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Light Radio-isotopes Nuclear Astrophysics, Neutrino Physics and Fundamental Interactions O. Aviv 1, D. Berkovits Light Radio-isotopes Nuclear Astrophysics, Neutrino Physics and Fundamental Interactions O. Aviv 1, D. Berkovits 2, M. Hass 1, O. Heber 1, T. Hirsh 1, 2, V. Kumar 2, M. Lewitowicz 3, F. de-Oliveira 3, G. Ron 4, S. Vaintraub 1, 2 1. The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, ISRAEL 2. Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne, ISRAEL 3. GANIL, Caen, FRANCE 4. LBL, Berkeley, USA 3/16/2018 1

Or A glance at current Experimental Nuclear Physics at the Weizmann Institute v Nuclear Or A glance at current Experimental Nuclear Physics at the Weizmann Institute v Nuclear Structure Far-From-Stability – Radioactive Beams v Nuclear Astrophysics v Fundamental Interactions 3/16/2018 2

1: 51 3/16/2018 PM 1: 51 3/16/2018 PM

Secondary neutrons + fission BUT Also light RIB’s 3/16/2018 4 Secondary neutrons + fission BUT Also light RIB’s 3/16/2018 4

14 UD Pelletron Accelerator at the WI “ 20 th Century” 3/16/2018 5 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator at the WI “ 20 th Century” 3/16/2018 5

ECR Ion Source, RFQ and 1 st cryo-module in situ “ 21 st Century” ECR Ion Source, RFQ and 1 st cryo-module in situ “ 21 st Century” The SARAF accelerator at Soreq, Israel. Summer 2009 Final Commissioning of Phase –I Nov. 2009 – 1 m. A p @ 3. 5 Me. V 3/16/2018 6

v Two-stage production scheme Also with a 14 Me. V d+t “neutron generator” at v Two-stage production scheme Also with a 14 Me. V d+t “neutron generator” at the WI 3/16/2018 7

6 He and 8 Li beams in WIS v~1010 n/sec 14. 1 Me. V 6 He and 8 Li beams in WIS v~1010 n/sec 14. 1 Me. V v. WIS d-t NG v. Heated Porous Be. O or B 4 C target v~6∙ 107 6 He/s ~2∙ 107 8 Li/s v. Extraction by diffusion v. High efficiency 8 v. Ionization v. Efficiency ?

6 He production (n, a) cross section Production yield of the order of 5∙ 6 He production (n, a) cross section Production yield of the order of 5∙ 1012 6 He per 1 m. A [email protected] Me. V Remember also 11 B(n, a)8 Li 3/16/2018 9

6 He vs. 8 Li Production using SARAF/SPIRAL 2 40 Me. V d on 6 He vs. 8 Li Production using SARAF/SPIRAL 2 40 Me. V d on Lithium neutrons SARAF/SPIRAL 2 d-Li neutron flux is more suitable for 6 He production than 8 Li 9 Be(n, α)6 He βt 0. 5= 807 ms 6 He 11 B(n, α)8 Li βt 0. 5= 838 ms 8 Li 10

v. Extraction of RIB v. Be. O v. BN v. ISOLDE Exp. T. Stora v. Extraction of RIB v. Be. O v. BN v. ISOLDE Exp. T. Stora at al. 17. 4. 2009 11

v. Preliminary results of ISOLDE Be. O run – April 2009 v. See talk v. Preliminary results of ISOLDE Be. O run – April 2009 v. See talk by Thierry Stora – this WORKSHOP 3/16/2018 12

v. Fusion Reactions in the Sun: v. The main p-p chain v. WI 1: v. Fusion Reactions in the Sun: v. The main p-p chain v. WI 1: 51 3/16/2018 PM - מיכאל הס מפגשים בחזית 2009 המדע

Theory vs. Experiment for the 3 solar-neutrino experiments v. SNU v n + 37 Theory vs. Experiment for the 3 solar-neutrino experiments v. SNU v n + 37 Cl v 37 Ar + e- v. E(n) > 0. 81 Me. V 1: 51 3/16/2018 PM v n + 71 Ga v 71 Ge + e- v. E(n) > 0. 23 Me. V - מיכאל הס מפגשים בחזית 2009 המדע

