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LSSG Green Belt Training Define: Getting Started - Alignment. 1 LSSG Green Belt Training Define: Getting Started - Alignment. 1

DMAIC Six Sigma - Define l The Big Picture l Control l Improve Identify DMAIC Six Sigma - Define l The Big Picture l Control l Improve Identify Customers l Analyze Define l l Customer requirements and expectations for product or service Complete Charter l Measure Alignment Identify opportunity, project boundaries, leadership and team Understand Process l Map business process and identify stakeholders 2

Aligning Project with Broader Goals MISSION GOALS AND OBJECTIVES STRATEGY PROJECTS 3 Aligning Project with Broader Goals MISSION GOALS AND OBJECTIVES STRATEGY PROJECTS 3

Alignment – Mission / Purpose Corporate Mission Statements “We are ladies and gentlemen serving Alignment – Mission / Purpose Corporate Mission Statements “We are ladies and gentlemen serving ladies and gentlemen. ” Ritz-Carlton “People, Service, Profits” Federal Express Typical Organizational Mission Statement Our mission is to assist in designing and implementing a team concept of management throughout all levels in our plant that will facilitate employee involvement for the mutual benefit of all in achieving our goal of continuous improvement in safety, environment, quality, production and cost. 4

Alignment - Goals and Objectives “SMART” Objectives Specific Measurable Attainable Reasonable Tied to Time Alignment - Goals and Objectives “SMART” Objectives Specific Measurable Attainable Reasonable Tied to Time Frame Unclear Project Objective: • Remove CLS data entry during Shipping Process Clearer Project Objective: • Reduce shipping paperwork data entry errors by 25% by June 2000. 5

Alignment - Projects PROJECT SCOPING Initial Issue Why? Second Level Why? Third Level Why? Alignment - Projects PROJECT SCOPING Initial Issue Why? Second Level Why? Third Level Why? ? Perform project scoping until you cannot answer why. 6

Project Prioritization 7 Project Prioritization 7

Chartering a Project Goals l Problem Statement l Project and Process Mission l Objective Chartering a Project Goals l Problem Statement l Project and Process Mission l Objective Statement l l Enables project owner to set expectations and creates ability to get “buy in” Obtain Commitment Set Roles and Responsibility Set Project Schedule Secondary Goals l Acquire Resources l Focus on Project Objective Project Name Business Unit Department Start Date Project Budget Contact Information Project Stakeholder Project Champion Process Owner Black/ Green Belt Team Members Name Phone number E-mail Process Name Product/ Service Description Objective Project Y Baseline Forecast Objective Project Scope Statement Assumptions/ Constraints/ Risk Benefits Signature and Date 8

Selecting the Right Project Focus l Reduced Time l Improved Quality l Reduced Cost Selecting the Right Project Focus l Reduced Time l Improved Quality l Reduced Cost l Improved Customer Satisfaction l Combinations of the Above 9

Roles and Responsibilities - RASCI Chart Kristy Tammy Bobby Gregory Vincent Steve Antonio Has Roles and Responsibilities - RASCI Chart Kristy Tammy Bobby Gregory Vincent Steve Antonio Has Responsibility for decision/execution and making it happen. The “prime mover. ” l Approval required before taking action l Jim l Support member for decision or activity Project Gantt R A S R - C - S l Coaches R before plans/decisions are finalized Project FMEA R I - - - C S - l Is kept Informed P. S. Software A I R C I A I R 10

Gantt Chart - Scheduling Schedule of Activities 11 Gantt Chart - Scheduling Schedule of Activities 11

Listening to the Voices Voice of the Customer – Quality, Price, Responsiveness Process – Listening to the Voices Voice of the Customer – Quality, Price, Responsiveness Process – Process Flow, Value Stream, Control, Capability Employee – Satisfaction, Worth, Recognition, Safety Also remember the other stakeholders – l Owners – Returns, Growth, Security l Suppliers – Involvement, Growth, Price, Stability 12

