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Local Contributions to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions Harriet Tregoning District of Columbia Office of Local Contributions to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions Harriet Tregoning District of Columbia Office of Planning

The Washington Metro Region: the New Eco-heros? • The move to Green is snowballing The Washington Metro Region: the New Eco-heros? • The move to Green is snowballing • Climate/Carbon is gaining currency • Role of urbanism/settlement patterns underplayed • Reasons to believe past behavior not a good predictor • Concentrations of Walkable Urbanity – Communities of choice(s) • Affinity • Options • Cachet – Aggregators of benefits 2

District of Columbia Green Building Act of 2006 District of Columbia Green Building Act of 2006

Public Sector • Initially Funded in FY’ 08 – District or Instrumentality; New Construction, Public Sector • Initially Funded in FY’ 08 – District or Instrumentality; New Construction, Disposition by Lease, Schools • Meet LEED NC or CS, Silver – Residential (10, 000+ sf) • Green Communities Standard Private Sector • Beginning January 1, 2009 Non-Residential (50, 000+ sf) • Submit LEED Checklist to DCRA (at time of any permit app. ) • Beginning January 1, 2012 – All Non-Residential (50, 000+ sf) • Meet LEED NC or CS, Basic Certification NAR Building, Washington DC; LEED Gold

LEED Projects in DC • LEED Certified : 20 (6) • LEED Registered: 204 LEED Projects in DC • LEED Certified : 20 (6) • LEED Registered: 204 (40) • LEED ND Pilots: 8

CO 2 Emission Sources Buildings and transportation account for 72% of US CO 2 CO 2 Emission Sources Buildings and transportation account for 72% of US CO 2 emissions 21% 18% 33% Source: EPA; INVENTORY OF U. S. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND SINKS: 1990 -2005 6

Buildings alone are not the answer… • The average US citizen takes about 1, Buildings alone are not the answer… • The average US citizen takes about 1, 500 daily trips a year. Comparing Transportation and Operating Energy Use for an Office Building – 45 percent of daily trips are taken for shopping and errands – 27 percent of daily trips are social and recreational, such as visiting a friend – 15 percent of daily trips are taken for commuting • Half the trips we make are less than three miles, 40 percent are less than two miles; 28 percent are less than one mile ; and 13. 7% are less than a half mile. Yet 75 percent of trips of less than one mile are made by car. Sources: National Household Travel Survey, 1995. 2001 -2002, US FHA; National Walking and Bicycling Study, Environmental Building News, Aug 2007, Driving to Green Buildings: The Transportation Energy Intensity of Buildings 7

Attributes of a Globally Competitive City/Region 8 Attributes of a Globally Competitive City/Region 8

Attributes of a Globally Competitive City/Region 9 Attributes of a Globally Competitive City/Region 9

Larry Frank, University of British Columbia 10 Larry Frank, University of British Columbia 10

Three Policy Levers q. Cleaner fuel q Less CO 2 produced for each gallon. Three Policy Levers q. Cleaner fuel q Less CO 2 produced for each gallon. q Fuel technology. q. Better fuel efficiency q More miles traveled per gallon. q Vehicle technology. q. Drive less q Fewer miles traveled. q Reduce travel demand. Change behavior. 11

SETTING THE STAGE • ARLINGTON LOBBIED STRONGLY FOR AN UNDERGROUND ROUTE ALONG THE OLD SETTING THE STAGE • ARLINGTON LOBBIED STRONGLY FOR AN UNDERGROUND ROUTE ALONG THE OLD COMMERCIAL CORRIDOR VS ALONG THE MEDIAN OF FUTURE HIGHWAY • Put up $300 million local money for preferred routes and more stations 12

View of Rosslyn-Ballston Metro Corridor Development Patterns The Capitol r Potomac Rive M Lower View of Rosslyn-Ballston Metro Corridor Development Patterns The Capitol r Potomac Rive M Lower Density Zoning M M M 13

MEASURING SUCCESS R-B CORRIDOR 1970 R-B CORRIDOR TODAY 22, 000 jobs 94, 000 jobs MEASURING SUCCESS R-B CORRIDOR 1970 R-B CORRIDOR TODAY 22, 000 jobs 94, 000 jobs 5. 5 million sf office 23. 5 million sf office 7, 000 housing units 24, 500 housing units 14

MEASURING SUCCESS METRO RIDERSHIP (Average daily entries and exits) 1991 2004 ROSSLYN • 13, MEASURING SUCCESS METRO RIDERSHIP (Average daily entries and exits) 1991 2004 ROSSLYN • 13, 637 • 30, 663 COURT HOUSE • 5, 561 • 14, 191 CLARENDON • 2, 964 • 6, 848 BALLSTON • 9, 482 • 22, 957 15