The SNO (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory) Experiment v. A D 2 O Detector v Neutral The SNO (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory) Experiment v. A D 2 O Detector v Neutral currents vs Charge Currents 1: 51 3/16/2018 PM - מיכאל הס מפגשים בחזית 2009 המדע

v. The “Standard Model” of Particle Physics 1: 52 3/16/2018 PM - מיכאל הס v. The “Standard Model” of Particle Physics 1: 52 3/16/2018 PM - מיכאל הס מפגשים בחזית 2009 המדע

The b-beam Concept Production of an intense collimated neutrino (anti neutrino) beam directed at The b-beam Concept Production of an intense collimated neutrino (anti neutrino) beam directed at neutrino detectors via b decay of accelerated radioactive ions 6 He 18 Ne 8 Li SPL ISOL target & Ion source Cyclotrons Storage ring and fast cycling synchrotron 3/16/2018 6 Li + e- +n 18 F + e+ + n 8 Be + e- + v SPS Decay To the French Alps Ring PS 17

Mass accretion from a companion into a neutron star (black hole). § Role of Mass accretion from a companion into a neutron star (black hole). § Role of 14 O, 15 O and 18 Ne in the physics of x-ray bursts 4 He(15 O, g)19 NE 3/16/2018 M. Wiescher et al. Erice Conference, 2007 J. L. Fisker et al. , ar. Xiv: astro-ph/070241 18

Type II Supernovae 8 Li(a, n)11 B ‘ 2000 g. s. 3/16/2018 19 Type II Supernovae 8 Li(a, n)11 B ‘ 2000 g. s. 3/16/2018 19

Example: 6 He beta decay See, e. g, Flechard et al, PRL (2008) v Example: 6 He beta decay See, e. g, Flechard et al, PRL (2008) v 6 Li ve- Electron v daughter nucleus v. Pure Gamow-Teller vq vne Electron v anti-neutrino New physics beyond the Standard Model’s v V-A structure 2 0

β-Decay Physics n Transition rate W (inverse lifetime) n In case of nonoriented nuclei β-Decay Physics n Transition rate W (inverse lifetime) n In case of nonoriented nuclei v. Beta-neutrino correlation coefficient n In case of oriented nuclei ( n - nuclear polarization) J. D. Jackson, S. B. Treiman and H. W. Wyld, Nucl. Phys. 4, 206 (1957) 2 1

Why RNB’s in Traps? n n No possibility for detection of neutrinos Small effects Why RNB’s in Traps? n n No possibility for detection of neutrinos Small effects measurements - low energy of ions, multiple scattering, angle resolution Atoms/Ions - “point source” in a trap Increase of accuracy in measurements: n Angular correlations n Energy 22

Current Status on 6 He v ~2 % limit on any possible deviation – Current Status on 6 He v ~2 % limit on any possible deviation – hence improve limit v Statistics + systematic limitations v Flechard et al: Paul trap, but “…. MOT (Magneto Optical Trap)” v But He is noble gas – metastable state for MOT. LOW EFFICIENCY. v Statistics 3/16/2018 23

v. Optical resonator v. Particle resonator v. E k , q v. V>Ek/q v. v. Optical resonator v. Particle resonator v. E k , q v. V>Ek/q v. M v. Trapping of fast ion beams using electrostatic field v. L

v. Field free region v. Entrance mirror v. Exit mirror v. L=407 mm v. Field free region v. Entrance mirror v. Exit mirror v. L=407 mm

v. Trapping ion beams at ke. V energies v. Neutrals v. Field free region v. Trapping ion beams at ke. V energies v. Neutrals v. Field free region v. E k v. V 1 v. V 2 v. V 3 v. V 4 v. V z • No magnetic fields • No RF fields v. Why is this trap different vfrom the other traps? • No mass limit • Large field free region • Simple to operate • Directionality • External ion source • Easy beam detection v. Detector (MCP) v. V 1 v. V 2 v. V 3 v. V 4

v. MPI – HD Participation v. Fig. 2 A schematic view of the EST v. MPI – HD Participation v. Fig. 2 A schematic view of the EST for bdecay studies. The radioactive ion, like 6 He, moves with Ek-4. 2 ke. V between the reflecting electrodes. The b electrons are detected in position sensitive counters while the recoiling ions, due to kinematic focusing, are detected with very high efficiency in either one (determined by the instantaneous direction) of the annular MCP counters. 3/16/2018 27

