Machines that Make machines Hod Lipson Mechanical

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Machines that Make machines Hod Lipson Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Computing & Information Science Machines that Make machines Hod Lipson Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Computing & Information Science Cornell University College of Engineering Computational Synthesis Lab http: //ccsl. mae. cornell. edu

The two meta-challenges of Engineering: 1. Design a machines that can design other machines The two meta-challenges of Engineering: 1. Design a machines that can design other machines 2. Make a machine that can make other machines

Machines that Design Machines Lipson & Pollack, Nature 406, 2000 Machines that Design Machines Lipson & Pollack, Nature 406, 2000

Need more design space Need more design space

Fab. Lab in a box • Fablabers are distinguished by disciplinary desegregation • Lots Fab. Lab in a box • Fablabers are distinguished by disciplinary desegregation • Lots of machines can make parts of other machines • Is there a universal fabricator? – Top down approaches – Bottom up approaches

Printable Machines Printable Machines

The Universal Fabricator On a single machine • Make arbitrary shapes / structure – The Universal Fabricator On a single machine • Make arbitrary shapes / structure – preassembled mechanisms and parts • Make arbitrary circuits – Sensing, processing, power and actuation • Achieve large range of functionalities – Use large range of materials • Increase design space – Afforded by co-fabrication

Analog vs. Digital Continuous paths Volume Fill High-resolution patterning, mixing Thin films (60 nm) Analog vs. Digital Continuous paths Volume Fill High-resolution patterning, mixing Thin films (60 nm)

Printed Active Materials Some of our printed electromechanical / biological components: (a) elastic joint Printed Active Materials Some of our printed electromechanical / biological components: (a) elastic joint (b) zinc-air battery (c) metalalloy wires, (d) IPMC actuator, (e) polymer field-effect transistor, (f) thermoplastic and elastomer parts, (g) cartilage cell-seeded implant in shape of sheep meniscus from CT scan. With Evan Malone

Zinc-Air Batteries With Megan Berry Zinc-Air Batteries With Megan Berry

IPMC Actuators IPMC Actuators

Multi-material 3 D Printer CAT Scan Sterile Cartridge Printed Agarose Meniscus Cell Impregnated Alginate Multi-material 3 D Printer CAT Scan Sterile Cartridge Printed Agarose Meniscus Cell Impregnated Alginate Hydrogel Direct 3 D Print after 20 min. With Larry Bonassar, Daniel Cohen

The Universal Fabricator: Parallel to the Universal Computer • In the 60’s, a computer The Universal Fabricator: Parallel to the Universal Computer • In the 60’s, a computer – – – Cost > $100, 000 Size: Refrigerator Speed: Hours/job Operation: Trained staff Usability: Maintenance intensive Digital PDP-11, 1969 • Today: – Faster, cheaper, better, easier Stratasys FDM Vantage, 2005

Exponential Growth RP Machine Sales Source: Wohlers Associates, 2004 report Exponential Growth RP Machine Sales Source: Wohlers Associates, 2004 report

Critical Mass • The computer took off when it infiltrated the home market • Critical Mass • The computer took off when it infiltrated the home market • Solved the chicken and egg problem: – People were motivated to write software for their own needs because there was available hardware – People were motivated to buy hardware because there was software to run on it

The First Home Computer • ALTAIR 8800 microcomputer kit (1975) – $397 (2 MHz, The First Home Computer • ALTAIR 8800 microcomputer kit (1975) – $397 (2 MHz, 256 bytes RAM) Generally credited with launching the PC revolution

Fab@Home Low cost, hackable, fablabable, open source [email protected] Low cost, hackable, fablabable, open source

Bottom-up Fabrication Bottom-up Fabrication

Self-assembling machines Modular Robotics: high complexity, do not scale in size • Fukuda et Self-assembling machines Modular Robotics: high complexity, do not scale in size • Fukuda et al: CEBOT, 1988 § Stochastic Systems: scale in size, limited complexity Murata et al: Fracta, 1994 § § § • Yim et al: Poly. Bot, 2000 • Chiang and Chirikjian, 1993 § • Winfree et al, 1998 Murata et al, 2000 Jørgensen et al: ATRON, 2004 Rus et al, 1998, 2001 § Whitesides et al, 1998 Zykov & Lipson, 2005

Dynamically Programmable Self Assembly Dynamically Programmable Self Assembly

Construction Sequence High Pressure Low Pressure Construction Sequence High Pressure Low Pressure

Construction Sequence Construction Sequence

Construction Sequence Construction Sequence

Construction Sequence Construction Sequence

Construction Sequence Construction Sequence

Construction Sequence Construction Sequence

Reconfiguration Sequence Reconfiguration Sequence

Reconfiguration Sequence Reconfiguration Sequence

Implementation 2 Inside of the cube: • Servoactuated valves • Basic Stamp II controller Implementation 2 Inside of the cube: • Servoactuated valves • Basic Stamp II controller • Central fluid manifold • Communicatio n, power transmission lines Embossed fluid manifold Hermaphroditic interface Orifices for fluid flow With Paul White, Victor Zykov

Implementation 2: Fluidic Bonding Movie accelerated x 16 With Paul White, Victor Zykov Implementation 2: Fluidic Bonding Movie accelerated x 16 With Paul White, Victor Zykov

300 µm With David Erickson, Mike Tolley 300 µm With David Erickson, Mike Tolley

Conclusions • • Universal Designer Universal fabricator – Makes shapes, circuits, sensors, actuators, energy Conclusions • • Universal Designer Universal fabricator – Makes shapes, circuits, sensors, actuators, energy & information processing • Top-down approach – Printable machines • Bottom-Up approach – Dynamical self–assembly Cornell University College of Engineering Computational Synthesis Lab http: //ccsl. mae. cornell. edu

Credits Viktor Zykov Evan Malone Daniel Cohen Also: Paul White, David Erickson Mike Tolley Credits Viktor Zykov Evan Malone Daniel Cohen Also: Paul White, David Erickson Mike Tolley




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