▪ Father/son ▪ Elder/younger brother ▪ Husband/wife ▪ Friend/friend

CONFUCIANISM Other important information Ethical system (human conduct) rather than a religion Humans/human behavior CONFUCIANISM Other important information Ethical system (human conduct) rather than a religion Humans/human behavior can be improved Dominant influence on Chinese government Placed high value on education Analects

JUDAISM Origin/date—Hebrews/first writings 1000 -800 BCE Spread—Israel, later diaspora…North Africa, Middle East, Europe JUDAISM Origin/date—Hebrews/first writings 1000 -800 BCE Spread—Israel, later diaspora…North Africa, Middle East, Europe

JUDAISM Major beliefs Monotheism Chosen people Coming messiah Torah, Tanakh, and Talmud JUDAISM Major beliefs Monotheism Chosen people Coming messiah Torah, Tanakh, and Talmud

JUDAISM Other important information First monotheistic religion Influenced Christianity and Islam No overarching hierarchy JUDAISM Other important information First monotheistic religion Influenced Christianity and Islam No overarching hierarchy Four major levels of observance ▪ Orthodox ▪ Conservative ▪ Reform ▪ Reconstruction

CHRISTIANITY Origin/date—Israel (Jesus of Nazareth)/30 s CE Spread—Israel, through Roman world, Byzantium, Europe CHRISTIANITY Origin/date—Israel (Jesus of Nazareth)/30 s CE Spread—Israel, through Roman world, Byzantium, Europe

CHRISTIANITY Major beliefs Monotheistic w/ Jesus as Messiah Salvation through grace Gospels w/ large CHRISTIANITY Major beliefs Monotheistic w/ Jesus as Messiah Salvation through grace Gospels w/ large body of interpretative writings (Pauline letters, etc. )

CHRISTIANITY Other important information Legalized by Constantine 300 s CE Strong ascetic/monastic tradition Missionary CHRISTIANITY Other important information Legalized by Constantine 300 s CE Strong ascetic/monastic tradition Missionary outreach Split between Catholicism and Protestantism in 1500 s No overarching hierarchy; denominations typically do have hierarchies

ISLAM Origins/date—Arabia (Muhammad)/early 600 s CE Spread—Arabian Peninsula, Middle East, Africa, India, SW Europe ISLAM Origins/date—Arabia (Muhammad)/early 600 s CE Spread—Arabian Peninsula, Middle East, Africa, India, SW Europe

ISLAM Major beliefs Monotheistic (Allah) w/ Muhammad as the primary prophet Five Pillars of ISLAM Major beliefs Monotheistic (Allah) w/ Muhammad as the primary prophet Five Pillars of Islam ▪ We All Feel Prayer Pays ▪ ▪ ▪ Witness (“There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His prophet. ”) Alms (to assist poor) Fasting (during Ramadan) Prayer (5 times daily) Pilgrimage (to Mecca) Qu’ran

ISLAM Other important information Hijra—migration from Mecca to Medina Division between Sunni (majority) and ISLAM Other important information Hijra—migration from Mecca to Medina Division between Sunni (majority) and Shi’a sects No overarching hierarchy Sharia—legal code

MAJOR BELIEF SYSTEMS MAJOR BELIEF SYSTEMS