(Very) preliminary simulations 3/16/2018 28 (Very) preliminary simulations 3/16/2018 28

“In- House” Research! R&D steps at the WI v 6 He (+ ions) and “In- House” Research! R&D steps at the WI v 6 He (+ ions) and 8 Li (neutrals) production and extractions v EIBT parameters (bunching (pre-trapping), bunch size, timing (with 4 He) --- Re-use hardware from the 14 UD Pelletron v RNB in Trap and detection system v First measurements v SARAF… 3/16/2018 29

vhttp: //www. weizmann. ac. il/conferences/NPA 5. vhttp: //www. weizmann. ac. il/conferences/NPA 5.

Tentative results Lower yield, but, better extraction. . 3/16/2018 31 Tentative results Lower yield, but, better extraction. . 3/16/2018 31

E(8 Li [Me. V]) 8 Li energies of interest 6 3 3/16/2018 32 E(8 Li [Me. V]) 8 Li energies of interest 6 3 3/16/2018 32

R&D Steps Via neutron converter – 6 He, 8 Li, . . v Simulations R&D Steps Via neutron converter – 6 He, 8 Li, . . v Simulations – Geant 4, MCNP – PRODUCTION rate of ~1013/m. A!!! v Converter design v. Target design – Diffusion & Extraction (Be. O fibers, Boron Nitrite fibers) Direct production – 14, 15 O, 18 Ne, . . v Design of targets (heat) for direct production (O and Ne); materials (gas? ), … v Extraction. Nitrogen is “bad”. Perhaps C 02? M. Loiselet, LLN 12 C(3 He, n)14 O and 12 C(4 He, n)15 O Experiment: Beam, Team, Detectors (RMS-like, Si ball, EXOGAM. . )… 3/16/2018 33

3/16/2018 34 3/16/2018 34

Towards a full proposal – objectives and milestones. v 2007 -2009 FP 7 (Task Towards a full proposal – objectives and milestones. v 2007 -2009 FP 7 (Task 7. 1). Towards establishing a true collaboration. Initial target design. R&D studies of both n-converter and direct production. Test runs: Soreq neutron generator Soreq Phase I GANIL (neutrons from C+C) ISOLDE (neutrons from 1 Ge. V spallation) v 2009 -2011 Target (s) manufacturing. Parameters for experimental setup, synergy with detector (particle, gamma, separator) projects v 2012 -……. SPIRAL-II v 2012 -……. SARAF? ? . . . 3/16/2018 35

B 4 C We initiated the heating for Boron Carbide with temperature ~200 0 B 4 C We initiated the heating for Boron Carbide with temperature ~200 0 C. During the first few stages (T=200 -500 0 C), the heating was put off in between, as the vacuum deteriorated beyond the limits. But then after it reached 500 o C, the process was continued in steps, so that vacuum may not deteriorate beyond 10 -5. v. GANIL 2010 – test of diffusion-effusion of porous B 4 C (? ) 3/16/2018 36

Partial sample of representative papers The Astrophysical Journal, 650 (2006) 332 J. L. Fisker Partial sample of representative papers The Astrophysical Journal, 650 (2006) 332 J. L. Fisker et al. The Importance of 15 O(a, g) 19 Ne to X-Ray Bursts and Superbursts Arxive-ph/0702412 Feb. 2007 J. L. Fisker et al. Experimental measurements of the 15 O(a, g )19 Ne reaction rate vs. observations of type I X-ray bursts Nuclear Physics A 718, (2003) 605 B. Davids et al. Alpha-decay branching ratios of near-threshold states in astrophysical rate of 19 Ne and the 15 O(α, γ)19 Ne PRC 67 065809 (2003) K. E. Rehm et al. Branching ration Ga/Gg of the 4. 033 Me. V 3/2+ state in 19 Ne Nuclear Physics A 688 (2001)465 c. S. Cherubini et al. The 3/16/2018 15 O(a, g)19 Ne reaction using a 18 Ne radioactive beam 37

SUMMARY v Scientific Case v Calculations and simulations exist – but much more R&D SUMMARY v Scientific Case v Calculations and simulations exist – but much more R&D needed Presented at several recent scientific conferences. Funds: EC (infrastructure), Local v “Road Map” towards a full experiment – test experiments! v OPEN COLLABORATION – participation welcome!! 3/16/2018 38