Voice of Customer (VOC) Goal - To identify how to create value to customers Voice of Customer (VOC) Goal - To identify how to create value to customers Steps: l Collect raw data – Interviews, Surveys l Group data into themes – Affinity Diagrams l Identify underlying issues (drivers) – Kano Analysis l Define measurable variables (Critical-to-Quality, or CTQ, variables) – House of Quality (HOQ) “I do not like dealing with your company” VOC Products not delivered on time 5 Whys Need 10 day lead time CTQ 13

Customer Satisfaction Survey Goal: to measure the quality of a product or service Uses: Customer Satisfaction Survey Goal: to measure the quality of a product or service Uses: l To identify areas which need improvement ways to gain back and retain customers l To identify gaps in management and customer’s point of view l To acquire feedback for improvement 14

Qantas Airways Survey of Passenger Needs – Order of Priority 1. 2. 3. 4. Qantas Airways Survey of Passenger Needs – Order of Priority 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. No lost baggage No damaged baggage Clean toilets Comfortable seats Prompt baggage delivery Ample leg room Good quality meals Prompt reservation service Friendly/efficient cabin crew Clean and tidy cabin Comfortable cabin temp/humidity 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Assistance with connections Being kept informed of delays Transport to cities Accurate arrival information Well-organized boarding Quick/friendly airport check-in Self-service baggage trolleys On-time arrival Provision of pillows/rugs Assistance with customs On-time departures Source: Juran Institute

PIMS Model of Customer Satisfaction Goal: to determine the performance and importance of key PIMS Model of Customer Satisfaction Goal: to determine the performance and importance of key customer satisfaction drivers Use: To identify high-priority issues 5 1 2 3 4 5 Performance 1 2 3 4 5 Importance Question ’ 2 6 1 5 High Performance/ High Importance 1 High Performance/ Low Importance Low Performance 3 /High Importance Low Performance/ Low Importance 3 1 Performance Source: Boston Consulting Group 16

Affinity Diagrams Goal: to organize abstract thinking about a problem Uses: To brainstorm various Affinity Diagrams Goal: to organize abstract thinking about a problem Uses: To brainstorm various possibilities about how to solve a problem or to scope project when a team cannot clearly decide what to do next. Legend: Idea/Need Statement Group Title Group all Needs and title them 17

Kano Analysis Goal: To model customer satisfaction as it relates to product Use: To Kano Analysis Goal: To model customer satisfaction as it relates to product Use: To identify customer needs, determine requirements, develop concept, or to analyze competitive products Customer Satisfaction l Levels of customer expectations l l l Dissatisfiers Satisfiers Delighters Low performance High Performance Dissatisfies Customer Dissatisfaction 18

House of Quality Goal: to model customer requirements into critical to quality characteristics Use: House of Quality Goal: to model customer requirements into critical to quality characteristics Use: To prioritize areas for improvement or to design new produces or services 6 Identify Technical Requirement Correlations Identify Technical Requirements 3 1 Identify Customer Requirements 5 Find Relationships Prioritize Customer Requirement 2 Perform Competitive Evaluation 7 Perform Technical Competitive Evaluation 4 Prioritize Technical Requirement 9 Perform Final Evaluation 8 19

Correlation Strong Positive Table of Contents Choice of Language Amount of Coverage Use of Correlation Strong Positive Table of Contents Choice of Language Amount of Coverage Use of Graphics Customer Requirements Timing of Renewals Competitive evaluation X = major competitor 1 2 3 4 A 2. 5 4. 2 1. 0 2. 5 10. 2 Target Values X A A A XA X Relationships Strong =9 3. 2 Difficulty (qualitative 1 -5) 5 Moderate X 4. 0 3. 5 4. 8 4. 5 4 3 2 =1 4. 9 4 =3 Weak A 3 Absolute Weight 15. 9 92. 5 66. 9 46. 2 18. 2 32. 6 Relative Weight how’s 9. 2 101. 3 84. 9 67 55. 4 34. 9 5 8 7 % Importance Abs Weight 3. 2*3+6. 1*1+2. 5*1 4 3 2 1 A A Abs Weight = Ratio*Importance X A A Ratio = Target Value/ Company Now 3. 8 4. 0 1. 6 6. 1 24. 8 Target Value (qualitative) Relative Weight 5. 0 4. 6 1. 5 7. 5 31. 2 XA A 5 3. 2*3+3. 8*1+2. 5*1 X A 4. 5 4. 4 1. 1 4. 9 20. 7 Briefness Absolute Weight 3. 2 3. 4 1. 0 3. 2 13. 1 XA A Clarity Technical evaluation (5 is best) 5 A XA Ease of use Accuracy Relevance 4 2 A = Us Importance to Customer 1 3 6 Negative Formatting Style Training Manual Technical Requirements HOQ Example 20