Diversifying Transportation • Biking Paris Smart. Bikes …Coming to DC in 2008 Bike Lanes Diversifying Transportation • Biking Paris Smart. Bikes …Coming to DC in 2008 Bike Lanes – 26 miles -- > 60 • Car Sharing – 700+ cars in 26 DC Neighborhoods 16

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Growing Cooler • What reduction in vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) is possible in the United Growing Cooler • What reduction in vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) is possible in the United States with compact development rather than continuing urban sprawl? • What reduction in CO 2 emissions will accompany such a reduction in VMT? • What policy changes will be required to shift the dominant land development pattern from sprawl to compact development? • AND DO COMMUNITIES WANT IT? 18

20 -40% VMT Reduction for Each Increment of Compact Development 7 -10% Reduction in 20 -40% VMT Reduction for Each Increment of Compact Development 7 -10% Reduction in Total CO 2 Emissions

How do we Reduce Vehicle Travel? • Carrots – make options more viable – How do we Reduce Vehicle Travel? • Carrots – make options more viable – Increase transit service / facilities – Transit price incentives (passes, lower fares) – Investments in pedestrian and cycling facilities – bike sharing services, sidewalks, crosswalks, bicycle lanes/parking – Supportive land use changes (e. g. closer destinations, mix of uses) • Sticks—increase costs to drive – Taxes (gas, carbon, VMT, etc) – Cordon Charges (London, Singapore, NYC? ) – Distance-based vehicle insurance – Distance-based development impact fees – Road pricing 20

Proximity 2 KM 1 KM Connectivity Larry Frank, University of British Columbia 21 Proximity 2 KM 1 KM Connectivity Larry Frank, University of British Columbia 21

Walkability • Mixed Use • Density • Street Connectiv • Amount of Retai Census Walkability • Mixed Use • Density • Street Connectiv • Amount of Retai Census Block Groups Larry Frank, University of British Columbia 22

Walkscore. com 777 N. Cap = 86 Multiple Choices all within a mile walk… Walkscore. com 777 N. Cap = 86 Multiple Choices all within a mile walk… • Grocery • Schools • Parks • Libraries • Fitness • Drugstores • Hardware • Clothing • Restaurants • Bars • Theaters Larry Frank, University of British Columbia 23

North Redmond Queen Anne Source: LUTAQH final report, King County ORTP, 2005 24 North Redmond Queen Anne Source: LUTAQH final report, King County ORTP, 2005 24

North Redmond Queen Anne Source: LUTAQH final report, King County ORTP, 2005 25 North Redmond Queen Anne Source: LUTAQH final report, King County ORTP, 2005 25

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– Fuels – Vehicle Technology – Demand Reduction • Pricing Strategies – Pay as – Fuels – Vehicle Technology – Demand Reduction • Pricing Strategies – Pay as you drive Insurance – Distance Based Impact Fee Systems – Peak Hour Congestion Pricing • Prioritize Funding for Energy Efficient Modes of Travel (transit, walk, bike) • Make seamless linkages between walk, bike (local) and transit (regional) • Put Wider Range of Housing Types and Prices Points in More Walkable Settings • Bring Residential, Commercial/Retail, Office, Institutional, and Recreational Uses Closer Together • Tie federal transportation dollars to projects that are consistent with an approved and enforced growth plan 27

Built Environment versus Individual Preferences 28 Built Environment versus Individual Preferences 28

Year 2023 2024 2025 2022 2021 2020 2018 2019 2017 2016 2015 2014 2012 Year 2023 2024 2025 2022 2021 2020 2018 2019 2017 2016 2015 2014 2012 2013 2011 2010 2009 2008 2006 2007 2005 2004 2003 2002 2000 2001 1999 1998 1997 1996 Thousands People Turning 65 in Year People Turning 65 Annually 1996 -2025 2, 000 1, 500 1, 000 500 0

Decline in Households with Kids Household With Children Without Children Single 1960 48% 52% Decline in Households with Kids Household With Children Without Children Single 1960 48% 52% 13% 2000 33% 67% 26% 2025 28% 72% 28% Source: Census for 1960 and 2000, 2025 adapted from Martha Farnsworth Riche, How Changes in the Nation’s Age and Household Structure Will Reshape Housing Demand in the 21 st Century, HUD (2003). 30

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Any reason to believe behavior will change? Residential VMT decreased 65% Green Transport Plan Any reason to believe behavior will change? Residential VMT decreased 65% Green Transport Plan • Solid Transit Links • ‘Pedestrian First’ Priority • Limited Parking • Car Sharing Bed. Zed (London Borough of Sutton) • Car Pool 35

Any reason to believe behavior will change? 36 Any reason to believe behavior will change? 36