β-Decay Physics For pure Fermi or pure Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions the correlations coefficients become β-Decay Physics For pure Fermi or pure Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions the correlations coefficients become independent of the nuclear matrix elements The correlations coefficients depends on scalar, vector, axialvector and tensor coefficients in β-decay Hamiltonian For example, 6 He β-decay (pure GT) beta-neutrino correlation coefficient can be measured in order to check the presence of tensor interactions n n n 3 9

X-Ray Bursts and the “rp” process These movies simulate an x-ray burst and the X-Ray Bursts and the “rp” process These movies simulate an x-ray burst and the rapid-proton capture (“rp”) process. The calculation begins at T 9=T/10^9 K=40 with only neutrons and protons. As time progresses and the temperature drops below T 9=10, nucleons assemble into 4 He nuclei then into heavier mass nuclides. Once T 9 falls below about 4, the QSE among the heavy nuclei begins to break down. Charged-particle reactions freeze out, and flow to higher mass number occurs via nuclear beta decay. This is the classical rprocess phase. n The rp process and x-ray bursts site of nucleosynthesis 3/16/2018 40

v. A new class of ion trapping devices: The Electrostatic Linear Ion Beam Trap v. A new class of ion trapping devices: The Electrostatic Linear Ion Beam Trap v. Physical Principle: v. Photon Optics and Ion Optics vare Equivalent v. V 1 v. V 2 v. V 1Ek/q

Typical X-ray bursts: • 1036 -1038 erg/s • duration 10 s – 100 s Typical X-ray bursts: • 1036 -1038 erg/s • duration 10 s – 100 s • recurrence: hours-days • regular or irregular Frequent and very bright phenomenon ! (stars 1033 -1035 erg/s) 3/16/2018 42

A first experimental approach to the 15 O + a elastic scattering - Eur. A first experimental approach to the 15 O + a elastic scattering - Eur. Phys. J. A 27, 183 (2006) F. Vanderbist, P. Leleux, C. Angulo, E. Casarejos, M. Couder, M. Loiselet, G. Ryckewaert, P. Descouvemont, M. Aliotta, T. Davinson, Z. Liu, and P. J. Woods Recent experiments have determined Ga (or put limits to Ga) for levels in 19 Ne up to 5. 092 Me. V excitation energy. A conclusion is that a direct measurement of the 15 O(a, g)19 Ne reaction in the region of astrophysical interest is currently impossible: 15 O beams of intensity larger than 1011 pps on target would be required indeed to measure the 15 O(a, g)19 Ne cross-section in inverse kinematics in the energy region surrounding the first state above threshold, at 4. 033 Me. V…. 3/16/2018 43

Examples of Reactions with RNB’s for Astrophysics • 8 B(p, g)9 C • 8 Examples of Reactions with RNB’s for Astrophysics • 8 B(p, g)9 C • 8 B(a, p)11 C • 9 C(a, p)12 N • 11 C(p, g)12 N 3/16/2018 44

Recent Experiments (in progress) ISOLDE experiment IS 424 (Sept. ’ 07): (in collaboration with Recent Experiments (in progress) ISOLDE experiment IS 424 (Sept. ’ 07): (in collaboration with P. J. Woods et al. ). The use of a 17 F beam from the upgraded REX-ISOLDE facility to study the astrophysically important 14 O(α, p)17 F reaction in time reverse kinematics. • REX-ISOLDE + MINIBALL • Only ~ 103 17 F/s On-line data of p-g coincidences – Indicating the 1 st excited state of 17 F 3/16/2018 45

EURISOL INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY PANEL: “…. no progress has been made with the study of EURISOL INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY PANEL: “…. no progress has been made with the study of alternative production schemes of 6 He and 18 Ne using low energy beams and strongly recommends that this study be completed …. The outcome of this study is an essential ingredient for the analysis whether it is technically feasible to decouple EURISOL and the beta-beams completely 3/16/2018 46