What is a SIPOC? Requirements S I P O C Suppliers Input Process Outputs What is a SIPOC? Requirements S I P O C Suppliers Input Process Outputs Customers Input Boundary Output Boundary Suppliers - Provide inputs to the process Input - Resources required by the process Input Boundary - Specifies when the process starts Input Requirements - What the process requires of the inputs. Measurable, quantifiable. Process - The activity which transforms inputs to outputs Output Boundary - Specifies when the process ends Outputs - Delivered products or services Customers - Stakeholders who place the requirements on the outputs Output Requirements - What the customer requires of the outputs. Measurable, quantifiable. 21

Input Output Analysis - SIPOC 22 Input Output Analysis - SIPOC 22

Voice of the Process (VOP) Goal of Voice of the Process/Voice of the Data Voice of the Process (VOP) Goal of Voice of the Process/Voice of the Data l l l Eliminate Blame/Fear Determine if process is predictable Identify causes of problems 23

Process Mapping Goal: to understand a system or a process Use: To identify customers/supplier Process Mapping Goal: to understand a system or a process Use: To identify customers/supplier relationships, value-added work, potential opportunities for improvement, and to eliminate redundant steps Example: Order Fulfillment Process Inputs Sourcing Packaging Shipping Customer Service Outputs Environmental Analysis Develop RFP Conduct Bid Process Select Supplier Implement Supplier Change 24

Process Map Example Hospital Admittance - High Level Process Map Patient Arrival via Paramedics Process Map Example Hospital Admittance - High Level Process Map Patient Arrival via Paramedics Administration Triage Parametric Arrival/ Code 1? Pre- Assessment Doctor Assessment Code 1 Wait Yes (10 - 40 min ) (5 -20 min) Doctor Assessment (5 - 10 min ) No Code 2 Wait ( 10 - 40 min) (11 -50 min) Patient Arrival via Walk In Administration ( 4 -5 min) Triage/ Code Determination (1 - 3 min ) Been though Admin? Code 3 Wait ( 40 - 120 min) (31 -120 min) Yes Patient Arrival via Drag In End Been assessed by doctor? No Code 4 Wait ( 120+ min) Yes No 25

Value Stream Mapping High level delivery path (flowchart or process map) from customer request Value Stream Mapping High level delivery path (flowchart or process map) from customer request to delivery of product or service – includes materials, people, information 26

Service Family Analysis Used to determine if a Product or Service Family should be Service Family Analysis Used to determine if a Product or Service Family should be flowcharted analyzed together Schedule Appoint ment Check -In Prep Doctor Visit Pay/ Check Out Chronic Illness X X X Acute Problem X X X X X Patient Type Well Person Check - Up The processes seem different, but are not! 27

Cost of Quality Internal Failure External Failure Prevention Cost Appraisal Cost Traditional COQ 1 Cost of Quality Internal Failure External Failure Prevention Cost Appraisal Cost Traditional COQ 1 10 100 1 -10 -100 Rule COPQ - The Language of Management Six Sigma COQ $ LSS $ Savings External Failure Costs Internal Failure Costs Current COPQ Appraisal Costs Prevention Costs LSS Begins Months 28