GANIL experiment – accepted by GANIL PAC : (in collaboration with Marialuisa Aliotta et GANIL experiment – accepted by GANIL PAC : (in collaboration with Marialuisa Aliotta et al. ) Plan to investigate the direct 14 O(a, p)17 F reaction at four different energies in the energy region Ecm = 1. 0 -2. 5 Me. V Calculated total S(E) factor. Constructive (+) and destructive (-) interference between the Jpp=16. 15 Me. V state and the direct l=1 partial wave contribution are shown. 3/16/2018 47

Accelerator artist view 40 Me. V x 2 m. A p / d RF Accelerator artist view 40 Me. V x 2 m. A p / d RF SC linac 2 nd – 6 th cryostats 40 SC HWR 176 MHz b 0=0. 15 176 MHz 3. 8 m 1. 5 Me. V/u M/q 2 3/16/2018 1 st cryostat 6 SC HWR 176 MHz b 0=0. 09 48

6 He or 8 Li production 9 Be or 11 B measurements by betas 6 He or 8 Li production 9 Be or 11 B measurements by betas 3 sec foils 3 sec β 20 sec d beam C Or other pulsed neutron source √ Easy experiment n β β Extra material for (n, 2 n), maybe Pb √ Calibration of production for future extraction experiments x All cross sections are already known x Measuring 6 He and 8 Li betas is hard x Only very thin targets are possible 3/16/2018 49

11 BN SEM picture of BN √ High Melting Point √ Exists in fibers 11 BN SEM picture of BN √ High Melting Point √ Exists in fibers and nanotubes forms √ Could be bought in any shape and form. 3/16/2018 50

9 Be. O Zr. O 2 √ High Melting Point √ Could be made 9 Be. O Zr. O 2 √ High Melting Point √ Could be made in fibers form. √ No need of enrichment x Very toxic. 3/16/2018 51

v Model dependence of the neutrino-deuteron disintegration cross sections at low energies 3/16/2018 http: v Model dependence of the neutrino-deuteron disintegration cross sections at low energies 3/16/2018 http: //il. arxiv. org/abs/nucl-th/0702073 v 1 52

msm = 3 • 10 -19 [mn/e. V], but…. . 3/16/2018 53 msm = 3 • 10 -19 [mn/e. V], but…. . 3/16/2018 53

v 3 sec 8 Li vmeasurement Production Experiment v 3 sec v 0. 1 v 3 sec 8 Li vmeasurement Production Experiment v 3 sec v 0. 1 sec virradiation vtime 54

Schematics and pictures of ISOLDE setup Together with Tierry Stora and the ISOLDE Ion-Source Schematics and pictures of ISOLDE setup Together with Tierry Stora and the ISOLDE Ion-Source group 3/16/2018 55

Neutrino oscillations “ 101” 3/16/2018 56 Neutrino oscillations “ 101” 3/16/2018 56

v. Typical properties of boron carbide. B 4 C Property Density (g. cm-3) Melting v. Typical properties of boron carbide. B 4 C Property Density (g. cm-3) Melting Point (°C) Hardness (Knoop 100 g) (kg. mm-2) Fracture Toughness (MPa. m-½) Young's Modulus (GPa) Electrical Conductivity (at 25°C) (S) Thermal Conductivity (at 25°C) (W/m. K) Thermal Expansion Co-eff. x 10 -6 (°C) Thermal neutron capture cross section (barn) 2. 52 2445 2900 -3580 2. 9 - 3. 7 450 - 470 140 30 - 42 5 600 Particle Size 3 Composition of Particles: Crystal Whiskers 3, 5 Platelet single crystals 3, 5 Isometric crystals 3, 5 Thickness of Crystal Whiskers and Platelets 5 Surface Area 4 3/16/2018 100% < 10 microns after one stage grinding Typical Values as % of weight > 20 > 10 Remainder to 100% < 2 microns 2 - 9 m 2/g 57

…. . Fusion Reactions in the Sun: The CNO cycle 17 F 14 O …. . Fusion Reactions in the Sun: The CNO cycle 17 F 14 O 3/16/2018 (a, p) v Proposed at GANIL 58

Long-learned lesson: “orders-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity of measurement – enhanced understanding and possibilities”. 14 Long-learned lesson: “orders-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity of measurement – enhanced understanding and possibilities”. 14 N(d, 2 n)14 O cross section and yield for a 2 m. A deuteron beam 14 N(d, n)15 O cross section and yield for a 2 m. A deuterons beam But, extraction of atomic oxygen… 3/16/2018 59