The Downside of Quality Cost Analysis l Focus on the company’s costs and not The Downside of Quality Cost Analysis l Focus on the company’s costs and not the customers costs The customer suffers quality related costs as well! l Return costs, wasted time, lost business, possible injury or death “If Six Sigma’s purpose is to improve customer satisfaction, it’s just plain wrong to measure success by dollars saved. The best measure of better quality is growing market share. Six Sigma shouldn't be a cost reduction program. ” James Harrington “If improvements do not lead to market share growth, the organization cannot promise job security, and downsizing will result since less people are needed. ” Anand Sharma, Quest for the Perfect Engine 29

VOE Voice of Employee Goal – to identify how to create value to the VOE Voice of Employee Goal – to identify how to create value to the organization and its employees l l Empower Employees Obtain Input from Employees l Employees survey l Suggestion system l Feed back from teams l Obtain Input from Teams l Tools: Suggestion System, Employee Surveys, Team Process Check, Brainstorming Tools Manage Meetings l Roles for meeting l Tools for effective meetings 30

Empowerment Levels of Empowerment Just Do It! Do It and Report Back Make Recommendation Empowerment Levels of Empowerment Just Do It! Do It and Report Back Make Recommendation Ask if you can Wait Until told “Creation of conditions within organizations which result in the ability of individual people to contribute their maximum potential energy, creativity, quality efforts, and effectiveness to achieving the mission and strategy of the organization. ” Stephen Covey 31

Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Avg Score 15 Part of my job is to measure Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Avg Score 15 Part of my job is to measure the success of the work that I do. 17 Most of our employees conduct themselves with honesty, integrity and professionalism. 1 We often create teams to solve important problems or to improve our work processes. 7 Teamwork is an important part of my performance evaluation. 21 I feel that the company is headed in the right direction. 14 Most of the people in our company work well in teams. 18 We embrace diversity of thought, ideas, and perspective in our 6 I [usually] rarely know the purpose and agenda for upcoming team meetings. ( R ) 12 I have created flowcharts of work processes. 10 I always feel that my opinions and feelings will be understood, even if team decisions don’t go my way. 8 I use quality tools in my work teams. 16 I understand the value of statistical process control (SPC). 5 I am encouraged to take reasonable risks without fear of 9 Our company mission is clear, simple and known by everyone. It inspires and guides people’s actions. Agree Q# Question: Strongly Agree Employee Survey Results 28% 50% 13% 10% 0% 4. 0 15% 65% 15% 5% 0% 3. 9 13% 15% 18% 10% 5% 68% 55% 53% 58% 53% 15% 23% 20% 23% 3% 13% 20% 3% 3% 5% 0% 0% 3. 9 3. 8 3. 7 3. 4 3% 0% 13% 30% 33% 20% 50% 35% 3% 15% 3. 4 3% 5% 10% 5% 48% 30% 35% 40% 35% 58% 35% 38% 13% 8% 15% 3% 0% 3% 3% 3. 4 3. 3 0% 40% 38% 18% 5% 3. 1 Note: For presentation purposes, reverse ( R ) questions were changed to allow for ranking of all questions together. 32

Suggestion Systems Employee Suggestions System Implementation l l l Can be the lifeblood of Suggestion Systems Employee Suggestions System Implementation l l l Can be the lifeblood of an organization Formal suggestion systems often fail Create open culture In 1989, Japanese companies averaged 37 ideas per employee, of which 87% were implemented; as compared to one idea per employee every 8 years in the U. S. Source: All You Gotta Do Is Ask by Yorke and Bodek 33

Teams When Should a Team be Formed? l. Cross-functional Types of Teams Functional Cross Teams When Should a Team be Formed? l. Cross-functional Types of Teams Functional Cross Functional Self Managed expertise l. Involvement, motivation and commitment l. Integrated, unified direction l. Collective strength l. Management of complexity l. Buy-in l. Creativity l. Time Definition: A group of individuals who are committed to achieve common objectives, meet regularly to identify and solve quality problems, work and interact openly and effectively together, produce high quality results 34

New Management Roles Management Secure Resources Create Vision Design New System Coach Employees Customer New Management Roles Management Secure Resources Create Vision Design New System Coach Employees Customer Interaction Resources Employees Remove Barriers Provide Support/Encouragement Willingness to Deal with Sensitive Issues 35